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ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean

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dhill757
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« Reply #330 on: March 29, 2009, 11:21:04 pm »

Far from being piles of unworked rubble, every stone was turned with its flat side out and placed together by stone masons.
With slopes of the volcano Mt. Teide at their back and facing the Atlantic, the edifices are precisely aligned according to the sunset on the summer solstice, as are other sacred structures in different parts of the world.

Carefully built stairways on the west side of each pyramid lead up to the summit, which is not a pile of stones, but a perfectly flat platform covered with gravel, as though for ceremonial performances and/or sun worship.

The stones were not weather-worn, rounded boulders, such as farmers had found in the fields, but sharp fragments of lava, and some of the corner stones had been trimmed.

Archaeologists from the University of La Laguna were contracted to do test excavations of a ceremonial platform between two of the pyramids. As predicted by Dr. Heyerdahl, they found that rather than being a random pile of stones as they had expected, it was built of blocks, gravel and earth.

Skeptics had to admit that this was definitely some kind of ceremonial architecture. Yet some still refused to admit that such impressive structures could have been built by the Guanche, the original inhabitants of Tenerife, and suggested that they might have been constructed by the early Christian conquistadores as a time measuring device to know when to celebrate the Catholic festivities of St. John.

The Canary Islands are a popular solution to the location of Atlantis, based on their location west of the Mediterranean, and their mountainous terrain - they are part of a volcanic archipelago with marine trenches as deep as 3,000 metres and mountains as high as 3,718 meters above sea level.

Archaeological findings suggest that the original inhabitants were Berbers who arrived from north Africa around 200 B.C. However, some early navigators reported the Canarians as being a race of tall, blond-haired, blue-eyed people, perhaps suggesting northern European or Atlantean origins.   
http://www.crystalinks.com/pyramidspain.html
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« Reply #331 on: March 29, 2009, 11:22:14 pm »

Boreas
   
posted 02-12-2005 10:09 AM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Last two books of the late Dr. Thor Heyerdahl explained the connection between the different climatical wind-patterns of the North and Mid-Atlantic. These are apparently well known to all sailors of the Atlantic. Two times a year the winds tend to blow from Greenland, straigth south - bringing sailors from Ireland to Gibraltar, - or The Azores and The Canary Islands. Because of the plausibility of some old connection he had to admit that the cultural traces and etnical similarity (Between artics and Guanches) pointed a stronger relationship between the Cultural Guanches of Tenerife (and Azores) - and the well-known North-Atlantean ship-culture.
Since the evidents became to overwhelming Dr. Heyerdahl had to admit (sic!) that the connections to the Viking-ship-culture (of England, Denmark, Norway) actually had been present on the Canary Islands.

To a Norwegian historian that was very "strange", - i.e. contradictory to the the traditional comprehension of the Norse, - as a provincial tribe with basicly local connections.

I am happy to hear that the last excavations are - once and for all - proving that the Guanches really were a higher, atlantic culture, - just as Mr. Heyerdahl proclaimed already in 1991, as he got the first excavation organized. At the professors laugther...

Since he was not only ythe first, but also the only (authoritative historian) to recognize the first pyramidal structures of Guimar, as something different than "shamble and occasional structures".

Moreover, - he took the local LEGENDS somewhat seriously. Which made his project of excavations even more suspect to the academical bi-siders.

Today it is finally proved that the entire Island of Tenerife was provided with constructions, - makingt the island into a giga-monument - where the core of the Island, the alpin mountain-top, Mt. "Teide", becomes the midpoint of a imaginative sun-wheel-construction. As unit ("universe") viewable from the sea, as you sail around the Island...

Thereby I think we can bury the debate Heyerdahl stirred by his excavation; wheter the Guanches were a highly cultivated people or not. Somehow, Spanish historians did not really want to undertake the real investigation of that question. Thus many tried to ridicule Senor Kon-Tiki to avoid his further investments. In vain, - off course.


Today it is finally proven that The Guanches - finally extincted at the end of the 15th century, - was the last southern survivors of an ancient high-culture that once sailed the Oceans.

Not only did they bring astronomical, navigational, technical and architectural knowledge, - but they excirsed very advanced skills of masonry. The restored pyramids and monuments actually tells of a culture that bore exstensive knowledge of the world, - as their as-tro-logical monuments show a completed, precise and counscious perspective of the Universe.

May the Rigthous Grace fall upon our memories of Thor the Kon-Ti-Ki.
Guanco Salutè!


[This message has been edited by Boreas (edited 02-12-2005).]
 
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« Reply #332 on: March 29, 2009, 11:22:43 pm »

Ulf Richter

posted 02-12-2005 01:20 PM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Boreas,
I am sure that Thor Heyerdahl´s theories will be more and more recognized also by conventional scientists. It is quite obvious that sea traffic is not only in our times, but was also in ancient times - in the so called Stone Age - much more efficient and common than land traffic.

 
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« Reply #333 on: March 29, 2009, 11:23:26 pm »

George Erikson

posted 02-12-2005 10:40 PM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Boreas, Ulf
I just posted this message to another AR thread. But it belongs here as well. Navigators seemed to have carried the spiral symbol of eternity with them everywhere, including the place that I believe to be the logical link between the Atlantic and the Pacific:

I have encountered spirals of the nature described on Ometepe Island in Lake Nicaragua. (See p. 365 of Atlantis In America: Navigators of the Ancient World). The referenced petroglyph is carved in a large stone about half-way up the slope of the southern of the two large volcanos that form Ometepe Island. On this volcano there have been many "Atlantean" figures excavated (p.363) and the curator of the Ometepe Museum has told me that the statues were found under the ground at a stratigraphic level corresponding to 12,000 YBP.
Lake Nicaragua is an interesting link between the Caribbean and the Pacific. The navigable San Juan river connects it to the Atlantic side while only 12 miles of plain and a few low hills separate it from the Pacific. This site would have been the "Panama Canal" if the Nicaraguans would have consented. The did not at that time, nor would they later consent to a joint exploration with Ivar Zapp and myself.
If Plato's "Island-Continent" with a navigational center has any veracity this would be the leading contender. Ometepe Island is situated at the center of a vast continent (the Americas) yet resembles an island in that a navigator would pass from the Caribbean-Atlantic to a very different body of water, the Pacific, in a very short portage. The height and separation of the waves reaching shore from the Pacific is what sets it apart from all other bodies of water- a feature navigators would not miss. It is what Plato described as "true Ocean". Interestingly, Lake Nicaragua is the home of the only large (12-foot) freshwater sharks, freshwater Marlin, and over 100 other species of sea-life normally only found in the oceans. www.AtlantisInAmerica.com

[This message has been edited by George Erikson (edited 02-13-2005).]

 
 
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« Reply #334 on: March 29, 2009, 11:24:59 pm »

Petroglyph Gallery
Photos from the 1995-98 Field Seasons, Ometepe Island, Nicaragua.



This sort of stylized turtle is a common motif for petroglyphs near El Corozal Viejo.
 
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« Reply #335 on: March 29, 2009, 11:25:50 pm »



These two petroglyphs show some interesting carving, quite unusual in this area.
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« Reply #336 on: March 29, 2009, 11:26:34 pm »



Ometepe is the land of spirals. Many of the petroglyphs are of the meandering type seen on the right.

The petroglyph on the left shows signs of being chalked. Chalking accelerates the amount of environmental degradation a petroglyph might suffer, and hampers dating techniques as well. Visitors to the petroglyphs are advised not to chalk or scratch the grooves of a petroglyph.

"Enhancing" a petroglyph by means other than altering the light that falls on the surface of a boulder (or by the use of special development techniques for a photographic negative or the use of software enhancement of the scanned image) is usually detrimental to the work. See our Photographic Techniques page for more.
 
 http://culturelink.info/petro/gallery98.htm

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« Reply #337 on: March 29, 2009, 11:27:07 pm »

dhill757

posted 02-14-2005 09:21 PM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Boreas,
I didn't even know that Thor Heyerdahl had passed on until you posted that. 04/14/04, from cancer, at the age of 87. Ocean exploration has lost a great man. Also, if he hadn't attracted investment to the pyramids of the Canary Islands, they would probably be in rubble right now. I have to admit that I have been bummed out since I heard that. He was (and is) truly one of my heroes.


 
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« Reply #338 on: March 29, 2009, 11:27:58 pm »

Tristan de Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean
Location: 37.09S, 12.28W
Elevation: 2559 ft. (780 m)
Last Updated: September 27, 2004


Tristan de Cunha is a stratovolcano that forms an island located in the
south-central Atlantic Ocean. The volcano has a 300-m-wide summit crater
and is composed pyroclastic deposits upon a base of low-angle lava
flows. Numerous parasitic cinder cones are also found on the flanks of
the volcano. The only historical eruption of the volcano occurred in
1961. This eruption took place along the north shore and forced the
evacuation of the island's inhabitants.
Last known significant activity: 1962
------------------------------------------------------------------------

2004 Reports
------------------------------------------------------------------------

August 03, 2004

According to a news report, a swarm of earthquakes occurred beneath
Tristan da Cunha during the nights of 28 and 29 July. A scientist
monitoring seismic activity from the Preparatory Commission for the
Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Vienna International
Centre indicated that the main swarm lasted ~8 hours and occurred ~30 km
below the volcano. After the swarm, there were a few individual
earthquakes and then activity tapered off.

This information was summarized from the GVP/USGS Tristan de Cunha
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
------------------------------------------------------------------------ http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/current_volcs/new/tristan.html

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« Reply #339 on: March 29, 2009, 11:28:53 pm »

Volcanic Eruption Could Unleash Giant Tsunamis on U.S.
The Scotsman | December 28, 2004
By John-Paul Ford Rojas

The threat from a collapsing mountain in the Atlantic Ocean could
unleash deadly tidal waves on a similar scale to the Asian tsunami, a
scientist warned today.

Hundreds of millions of people could die in a disaster affecting Britain
and the eastern United States.

Professor Bill McGuire called for an early warning system to be
installed to counter the potential danger.

Researchers have discovered that a chunk of volcano in the Canary
Islands the size of the Isle of Man is on the brink of falling into the
sea.

Scientists believe it could break away when the Cumbre Vieja volcano in
La Palma next erupts.

If that happened a giant tsunami, or massive wave, reaching heights of
more than 500 feet would be sent racing across the Atlantic at the speed
of a passenger jet.

Around nine hours later it would hit the Caribbean islands and the east
coasts of Canada and the US.

After travelling 4,000 miles the wave would be lower and wider but still
around 20 metres ? 50 metres (66ft ? 164ft) high.

Stretching for many miles, it would home in on estuaries and harbours
and sweep up to 20 miles inland, destroying everything in its path.

Boston, New York, Washington DC and Miami would be virtually wiped off
the map and tens of millions of people killed.

Meanwhile the size of the waves reaching Britain would be half as high
as those hitting America but this would still be on the same scale as
those seen in the disaster in the Indian Ocean.

Prof McGuire, director of the Benfield Hazard Research Centre at
University College London, said monitoring might at best give two weeks
warning.

But although the danger had been known about since the 1990s, no-one was
keeping a proper watch on the mountain.

He said that a chunk of the mountain had been teetering on the brink of
collapse since the last volcanic eruption of Cumbre Vieja in 1949.

Prof McGuire said: “We expect during a future eruption that whole mass
to collapse into the North Atlantic.

“You are dealing with a similar situation to the Indian Ocean only on a
much more devastating scale.”

The areas affected would include the entire North Atlantic rim including
north west Africa and southern Europe.

Prof McGuire said it was “certain” this would happen at some stage
although whether the next eruption would be the one to cause the
collapse was not known.

The next eruption could be between 20 and 200 years away.

He said the problem had been known about since the Spanish government
funded a study in the 1990s but authorities had then chosen to ignore
it.

Radar satellite image technology was now needed to find out how much the
unstable mass has been moving.

He added: “It is an issue people are aware of but hopefully the Indian
Ocean business will focus people’s minds a bit more.”

There was no warning system for tsunamis in the Atlantic and although
the ocean was only affected by 2% of those in the world, their impact
could be devastating.

Earthquakes such as one that hit Lisbon in 1755 could also trigger the
giant waves, as they have done in the recent disaster.

The 18th century tremor produced massive waves that caused thousands of
deaths and affected people as far away as the Caribbean.

“My point of view is not that everybody should be worrying about this
but if you know that these things are going to happen you either sit
back and just wait for it to happen or you do something about it,” Prof
McGuire said.


http://www.infowars.com/articles/science/tsunami_volcanic_eruption_us_tsunami.htm

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« Reply #340 on: March 29, 2009, 11:32:38 pm »

Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean, the second largest of the earth's four oceans and the most heavily traveled. Only the Pacific Ocean is larger. It covers about twice the area of the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic is divided into two nominal sections: The part north of the equator is called the North Atlantic; the part south of the equator, the South Atlantic. The ocean's name is derived from Atlas, one of the Titans of Greek mythology.
Boundaries and Size
The Atlantic Ocean is essentially an S-shaped north-south channel, extending from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Antarctic continent in the south and situated between the eastern coast of the American continents and the western coasts of Europe and Africa. The Atlantic Ocean proper has a surface area of about 82 million sq km (about 31,660,000 sq mi). Including its marginal seas-the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the North, Baltic, Mediterranean, and Black seas-the total area is about 106,190,000 sq km (about 41 million sq mi).
The boundary between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean is arbitrarily designated as lying along a system of submarine ridges that extend between the land masses of Baffin Island, Greenland, and Scotland. More clearly defined is the boundary with the Mediterranean Sea at the Strait of Gibraltar and with the Caribbean Sea along the arc of the Antilles. The South Atlantic is arbitrarily separated from the Indian Ocean on the east by the 20° east meridian and from the Pacific on the west along the line of shallowest depth between Cape Horn and the Antarctic Peninsula.
Geologic Formation and Structural Features
The Atlantic began to form during the Jurassic period, about 150 million years ago, when a rift opened up in the supercontinent of Gondwanaland, resulting in the separation of South America and Africa. The separation continues today at the rate of several centimeters a year along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Part of the midoceanic ridge system that girdles the world, it is a submarine ridge extending north to south in a sinuous path midway between the continents. Roughly 1500 km (about 930 mi) wide, the ridge has a more rugged topography than any mountain range on land, and is a frequent site of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The ridge ranges from about 1 to 3 km (about 0.6 to 2 mi) above the ocean bottom.
Along the American, Antarctic, African, and European coasts are the continental shelves-embankments of the debris washed from the continents. Submarine ridges and rises extend roughly east-west between the continental shelves and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, dividing the eastern and western ocean floors into a series of basins, also known as abyssal plains. The three basins on the American side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are more than 5000 m (more than 16,400 ft) deep: the North American Basin, the Brazil Basin, and the Argentina Basin. The Eurafrican side is marked by several basins that are smaller but just as deep: the Iberia, Canaries, Cape Verde, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Angola, Cape, and Agulhas basins. The large Atlantic-Antarctic Basin lies between the southernmost extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Antarctic continent.
The Atlantic Ocean has an average depth of 3926 m (12,881 ft). At its deepest point, in the Puerto Rico Trench, the bottom is 8742 m (28,681 ft) below the surface.
Islands
The largest islands of the Atlantic Ocean lie on the continental shelves. Newfoundland is the principal island on the North American shelf; the British Isles are the major island group of the Eurafrican shelf. Other continental islands include the Falkland Islands, the only major group on the South American shelf, and the South Sandwich Islands on the Antarctic shelf.
Oceanic islands, usually of volcanic origin, are less common in the Atlantic Ocean than in the Pacific. Among these are the island arc of the Antilles (including Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Cuba). In the eastern Atlantic, the Madeiras, Canaries, Cape Verde, and the São Tomé-Príncipe group are the peaks of submarine ridges. The Azores, Saint Paul's Rocks, Ascension, and the Tristan da Cunha group are isolated peaks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge system; the large island of Iceland is also the result of volcanic action at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Bermuda rises from the floor of the North American Basin, and Saint Helena from the Angola Basin.
Currents
The circulatory system of the surface waters of the Atlantic can be depicted as two large gyres, or circular current systems, one in the North Atlantic and one in the South Atlantic. These currents are primarily wind driven, but are also affected by the rotation of the earth. The currents of the North Atlantic, which include the North Equatorial Current, the Canaries Current, and the Gulf Stream, flow in a clockwise direction. The currents in the South Atlantic, among which are the Brazil, Benguela, and South Equatorial currents, travel in a counterclockwise direction. Each gyre extends from near the equator to about latitude 45°; closer to the poles are the less completely defined counterrotating gyres, one rotating counterclockwise in the Arctic regions of the North Atlantic and one rotating clockwise near Antarctica in the South Atlantic. See Ocean and Oceanography: Ocean Currents.
The Atlantic receives the waters of many of the principal rivers of the world, among them the Saint Lawrence, Mississippi, Orinoco, Amazon, Paraná, Congo, Niger, and Loire, and the rivers emptying into the North, Baltic, and Mediterranean seas. Nevertheless, primarily because of the high salinity of outflow from the Mediterranean, the Atlantic is slightly more saline than the Pacific or Indian oceans.
Temperatures
The Atlantic Ocean may be described as a bed of water colder than 9° C (48° F)-the cold-water sphere-within which lies a bubble of water warmer than 9° C-the warm-water sphere. The warm-water sphere extends between latitude 50° north and latitude 50° south and has an average thickness of about 600 m (about 2000 ft). The most active circulation is found in the uppermost layer of warm water. Below this, circulation becomes increasingly sluggish as the temperature decreases.
Surface temperatures range from 0° C (32° F), found year-round at the Arctic and Antarctic margins, to 27° C (81° F) in the broad belt at the equator. At depths below 2000 m (about 6600 ft), temperatures of 2° C (36° F) are prevalent; in bottom waters, below 4000 m (about 13,200 ft), temperatures of -1° C (30° F) are common.
Marine Resources
A remarkable example of plant life is found in the Sargasso Sea, the oval section of the North Atlantic lying between the West Indies and the Azores and bounded on the west and north by the Gulf Stream. Here extensive patches of brown gulfweed (Sargassum) are found on the relatively still surface waters.
Actively mined mineral resources in the Atlantic include titanium, zircon, and monazite (phosphates of the cerium metals), off the eastern coast of Florida, and tin and iron ore, off the equatorial coast of Africa. The continental shelves and slopes of the Atlantic are potentially very rich in fossil fuels. Large amounts of petroleum are already being extracted in the North Sea and in the Caribbean Sea-Gulf of Mexico region; lesser amounts are extracted off the coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea.
http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/GeogHist/histories/history/hiscountries/A/atlanticocean.html


[This message has been edited by dhill757 (edited 02-16-2005).]

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« Reply #341 on: March 29, 2009, 11:56:47 pm »

http://forums.atlantisrising.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=1;t=000958;p=6
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« Reply #342 on: March 29, 2009, 11:59:19 pm »



Large red triangles show volcanoes with known or inferred Holocene eruptions; small red triangles mark volcanoes with possible, but uncertain Holocene eruptions or Pleistocene volcanoes with major thermal activity. Yellow triangles distinguish volcanoes of other regions.
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=18
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« Reply #343 on: March 30, 2009, 12:00:31 am »

Volcanology Highlights

Known eruptions from this large region total 117—only Antarctica has less—but its historical record is relatively long. The largest island group, the Canaries, is reached by favorable winds from Europe and was an important base for early voyages to the new world. In fact, Christopher Columbus recorded a 1492 eruption on Tenerife, just seven weeks before that same logbook carried documentation of a more historic observation. The Azores were also well placed for sailors because of the predominant westerly winds used for return routes to Europe.

The Canaries were mentioned by Pliny around 40 BC, and were often rediscovered in the following centuries. They were claimed by Portugal in 1341, the year of the region's first historical eruption (a somewhat questionable report of activity somewhere on Tenerife), but were awarded to Spain by the Pope 3 years later. They were settled in 1402 and conquest of the indigenous Guanches population was complete by 1496. The Canaries now have the largest population (1.6 million) in the region and, as part of Spain, claim Pico de Teide as that nation's highest point.

A discovery date for the Azores is uncertain, but they appear on a map from 1351 AD. The Portuguese visited in 1427-31 and colonization began in 1445, a year after the first historical eruption. The nine islands now support about 250,000 people, half of them on the island of Sao Miguel.

The Cape Verde islands were discovered by Portugal in 1456 and settled 6 years later. An eruption beginning in 1500 appears to have continued for about 260 years, with behavior similar to that of Italy's Stromboli. Independence from Portugal came in 1975.

Tristan de Cunha was discovered by the Portuguese in 1506 and the islands were much visited by whalers and sealers. They were first inhabited by St. Helenans in the 19th century and annexed by Britain in 1816. The residents were evacuated during the 1961 eruption, but most elected to return within two years and the 1970 population was estimated at 280.

Aside from submarine activity (most of it uncertain) the only other dated eruption in the region is from Norway's Bouvet Island, the most remote in the world. It was discovered in 1739, but its only known eruption was 2,000 years ago (by magnetic dating).

Volcanism in the region is largely caused by hotspots in oceanic crust, and the region has the highest proportion of fissure vent volcanoes (as primary features). Several known volcanoes lie along or near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that separates the Eurasian and African plates from the North and South American plates, but the Canaries and Cape Verdes lie just west of the African continental margin.


http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=18&rpage=highlights
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« Reply #344 on: March 30, 2009, 12:01:16 am »



Flores

The northern half of the 10 x 15 km wide island of Flores, which lies west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, appears at the margin of this NASA Space Shuttle image. Ponta Delgada lies at the northern tip of the island at the lower left. Several craters seen to the left of the cloud banks at the lower right were formed during eruptions about 2900 years ago that also produced a lava flow that forms the Faja Grande Peninsula below the craters.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS007-E-11252, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).


Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-001
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Radiocarbon
Last Known Eruption: 950 BC ± 100 years 
Summit Elevation: 914 m 2,999 feet
Latitude: 39.462°N  39°27'44"N
Longitude: 31.216°W 31°12'58"W
Flores Island and Corvo Island to its north are located far west of the rest of the Azores islands and are the only two Azorean volcanoes lying west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The 10 x 15 km island of Flores is dotted by numerous pyroclastic cones and craters. Several young phreatomagmatic craters and associated lava flows were erupted during the Holocene, including two about 3000 years ago. The Caldeira Funda de Lajes tuff ring formed about 3150 years ago, accompanied by a lava flow that traveled to the SE, reaching the coast at Lajes. The Caldeira Comprida tuff ring in Caldeira Seca, west-central Flores, erupted about 2900 years ago. It produced a lava flow that traveled NW-ward and reached the coast at Faja Grande. 
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