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ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean

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dhill757
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« Reply #30 on: March 26, 2007, 05:07:33 pm »

Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean – that is the favourite theory among many scientists all over the world. Just because Plato mentioned an empire in the Atlantic Ocean? No! There is considerable circumstancial evidence for a land bridge or a huge island in the Atlantic Ocean.
According to Plato’s report, Atlantis should be situated between Spain, North Africa and Central America. This is exactly where the Canary Islands are – and the Atlantic Ridge, one of the world’s most unstable regions. Moreover, this is also the location of the Azores and, further westward, the Caribbean area with its huge and small islands.



picture above: In 1665, the German Jesuite priest Athanasius Kircher created this inverted map of Atlantis. Turning the map results in an image of the Central Atlantic plateau around the Azores. What is unusual about that is that people at that time had only little knowledge about the nature of the sea bed. Were some ancient notes available to the Jesuit priests enabling them to create such a map? 



From time immemorial, the Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to South America has been an area of considerable seismic activity. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are nothing extraordinary.

The Atlantic Ocean – Catastrophes:

In 1669, a major part of the notorious pirate island Port Royal sank due to an disastrous earthquake.

In 1775, Lisbon, which is on a parallel with the Azores at a latitude of 39 43'/36 55' N, was badly hit by a devastating earthquake killing 60 000 people. Moreover, both the harbour and the docks sank 200 metres to the ground.

In 1783, one fifth of the Icelandic population fell victim to a catastrophic earthquake.

In 1811, on the Azores, a volcanic island named “Sambrina“ rose some thousand metres to the surface and sank again shortly after. The islands of Corvi and Flores constantly change their shape and parts of them are swallowed up by the sea.


To the best of present knowledge there is an underwater area with deep valleys and high mountains around the Azores and the Canary Islands. Reducing the sea level by 150 metres to the Ice Age level brings about a huge piece of land which, however, does not match the dimensions Plato wrote about. Nevertheless, further westward, in the Caribbean area, a huge land mass comes into existence which perfectly meets Platos records.

The Atlantic Ocean – Facts:

In 1969, by order of Duke University, an expedition to the Aves Ridge in the Caribbean Sea found granite on fifty locations. Usually, granite is found only onshore or where once had been solid ground.

In 1898, 750 km north of the Azores, the transatlantic cable broke. On this occasion, rock samples were taken from a depth of 17 000 fathoms. A close examination came to the result that the rock samples consisted of tachylyte, a lava-like substance. Yet this mineral would not emerge unless above sea level and under atmospheric pressure. Moreover, it will decompose after 15 000 years. This means that once there had been mainland.

In a depth of up to 1 000 metres, coastal sand was found on the reefs of the Azores. However, it usually only appears on flat beaches.

In 1936, the Geological Society of America conducted a study of sunken river canyons in the Atlantic Ocean. It says that rivers on the European, the North African and the American side sank into the continental sockets for up to 300 km in length and 2 km in depth. That means that in the Pleistocene Age, that is when mankind emerged, the sea level underwent a change in depth up to 2 000 metres.




The Atlantic Ridge – one of the world’s most nororious regions in terms of seismic activity. Decreasing the sea level by 300 to 400 metres brings about a huge land mass that would perfectly fit Plato’s descriptions. In “Critias“, Plato writes:

 
Quote
“(...)In the next place, they had fountains, one of cold and another of hot water, in gracious plenty flowing; and they were wonderfully adapted for use by reason of the pleasantness and excellence of their waters. They constructed buildings about them and planted suitable trees, also they made cisterns, some open to the heavens, others roofed over, to be used in winter as warm baths (...)“


Usually, these warm and cold springs manifest themselves within continental zones. An example for this is Iceland where people use the warm springs to supply themselves with heat and energy – just as Plato put it.

Yet the Würm Ice Age 12 000 years ago is not a suitable candidate to have reduced the sea level along the Atlantic Ridge. Did, then, the catastrophe in the Atlantic Ocean indeed happen? That desaster with its devastating earthquakes and inundations that caused the mid-Atlantic Ridge to sink? Or is it all about an inundation of the Caribbean area with its shallow waters? Also, the point in time when the glaciers melted would perfectly meet the time of the disappearance of Atlantis as has been indicated by Plato.

Read the following excerpt from the Critias dialogue:

Quote
“(...)Let me begin by observing first of all, that nine thousand was the sum of years which had elapsed since the war which was said to have taken place between those who dwelt outside the pillars of Heracles and all who dwelt within them; this war I am going to describe. (...)“




A further mystery concerns the migrations of the European eels. These animals spawn in the Sargasso Sea west of the United States of America. The newborn eels start their three years long eastbound migration following the Gulf Stream to the European rivers. Having reached sexual maturity they migrate back to the Sargasso Sea within four months, however leaving the Azores to their left this time. It has been proven that the eels need freshwater to reach maturity but why do they venture on this long journey across the Atlantic Ocean?

Could it be that the eels have a genetic memory of a mainland with freshwater in the Atlantic Ocean but cannot find it again because it sank? Is that why they keep on migrating until they reach Europe?

Another phenomenon relates to the suicide of the Norwegian lemmings. Every year when their homeland is running short of food, these little rodents start migrating westwards. At the end of their migration they jump into the ocean and continue swimming westwards until they drown. What is it these animals are after in the ocean? Are they following a basic instinct driving them into the ocean? Are they looking for a land that offered them plenty of food a long time ago? Was this land Atlantis, located in the Atlantic Ocean according to Plato?

http://www.atlantia.de/atlantis_english/myth/atlantis/atlantis_atlantic.htm


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dhill757
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« Reply #31 on: March 26, 2007, 05:09:29 pm »

http://www.atlantida.gr/engArxaiaEbrimata.htm

ANCIENT FOUNDINGS
Did Atlantis exist in the Atlantic Ocean?


We summarize our arguements, referring the most important findings about Atlantis. The evidences was drawn up by the Museum of Atlantis.

1. At the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean was found basalt glassy lava of a mainland and not undersea volcano.
2. In 1898 special machinery brought into the surface of the Atlantic Ocean from 2800 m depth, a rock island 15000 years old which came from a mainland volcano.
3. In the summer of 1927, a crystal cranium from quartz with a movable jaw was found in the jungle of the British Honduran (Central America)!
4. In 1977, with echo sounding machinery, a pyramid was localized in depth of 300 m near the triangle of Vermuda.
5. In Bimini islands which are in the Bahamas islands were found (in 1969) sunk large stones squared or rectangulared of 600 square metres extend similar to those which were found by professor Jacques Cousteau in the small island Dias of Krete (in 1976).
6. In a mountain of Perou in Piscos Bay a very ancient trident (Atlant's symbol) is displayed which is made of white stones with phosphoric brightness "stabbed" in the slope. It has 250 m length and sides of 3,8 m width. This trident leads to a marked airport shaped flat space in Nasca plain which is located 160 km from Pisco. Wide airstrips and radiated corridors are discerned which stand out because they shine. They are formed by rack fragments. When you see this space from above it gives you the impression of an airport with geometrical lines and signs like in the modern airfields.
7. The gravestone with a carved pilot which was found in Palenkoue, near the temple of the Atlants of Mexico
8. The undersea ruins which were found through Soviet research with head the academic Accenof near Madera and the 9500 years smoothed marble stone which was drawn up by the Rusians from the undersea central Atlantic slope (mountain rage)
9. Some very ancient buildings of America belong to this technique of the most ancient buildings of Europe and North Africa as well as many architectural decorative shapes which are similar to both civilizations.
10. Geologists admit that between the Big and the Small Antilles there was land, which was sunk. Furthermore, that the Azores islands and in their extend Madera and the Canary islands are emerged summits of a big undersea volcano mountain range where often happen earthquakes and explosions.


General conclusions

All these foundings show that the large continent of Atlantis was surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean. Its geographical extend approach more to the Central America, the Big and the Small Antilles and the Bahamas, included the space of the Atlantic Ocean up to the Sargassai Sea, expanded normally up to Bermuda and an oblong extend of it reached as far as to the Azores. It was also surrounded by many small islands (sea maps of Atlantis).
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« Reply #32 on: March 26, 2007, 05:10:45 pm »

http://www.goldenageproject.org.uk/chronology.html

CHRONOLOGY

A Chronology of Historic Events
for Homo Sapiens Sapiens
72,000 BC Massive super volcano eruption of Toba, North Sumatra. Resulting in severe global cooling and massive loss of life. Confirmed by what is termed a genetic bottleneck. A few thousand human survivors. At this time Sapiens Sapiens is thought to have begun the move out of Africa.
62,000 BC First sign of Sapiens Sapiens (modern man) buried with respect, in modern manner with red ochre, near Lake Mungo, Australia.
57,500 BC North Atlantic Ash Zone 2. Major volcanic activity.
50,000 BC Next oldest discovery of Sapiens Sapiens, child burial in Upper Egypt.
42,000 BC Signs of mining and farming on the Vaal River, South Africa.
42,000 BC to 16,000 BC Signs of a dramatic rise in the size and quality of sapiens sapiens tool kit, great artistic and hunter gatherer skills, and improved diet.
25,000 BC Sulatrean (cromagnon) peoples on the Eastern Atlantic seaboard sail round the Atlantic both ways in walrus skinned, wooden framed boats, delivering advanced flint working skills to peoples on the Western Atlantic. On shore their light boats would be turned upside down on low stone walls to form houses.
24,000 BC to 13,000 BC Climatic desication of Australia, the Sahara and other parts of the world, with water being locked up in the ice of the Ice Age.
19,000 BC This date is given to what is termed the Ice Age Maximum.
18,000 BC First signs of Goats being domesticated in North Africa.
13,000 BC to 12,000 BC Farming at four Isnan sites at Naquada, Dishna and at Tushka, 125 miles up river from Aswan in Egypt.
12,600 BC to 10,700 BC Bolling/Allerod warming event.confirmed by maximum extent of glaciers when ice retreats, and ice melt discharges start. Termed Windermere Interstadial, as warm as today lasting to intense heat events around 10.800 BC.
12,000 BC Prior to this date the whole of the northern littoral of the Mediterranean Sea appears to have been occupied by herb dominated steppe. The only area where evergreen oak, pistachio, olive and wild wheat’s and barley’s survived together, was Southern Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan. This area provided a key glacial refuge for important plants.
10,860 BC and 10,740 BC Dramatic rises in temperature. Time of mass extinctions.
10,500 BC Teutonic uplift and great floods causing Lake Victoria to discharge into the Nile. This led to a massive extension of the high level lakes and a surplus of water in the semi-arid Sahel, and the Sahara region.
10,700 BC to 9,600 BC Termed Allerod/Younger Dryas, there was a dramatic fall in temperature to a level as cold as the Ice Age minimum.
9,500 BC Re-advance of the woodland vegetation in Eastern Turkey and Western Iran commenced, but not completed until 3,500 BC.
8,500 BC Oldest town with quality stone work, at Jericho. Warm climate at the bottom of the rift valley.
8,900 BC to 7,500 BC The first signs of sophisticated and domesticated plants and animals being dispersed into new areas of the Fertile Crescent. This included the range of founder crops, and the introduction into Cyprus of the domesticated Mesopotamian fallow deer, with sheep, goats and cattle.
8,200, 5,400 and 2,000 BC Catastrophic and sudden droughts leading to the rapid drying up of many of Africa’s lakes, leaving layers of dead fish in the sediments. Clear evidence of sudden catastrophic events.
7,000 BC What is termed the high and wild stage of the Nile peaks.
6,500 BC to 5,000 BC Towns at Catul Huyuk and Sabi-Abyad, displaying a range of sophisticated technologies. Polished obsidian and superb ceramics.
4,500 BC to 3,250 BC New dates for the 150 acre, Euphrates city of Uruk. World trade, together with superb social organisation and administration.
4,000 BC Highest water level at Lake Chad. Central Sahara blooms.
4,000 BC to 2,000 BC Climatic desiccation creates the modern Sahara, Arabian and Thar deserts. People move into the Nile Valley. At the same time Mesopotamia drys out, with the decline of the monsoon rains. These pressures on successful farming and increasing populations, lead to major social unrest, and forced migrations to more favourable areas.
2,750 BC Aryan Bak tribes migrate from Sumer to Northern India and to China down the silk road. They also diffuse to many other parts of the world setting up new civilisations, or improving old ones, in Europe and the Americas.
2,350 BC Final collapse of the great Bronze Age Civilisations due to well researched and documented evidence of massive cometary debris explosions from the Mediterranean to India, and global changes in climate.
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« Reply #33 on: March 26, 2007, 05:14:04 pm »

For centuries, even after the Spanish conquest, it was believed that the islands were the uppermost peaks of the lost continent of Atlantis of which Plato wrote in his "Timeos and Critias".



Atlantis was a big island, "larger than Libya and Asia together", located beyond the Columns of Hercules (the Strait of Gibraltar). It was the dominion of Poseidon, god of the Sea, and it was inhabited by the Atlants, descendants of its first king Atlas, son of the god and a mortal women.
   

Atlantis was immensely wealthy and the Atlants were the most advanced people of the world. In the center of the continent raised the great capital town with the Palace and the Temple of Poseidon. Its scientists transmitted their skills and civilization knowledges to other peoples, with whom they maintained peace.



  Atlants observed their laws of justice, generosity and peace for many generations. But in time they degenerated and became greedy and warlike. Others add that they discovered the secrets of the gods, secrets of cosmic energies and forces which could destroy mankind.
 

About 11,500 years ago Zeus, king of the gods, punished the Atlants. In the course of a single night volcanoes and tidal waves destroyed the big island in a disaster of cosmic proportions.

According to the legend, only the islands of Azores, Madeira, Canaries and Cape Verde remain from Atlantis. These were the lost continent's highest summits. But its palaces and temples are still to be found in the bottom of the sea, a sea which took its name from Atlantis: the Atlantic Ocean.


"Its steady palaces inhabited by dolphins,
its meadows and gardens carpeted with seaweed..."
(Jacinto Verdaguer - "La Atlántida")
[/b]


http://www.abouttenerife.com/tenerife/legend2.asp
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« Reply #34 on: March 26, 2007, 05:43:49 pm »

THE DARK OCEAN

A few - it would appear very few - sea explorers reached the Canary Islands during ancient times. The islands lie in the Atlantic Ocean, the so-called "Dark Ocean", into which very few sailors dared to venture. Furthermore, the ocean current called "Canaries Stream" flows in a southwesterly direction before veering to the west to sweep the unwary ocean vessel off to the end of the world, as it was believed during centuries.

Those few Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans who reached the islands and managed to return home to tell their story, surrounded the Canaries in a mist of magic and legend.

According to the Mediterranean sailors' tales, the Atlantic Ocean was inhabited by all kind of monsters which destroyed the vessels and devored their daring crews. You could find at any moment giant whirlpools, storms caused by angry gods or... the end of the world. Once arrived at the world's edge, which was thought to be a flat disc, the unwise seamen would fall into the abyss.

In the opinion of some historians, there was an economic or militar reason for some of these legends. The Phoenicians, skillful sailors and trademen, knew some Atlantic searoutes along the African and European coast. They were not interested at all in having other people as competitors, so they tried to keep visitors at a distance by means of spreading awful rumours and legends.


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« Reply #35 on: March 26, 2007, 05:44:38 pm »

THE GARDEN OF HESPERYDES

Hesiod -a Greek poet of the 8th century b.C.- wrote about the legendary Garden of Hesperydes. The story starts with Atlas.

Atlas was a Giant, titan Japeto's son. The titans were defeated by Zeus, king of the gods, who confined them in the Tartarus -the hell. Atlas had fought the war on his father's side. According to some opinions, Zeus condemned Atlas to support the vault of heavens upon his shoulders. Other maintain that an angry Perseus showed him Medusa's head thus converting him into a high mountain that supported the sky. Be that as it may, Atlas had to hold up the sky beyond the Columns of Hercules -the Strait of Gibraltar.

Atlas had three daughters, the Hesperydes: Egle, Eritia and Aretusa. The three lived in the most westernly land of the world, some wonderful islands in the Atlantic Ocean, a Garden of Eden where weather was always mild and where golden apples grew on the trees. Goddess Gea (Mother Earth) made sprout those apples as a wedding gift to the king and queen of the gods, Zeus and Hera.

The Hesperydes cultivate the Garden, but a fierce dragon looked after it. It was called Ladon, and it had hundred flame-spewing heads.
Hercules -also called Herakles-, the greatest hero of ancient times, had to perform twelve very difficult tasks, almost impossible to accomplish, the "Twelve Labors of Hercules". Labor number eleven consisted in stealing the Hesperydes' Golden Apples.

Hercules found Atlas supporting the sky near the Ocean, in the mountains which we call today Atlas (Morocco). Since the Garden of Hesperydes' dragon knew Atlas, Hercules persuaded him to go to the islands and steal the apples, while he stayed as supporter of the sky in his place. Atlas went to the Garden in which he could enter since the dragon recognized him, killed the monster, stole the golden apples and returned to the place where Hercules stayed. Atlas, tired of his task, intended to leave Hercules with the burden upon his shoulders, but the hero managed to cheat him. He passed him the burden again and fled with the apples.

And the Garden of Hesperydes? Did it lose its Golden Apples forever? No! They ended by returning to the islands, since they were given to goddess Athena, who gave them back to the gardeners, the Hesperydes.


Concerning Ladon, the watch-dragon killed by Atlas... it lives on in their children, the dragon-trees. According to the legend, the blood flowing from the dragon's wounds fell all over the Garden of Hesperydes. A dragon tree sprouted from each blood drop. Dragon trees -dracaena drago- have massive trunks from which raise a bunch of twisted branches, Ladon's hundred heads. When a piece of bark or a branch are broken, the tree "bleed" a dark-red sap called "dragon-tree blood", which can be used with medical purposes. Dragon trees grow slowly, but they can live for several centuries. There is a specimen at Icod de los Vinos -Tenerife- which is called the "Thousand-year old Dragon Tree". The Guanches, Canarian natives, revered the places where these trees grew as specially meaningful and full of energies. Today, several superstitions of the Canarian folklore are still refered to a dragon tree, growing lonely at the edge of a crag or a cliff.


When the traveler approaches the Canaries by sea, he can glimpse the misty form of the Teide floating over the clouds many miles before arriving at the islands. When we imagine how it looked when the volcano has been in eruption, we shall understand how the legend was born of a fierce fire-spewing dragon who watched over a wonderful Garden where the Golden Apples grew...


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« Reply #36 on: March 26, 2007, 05:46:21 pm »

THE GHOST ISLAND: SAN BORONDON
(SAINT BRENDAN)


The Canaries are seven islands... but an eigth isle is still searched! It is the ghost island, the mysterious one, the island of San Borondón. San Borondón is the Canarian name of Saint Brendan or Saint Brandan of Clonfert (480-576 d.C.), an Irish monk who plays the lead in one of the most famous legends of the Celtic culture: the voyage of Saint Brendan or Brandan to the Promised Land of the Saints, the Islands of Happiness and Fortune.

The Irish poem tells that Brendan was a monk of Tralee, County Kerry. He was ordained priest in the year 512 d.C.. He sailed with 14 other monks on a small vessel which went far away in the Atlantic Ocean. The legend tells about their adventures, how they took with them along their voyage three other monks, their encounter with fire-hurling demons, with floating crystal columns, with monstruos creatures as large as an island.

Brendan and his fellow travellers landed on island where they found trees and other sort of vegetation. They said mass, and suddenly the island started to sail. It was a gigantic sea creature and they were on its back.
After many vicissitudes Brendan managed to go back to Ireland.

Many base on this legend the affirmation that Irish sailors reached possibly in the High Middle Ages the shores of North America or Newfoundland, Iceland and other Atlantic isles.


When the Canaries were conquered throughout the 15th century, stories were insistently told about an eigth island which sometimes was seen to the West of La Palma, El Hierro and La Gomera. When sailors tried to reach it and approached to its shores, mountains and valleys, the island was covered by mist and vanished. The island was obviously identified as mythical Saint Brendan's whale-island, and was called "San Borondón" in the Canary Islands. People believed firmly in its existence, and there were even detailed accounts from an odd sailor or two who swore that they had landed on the island and explored it before the land had sunk again into the Ocean. In some international treaties signed by the Kingdom of Castille it was stated, concerning the Canary Islands, the Castilian sovereignty over *the islands of Canaria, already discovered or to be discovered*; just in case... The island was called "Aprositus", the Inaccesible, and in other versions of the legend is named "Antilia" or "Island of the Seven Cities", cities which were supposed to have been founded by seven legendary bishops.

The archives of the 18th century inform about official inquiries by the authorities of El Hierro, where tens of witnesses declared having seen the bewitched island from the summits of El Hierro's mountains. An expedition in search of the island sailed from Santa Cruz de Tenerife as a result of this inquiry.

The persistence of this legend in the islands' folklore is amazing. San Borondón is still alive in the islands' people imagination. There is probably no one islander of Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera or El Hierro who sometime has not looked from the mountains of his island into the sea, searching the lost island of San Borondón in the western horizon where the sun sinks in the cobalt-blue waters of the Atlantic Ocean.

"Let the Guanche drums resound
and the conch shells blow,
for the mysterious island
is appearing in the midst of the waves;
here comes San Borondón,
showing up in the mist
like a queen
with the surf as suite..."

"San Borondón", Cabrera/Santamaría


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The prior three posts originally came from this website:
http://home.pi.be/~p4u00071/canarias/canleyend-eng.html#Dark


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« Reply #37 on: March 26, 2007, 05:50:50 pm »

AN AZTEC STORY



The Aztec story chronicling the departure of their ancestors from a land surrounded by water to the Mexican area. (Kinsborough)

From Atlantis – Mother of Empires by Robert B. Stacy-Judd

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« Reply #38 on: March 26, 2007, 05:52:37 pm »

CODEX TROANO



ITZAMNA ARRIVING FROM THE EAST AS DEPICTED IN THE CODEX TROANO.

Mayan myths say that their ancestors came from the ocean. Like the Nahuatl people to their north they describe more than one foundation. The mythical civilizer Itzamna, carrying the letters of what would become the Mayan language, arrived from the east, to found one age. Itzamna came across a sea with twelve paths through it (in celestial sea the zodiac has twelve paths).

Later, in a different age, another migration came from the west, led by Kukulcan, the Maylan equivalent of Quetzalcoatl. Like the peoples of Mexico who described several incarnations of Quetzalcoatl and like Hindus who described many appearances of their lord-god Krishna, the Maya myths had Kukulcan arriving several times. One appearance was in the form of Tonaca, a migrating seafarer. In Peru the Quechua say Tonapa, a seafaring incarnation of Viracocha, left into the Pacific to found civilizations in Oceana.

From Atlantis in America – Navigators of the Ancient World by Ivar Zapp and George Ericson




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« Reply #39 on: March 26, 2007, 05:53:58 pm »

YOUNGER EDDA

Reminiscent of Timaeus, the Younger Edda legend tells of an ancient Swedish king named Gylfe, who journeys to Asgard, where he assumes the name Ganglere (the wanderer). There he beholds a land of temples, golden palaces, and plowed fields populated by a mighty and noble race called the Asas. Just as the Egyptian priests relate to Solon, king of Athens, the tale of Atlantis and of the great flood that befell his ancestors, the Asas tell Ganglere the tale of Ragnarok. Asas comes from Norse word Aas, which means a “ridge of high land”. Hence the Asas, like the Atlanteans, would appear to be a fictitious race that once dwelt high up on the ice sheet’s glistening, paradise of ice.

From Earth Under Fire by Paul LaViolette

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« Reply #40 on: March 26, 2007, 05:56:01 pm »

History of the Canary Islands




http://www.canaryislandbreaks.com/history.php

quote:
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Background

The origins of the Canary Islands are by no means clear, however we do know the islands are estimated to be 30 million years old. The Canarian archipelago is made up of seven islands and six islets, located approximately 100km off the coast of North Africa.
Legend has it the Canary Islands were formed when the mythical continent of Atlantis sank into the ocean. In Roman times Pliny referred to the islands as the "Fortunate Isles", a name that is still used today, due to the favourable winds and stable climate conditions. Information about the islands was lost in the dark ages, folklore has it that it was too dangerous for boats to venture into the Atlantic for fear of the "dragon infested waters".
 

Conquest

In 1402, Jean de Bethencourt of Normandy in France, left La Rochelle and headed towards the Canary Islands. He arrived first in Lanzarote, but later moved on to Fuerteventura. After running out of supplies and with very few men, he headed next for mainland Spain only to return to Fuerteventura in 1404. On returning to Fuerteventura, El Hierro and La Gomera came under his control. The Spanish King, Enrique III appointed him Lord of the islands and Bethencourt encouraged farmers from his Norman homeland to begin settling there.
During his time in Betancuria, Bethencourt built a chapel in the village which became an important local focal point. The chapel still stands today and continues to dominate the village. In 1406, Bethencourt left his nephew Maciot in charge and returned to Normandy. Although the islands suffered a turbulent history for centuries after, Bethancourt's establishment of the islands under Spanish control has remained permanent.

 

The Modern Canaries

The Canary Islands were declared a province of Spain in 1821, and Tenerife's Santa Cruz was made the capital. An unsuccessful division of the islands in the 1840's was attempted when feuds developed between Tenerife and Gran Canaria. It wasn't until 1927 when Madrid made the decision to officially separate the Canaries into two provinces. It remains the case today that Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma and El Hierro make up one province while Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote make up the other.
The establishment of the Canary Islands as a major tourist destination can be attributed to Franco, who began to encourage tourism to the Spanish mainland in the late 1960's. This had a knock-on effect on the Canary Islands, which also gained popularity for their year-round good weather. Millions of holidaymakers now flock to the islands every year.


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« Reply #41 on: March 26, 2007, 05:58:16 pm »

Versión española
THE GUANCHES


The native people of the Island of Tenerife, which gave name to the different aboriginal peoples of the Canary Islands


THE CANARY ISLANDS IN ANTIQUITY

A few - it would appear very few - sea explorers reached the Canary Islands during ancient times. The islands lie in the Atlantic Ocean, into which very few sailors dared to venture. Furthermore, the ocean current called "Canaries Stream" flows in a southwesterly direction before veering to the west to sweep the unwary ocean vessel off to the Caribbean. Centuries later, Europeans would make use of this current as a powerful aid in crossing the Ocean to reach America. (Cristopher Columbus called in at Gran Canaria and La Gomera, and set sail from this island during his voyage of discovery in 1492. The Canaries were the last land sighted by the Spaniards before landing in the island of Guanahani -San Salvador- on October 12, 1492; and Canarian water and provisions supplied the "Pinta", the "Niña" and the "Santa María").

Those few Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans who reached the islands and managed to return home to tell their story, surrounded the Canaries in a mist of magic and legend. For centuries, even after the Spanish conquest, it was believed that the islands were the uppermost peaks of the lost continent of Atlantis of which Plato wrote. Others identified them with the Elysian Fields, home to the blessed who knew no cold or pains. Similarly, the islands came to be identified with the Garden of Hesperydes, a paradise where golden apples grew under the guard of a gigantic flame-spewing monster (the Teide volcano?).
The Roman general Quintus Sertorius, whose ship was swept from Lusitania (Portugal) by a storm, speaks in the Ist century BC of "some islands higher than Mount Atlas with a gentle climate". Plutarch called the Canaries "the Fortunate Islands", a nickname with they still bear and which has given rise to the term "Macaronesia" (the Happy Islands) to refer to the archipelagos of the Azores, Canaries, Madeira, and Cape Verde in the Atlantic.
Juba, king of Mauritania in Northern Africa and vassal of Rome in the Ist century BC, sent an expedition out to explore the islands according to the writings of the famous naturalist Plinius.

THE NATIVES OF THE CANARY ISLANDS

Europeans re-discovered the Fortunate islands in the first half of the XIVth century. They found living there a people who later came to be known as the Guanches, and who are still the object of great mystery.

Where did they come from? How did they reach the islands? When did they arrive?

They had to have arrived by sea, of course. And they arrived with their domesticated animals: goats, sheep, pigs and dogs. They brought with them wheat and barley. They came from North Africa, originating from the same stock as the Berbers of the Atlas mountains. Yet this simple affirmation has caused - and still causes - virtual rivers of ink to flow in polemical debate in which archeology and ethnography become entangled in politics.

According to the tales of the European conquerors, the Guanches were a "highly beautiful white race, tall, muscular, and with a great many blondes amongst their numbers" Their great height must be understood in relation to the average height of Europeans at that time. As for the presence of blondes, even today after many centuries of invasions and intermarriage, a heritage of blond hair and blue eyes is easily found among modern day Berbers of the Atlas region in Africa. There have of course been those who have tried to deny the Berber origins of the Guanches for political reasons, perhaps in order to avoid the possibility of potential territorial claims on the part of Morocco. But this reasoning is totally illogical. The ancestors of the current Moroccan and Algerian Berbers who emigrated to the Canaries did so several centuries before the birth of Christ when neither Morocco nor Algeria nor their cultures yet existed. According to the same line of argument, the Italians of Rome would have a stronger claim to the cities of Northern Africa which were founded by the Roman Empire!

The ancestors of the Guanches arrived by sea, colonized the islands... and then "forgot" how to sail! When the Europeans landed on the Canaries, they discovered a stone age culture based on shepherding, fruit gathering and a very limited agriculture. This same base was common to all the islands, but each island had developed into its own microcosm to the point where even the language had differentiated into distinct dialects. The islands were cut off one from the other as the natives did not know the art of navigation. They fished only in coastal tidal pools.

This is one of the great enigmas of the Guanches. How was it possible for a race of people to reach the shores of these tiny islands by sea, live surrounded by ocean with - on several islands - enormous forests of tall trees for raw material and yet ignore the sea, living as it were with their back turned to it? Several possible answers to this mystery have been offered. Perhaps the people of the Canaries were simple shepherds who had been transported to the islands by a sailing people and later forgotten and left to fate. Other explanations might be found in the extraordinary difficulty of navigating the oceans surrounding the Canaries due to the strong currents flowing to the West and the trade winds blowing as strongly almost year round.

THE GUANCHES: THE PEOPLE FROM TENERIFE

Guanche was the name by which the natives of Tenerife called themselves. Guan Chenech meant "Man from Chenech", or man from Tenerife. With the passage of time, the term Guanche became identified with all the native peoples of the Canaries.

The names of the different islands and of their inhabitants (for those that are known) are as follows:


TENERIFE: Chenech, Chinech or Achinech. It would seem that the natives of La Palma, seeing the snow-covered peak of the Teide on the horizon, called that island Ten-er-efez, "White Mountain" (from Ten, teno, dun, duna= mountain, and er-efez= white). Achenech was inhabited by the Guan Chenech, the men from Chenech.


FUERTEVENTURA: Maxorata, inhabited by the Majoreros or Maxos.

GRAN CANARIA: Canaria, was inhabited by the Canarii or Canarios. All the islands took their name from this one, because the Castilians started to call them 'Islands of Canaria', later 'Islas Canarias' (Canary Islands).

LANZAROTE: Tyteroygatra.

LA PALMA: Benahoare, pronounced "Ben-Ajuar", and meaning "from the tribe of Ahoare" (tribe of the African Atlas). Island inhabited by the Auaritas.

LA GOMERA: Gomera, inhabited by the Gomeros.

EL HIERRO: Hero, inhabited by the Bimbaches.


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http://home.pi.be/~p4u00071/canarias/canguan1-eng.html

Another great link on the Canary Islands:
http://www.red2000.com/spain/canarias/

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« Reply #42 on: March 26, 2007, 06:00:49 pm »

The Happy Islands

This paradisiac group of islands, with a preferred climate and constant temperature through all the year, and splendid beaches of fine sand, consists of 7 larger islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, Lanzarote, Tenerife, La Palma, Gomera, Hierro) and a few smaller ones (Alegranza, Graciosa, Montaña Clara, Roque del Este, Roque del Oeste und Lobos). Surprisingly, the landscape of each island is radically different to the others.

Already Greeks and Romans reported on this archipelago of volcanic origins, and called it the Happy Islands, Garden of the Hesperides, Atlantida, ... Some historians suppose that the legendary continent Atlantis was located here. The islands' original population, called Guanches, is tall and of white skin.
In 1496 the islands became part of the Spanish kingdom, and the ships of Christopher Columbus stopped here on their travel to discover the New World.



The Climate of Canary Islands

 At Canary Islands there is eternal springtime. Temperatures between the seasons vary only some 6º C, the monthly average temperatures are from 18º to 24º C (64,4 and 75,2ºF). Ideal bathing conditions through all the year.
 
Due to the islands geographical location, some 4º from the tropic of cancer and very close to the African coast, the islands' climate is subtropical. The surprising landscape, with high mountains covered by snow very close to the beaches, is an additional attraction. Water temperature varies from 22º C in summer to 19º C in winter.
 
 In La Palma, Tenerife and Gran Canaria you may find tropical rains from time to time, while Fuerteventura and Lanzarote are very dry and guarantee sunshine almost without interruption.
 
 The character of the population is influenced by this favored climate as well, Canarians are famous for being always friendly and in good mood. That can be said about the numerous foreigners, who use to spend the winter-months here, as well.
 
http://www.red2000.com/spain/canarias/

http://www.red2000.com/spain/canarias/clima.html
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« Reply #43 on: March 26, 2007, 06:03:23 pm »

The Mysterious origin of the Guanches

The Guanches are the mysterious natives of the Canary Islands. They were just about exterminated by the Spaniards when these invaded the archipelago at the turn of the 15th century. Tall, blond and blue-eyed, the Guanches have long intrigued the anthropologists, for blond natives are rarity. According to the reliable Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Guanches "are thought to have been of Cro-Magnon origin... and had a brown complexion, blue or gray eyes, and blondish hair"


Indeed, the Guanches are deemed to be related to the Berbers of neighboring Morroco, who are, likewise, tall, blond and blue-eyed when unmixed with the Arab majority. Other specialists, however, believe that the Guanches are related to the Celts of Western Europe, the early realm of these races. No matter what, the Guanches represent a unique opportunity of studying the early peoples of this region so intimately connected with Atlantis and the Garden of the Hesperides.


Isolated in their islands, the Guanches were prevented, until the advent of the Spanish, from sexually mingling with other races. So, they preserved their pristine Cro-Magnon genetic traits in a more or less pure fashion until that date. But, as we said, the Guanches were massacred by the Spaniards, and their remainder mingled heavily with the invaders, so that they essentially inexist today. But the blond, blue-eyed, tall stock has been preserved in part, and can still be seen in many individuals. As is known, blond traits are dominated by dark ones, and tend to disappear from the population. But they survive unseen, and may return in certain individuals called "recessives", who combine the proper genes.


Furthermore, the Guanches mummified their dead, and this material can be studied by the researchers, particularly concerning traits such as blood type and racial characteristics. This strange mode of disposing of the dead - which the Guanches shared with the Polynesians, the Egyptians and the Mayas - has been mooted out by several authorities as indicating a close affinity among these distant nations. The Guanches also left some sort of alphabetic inscriptions which have yet to be studied, along with their pottery and peculiar ruins. All in all, the archaeology of this most remarkable people is far from satisfactorily researched.


Many researchers have pointed out the resemblance of the Guanche natives with the Cro-Magnons and, particularly, with Cro-Magnoid types of regions such as those of Muges (Portugal) dating from the Mesolithic (c. 8,000 BC). Similar groups have been noted and studied Portugal, Spain, France, England, Sweden and Northwest Africa, precisely the realm of the Celto-Germanic and the Berber races.


Are the Canaries the Remains of Sunken Atlantis?


Many Atlantologists have proposed that the Canary Islands are the remainder of a sunken Atlantis, being the lofty volcanic peaks left behind when the lost continent foundered. However, the Canary islands rise directly from the deep ocean floor, from a depth of some 3,000 meters below the surface. Indeed, they are a part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, having been formed by submarine volcanoes at the end of the Tertiary Age (circa 2.5 million years ago).Their lavas consist of basalts and trachytes, the typical material of submarine, non-explosive volcanism typical of seabottoms.


Due to both their age and their origin, the Canarian volcanoes can hardly be invoked to account for the conflagration that wiped Atlantis off the map. Instead, this type of basaltic, submarine volcanism is nowadays perfectly well understood geologically speaking. Such volcanoes result from the upwelling magma that forms the Continental Plates, according to the theory of Plate Tectonics, and are a feature of all oceanic regions of the world. Hence, the claims made by certain Atlantologists such as P. Termier, I. Donnelly, C. Berlitz and many others that the Canaries or the Azores, or the Madeiras are the remains of sunken Atlantis do not hold water at all.

Are the Guanches Atlantean Relicts?


As we said above, though we can be certain that the Canaries, along with the other neighboring Atlantic islands, are not the residues of a sunken continent that foundered in the region, we have yet to explain the mysterious origin of the Guanches. However, where smoke is, there is usually fire, and we cannot simply ignore the recurrent legends that link this people to Atlantis.


But if they are not Atlanteans left behind when their continent sunk, the only possible explanation for the mysterious origin of the Guanches is that they primordially came from somewhere else. But, whence? Certainly not from neighboring Africa, the realm of the Black Man. No serious anthropologist has ever maintained that the blond Aryans originated in Africa itself. The standing proposals for the origin of the Berbers and, possibly, the Guanches themselves, are that they came from Arabia, after crossing the Sahara desert.


But, to start with, no one is sure that the Arabs or, even less, the Aryans, originated in Arabia or Palestine, and their own ethiological legends affirm that they came from beyond the Indian Ocean. Moreover, the Sahara desert poses a formidable barrier ever since the end of the Pleistocene, and it is highly unlikely that it could be crossed by hordes of migrants, unstocked with the food and water required for the task.


The Guanches were held in perfect isolation from Europe and other Old World civilizations until they were discovered by the Portuguese and Spanish at the end of the 15th century. This separation dates from prehistoric times that far predate the ones of Plato and Herodotus, and even those of Homer and Hesiod. So, if Guanche legends indeed relate to Atlantis and its doom, we can be certain that the golden realm was no idle invention of Plato or other Greeks, but originated in a very ancient tradition, dating from the dawn of mankind. This is precisely what we aim to prove in the present work on the origin of the Guanches.


We start by reviewing the ancient traditions linking the Canaries to the Garden of the Hesperides and the Islands of the Blest, and progress into the modern proposals purporting to show that the Canaries and the other neighboring islands are the remains of sunken Atlantis. Finally, we attempt showing their rather direct relationship between the Canaries, Atlantis and the Garden of Eden, the legendary site of the origin of Mankind.


If our conclusions indeed prove to be right and survive the wellcome attack of the critics, the whole of human prehistory will have to undergo a major revision. Hence, the importance of inquiring on the origin of the Guanches and their possible connection with Atlantis. The mysterious Guanches provide the key to the riddles that surround the origin of Mankind, and are the "missing link" connecting the Mediterranean and other neighboring civilizations to the Far Orient and the Indies, the true site of the Garden of the Hesperides. This garden, also known as that of Eden, is the place where Mankind and Civilization indeed developed, according to the holy traditions of many nations, and not only that of the Bible.


Evening Isles Fantastical


Classical writers often mention legendary islands in the Atlantic Ocean in a way that closely evokes the legends of Atlantis. Homer mentions islands like Phaeacia, Scheria and Ogygia. The Argonautica, deemed to be prior to Homer's Odyssey, also speaks of legendary oceanic islands such as Aiaia, Thrinacia and Colchis. More than just delightful novels, these ancient sagas were indeed Sacred History, and were believed to derive from actual fact. The Greco-Roman traditions concerning the fabulous oceanic islands and their golden realms apparently derive from the far earlier ones such as the Epic of Gilgamesh of the Sumero-Babylonians or the Ramayana and the Mahabharata of the Hindus.


Many other classical authors also mention such fantastic islands of the ocean. This ocean the Greeks, ignorant of the other oceans, very naturally identified with what we nowadays call by the name of Atlantic Ocean, that is, "the Ocean of the Atlanteans". But when we read the ancient traditions closer, we notice that the fabulous islands of the Atlanteans were always placed "at the confines of the earth".


Moreover, the ocean in question is invariably described as "winy red" and is placed towards dawn and Orient. In other words, the ocean in question is the Indian Ocean, which the ancients called Erythraean, that is, "Red One". And Atlantis is the same as the Ultima Thule of the ancients, this being the name they gave to the "confines of the earth" which lay towards the Orient, in the Eastern limits of their world, and where they also placed the Pillars of Atlas, the twin and counterpart of the western Pillars of Hercules, in Gibraltar.


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« Reply #44 on: March 26, 2007, 06:05:47 pm »

The Phoenicians and the Secret Route to the Indies.


The traditions concerning the legendary Atlantic Islands (or, rather, "Islands of the Atlanteans") were probably transferred from the Orient to the Occident by the ancient navigants and explorers such as the Phoenicians, the Minoan Cretans and the Etruscans. The Greeks had some knowledge of the ancient peripluses of the Phoenicians, the detailed accounts of the naval routes to such mysterious islands so often equated to the ones of Paradise and Atlantis.


In the desire to preserve the lucrative monopoly of their maritime trade with the Indies, the Phoenicians and their partners disguised their verbal maps under a veil of confusion intended to avert the possible competitors towards the wrong places and directions. It suffices to read such accounts, preserved in the writings of authors such as Avienus, Hanno, and Pytheas of Marseilles to observe the inextricable confusions that becloud the real distances, names and directions.


The same thing happens with the writers that speak of the Atlantic Islands in mythical terms. The accounts of authorities such as Herodotus, Plato, Diodorus, Theopompos and many others are no different from the accounts of the Odyssey and the Argonautica. They are full of allegories, metaphors, paradoxes and even downright lies that have led the experts to despair from ever making any sense out of them.


Such relates tell of seas riddled with clashing rocks, seamonsters and thorny sargassoes that dragged down the ships they caught, or in giant maelstroms and muddy shoals and doldrums that prevented the mariners from ever escaping death. They also tell of one-eyed giants and microscopic dwarfs, of strap-footed Titans and goat-footed satyrs, of terrible cannibals and of sorceress of all kinds. But some of these accounts were far more realistic and matter-of fact, and plainly alluded to real islands such as the Canaries and the Madeiras and, far more likely, to the Indonesian islands or even the Americas beyond.


Midas and the Satyr Silenus


The ancients believed, as did Plato and Herodotus along with the Greek geographers that a circular ocean - the one they called "Outer Ocean" or "Atlantic Ocean", and which included what we now call the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans- surrounded the world then known, which consisted of Eurasia and Africa. The historian Theopompos, a contemporary of Plato, relates a conversation between the legendary King Midas of Phrygia and the very wise satyr Silenus.


The satyr, entrapped and rendered drunk by Midas, told him of an Outer Continent (the Americas?) that outlay the ocean and which was inhabited by a people twice the size and twice as long-lived as the ordinary mortals. One part of their continent was permanently enwrapped by a red mist and was drained by two rivers, the River of Pleasure and the River of Grief. Once, these giants crossed the ocean intending to conquer the ancient world. But once they saw the misery of our world, they realized that it was useless to pursue their plan, and retired to their world in disgust.


The story of Theopompos is extremely interesting, for it embodies the essential elements of the myth of Atlantis. To start with, the attempted invasion of the giants closely evokes the similar one undertaken by Plato's Atlanteans. Plato too alludes to the Outer Continent, the Epeira Ges that delimited the Ocean on all sides, and which can only be the Americas. The Atlantean empire was indeed worldwide, and certainly encompassed the Americas, whose name comes not from a hypothetical Amerigo Vespucci, but far more probably relates to that of the Celtic Armorica.


In the version of Theopompos, the Atlanteans are confusedly equated with the Long-lived Ethiopians of Homer, Herodotus and others. The Long-lived Ethiopians, often described as tall, blond, blue-eyed giants of twice normal size, are a recurrent feature of the ancient Greek legends. More realistic historians such as Pliny and Solinus correctly place these blessed giants in the islands of Taprobane, that is, in the Indonesian islands. But others, perhaps ignoring the true meaning of the antique traditions, place the Islands of the Blest and their beautiful, saintly giants, in the Canaries and the Madeiras where we also encounter them in reality.



The Mirror of Illusion (Maya)


As we shall see further below, these ancient "confusions" were planned, and the blue-eyed "Ethiopians" of the Canaries and Mauritania were planted there as a virtual replica or "mirror image" of the real ones, the fortunate Ethiopians of Trapobane. Indeed the metaphor of the "mirror image" of Atlantis created by the Ethiopians of the Canary Islands and of the Berber coast of Mauritania is not ours, but figures in many ancient symbols and traditions. This tradition concerns the Mirror of Illusion, the characteristic attribute of deceptive goddesses such as the Indian Mayв ("Illusion") and the Greco-Roman Venus.


The motif of the Mirror of Illusion occurs even in the Americas and, particularly among the Gnostics such as the Cathars and others. The Phoenicians indeed held that the Pillars of Hercules of Gibraltar were a "mirror image" of those located in the Orient, as some of their coins specifically illustrate. Interestingly enough, Maya (the male avatar of the Mayв) is the Great Architect, the luciferine deity of the Gnostics and the enlightened civilizer of humanity. Maya (masculine of Mayв) is also the builder of legendary Lanka, the city and capital of the worldwide empire that was the actual archetype of Atlantis. In Fig. 2, we show two Phoenician coins illustrating the true Pillars of Hercules in the Far East, and their illusory reflection in Gibraltar.


As we shall see further below, Maya, the Supreme Smith of the Hindus, had his Guanche counterpart in Guayota, the Supreme God of the Guanches, and in Lug, their Celtic counterpart. Such coincidences can hardly be random. So, the only possible explanation lies in diffusion through direct contact among the civilizations in question, that is, those of the Guanches, the Celts and the Indonesian Aryans, known to the ancients as the Pious Ethiopians of Taprobane.


The Pillars of Hercules of Gibraltar and the Garden of the Hesperides of the Canaries in the Atlantic Ocean are an illusion or mirage, a mirror image of the true Islands of the Blest, in Indonesia. The Atlantic Atlantis, variously placed in the Canaries, the Azores, Tartessos (Spain), Mauritania (Morocco), or Crete is a sheer illusion created by the clever ancients in order to distract and to disillusion the inquisitive profanes of ever finding the Lost Continent and the true site of Paradise. So are the ones of the Syrtis (Libya), the Bosphorus, the Armorican coasts of Brittany, the Irish Isles, and so on.


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