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the Knights Templar, the Crusades & the Holy Grail (Original Version)

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« Reply #210 on: January 06, 2008, 04:20:02 am »

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THE TEMPLAR KNIGHTS
Grand Masters from 1118 to 1314

Hughes de Payens (1118-1136)
Robert de Craon (1136-1146)
Everard des Barres (1146-1149)
Bernard de Tromelai (1149-1153)
Andre de Montbard (1153-1156)
Bertrand de Blanchefort (1156-1169)
Philip de Milly (1169-1171)
Odo de St Amand (1171-1179)
Arnold de Toroga (1179-1184)
Gerard de Ridefort (1185-1189)
Robert de Sable (1191-1193)
Gilbert Erail (1193-1200)
Philip de Plessiez (1201-1208)
William de Chartres (1209-1219)
Pedro de Montaigu (1219-1230)
Armond de Perigord (Huh-1244)
Richard de Bures (1245-1247)
William de Sonnac (1247-1250)
Reynald de Vichiers (1250-1256)
Thomas Berard (1256-1273)
William de Beaujeu (1273-1291)
Tibauld de Gaudin (1291-1293)
Jacques de Molay (1293-1314)

http://www.lowchensaustralia.com/names/knights.htm
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« Reply #211 on: January 06, 2008, 04:20:32 am »

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Grand Masters of the Knights Templar

Each man who held the position of Grand Master of the Knights Templar was the supreme commander of the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (also known as the Knights Templar), starting with founder Hughes de Payens in 1118. The position was held for life, though this tenure could often be quite short considering the military nature of the Order.

Each country had its own Master, and the Masters reported to the Grand Master. He oversaw all of the operations of the Order, including both the military operations in the Holy Land and eastern Europe, and the financial and business dealings in the Order's infrastructure of western Europe.

Grand Masters could also be active military commanders, though this was not always a wise choice, as seen by the embarrassing blunders made by the 12th century Gérard de Ridefort, who ended up beheaded by Saladin in 1189.
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« Reply #212 on: January 06, 2008, 04:21:29 am »

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Hughes de Payens

Hughes or Huges de Payens or de Pains or de Payns (c. 1070 - 1136), a French nobleman from the Champagne region, was the first Grand Master of the Knights Templar. He organized the original nine monk-knights to defend pilgrims to the Holy Land in response to the call to action of Pope Urban II.

De Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem with eight knights, two of whom were brothers and all of whom were his relatives by either blood or marriage, in order to form the first of the Knights Templar.

The other knights were Geoffrey de St. Omer, Payen de Montdidier, Archambaud de St. Agnan, Andre de Montbard, Geoffrey Bison, and two men recorded only by the names of Rossal and Gondamer. The ninth knight remains unknown, although some have speculated that it was Hugh Comte de Champagne.

De Payens was born at Château Payns, about 10 km from Troyes, in Champagne, France. He was a veteran of the First Crusade (in 1099) and had spent twenty-two years of his life east of Europe.

It is likely that Hughes de Payens served in the army of Godfroi de Boullion during the First Crusade. As Grand Master, he led the Order for almost twenty years until his death, helping to establish the Order's foundations as an important and influential international military and financial institution.

On his visit to London in 1128, he raised men and money for the Order, and also founded their first House there, initiating the history of the Templars in England.

He died in Palestine in 1136 and was succeeded as Grand Master by Robert de Craon.
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« Reply #213 on: January 06, 2008, 04:22:05 am »

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Robert de Craon

Coat of arms of Robert de Craon.Robert de Craon (died January 13, 1147) was the second Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from June 1136 until his death.

He was born around the turn of the 12th century, the youngest of the three sons of Renaud de Craon. He settled in Aquitaine and was engaged to the daughter of the lord of Angoumois, but gave up his fiancée and travelled to Palestine after learning of the foundation of the Templar Order by Hughes de Payens. He soon showed his military valour and his piety, and in 1136, after the death of Hughes, he was chosen as the new Grand Master. He proved to be a brilliant organizer and legislator, and turned the Order into a major force in the Crusader states. On March 29, 1139, Pope Innocent II issued the bull Omne Datum Optimum, which exempted the order from tithes and made them independent of any ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The Templars were also granted the habit of a red cross over a white tunic, which has since become the popular image of any crusader.

He was less fortunate as a military leader. As soon as he had been elected, he defeated Zengi, the emir of Aleppo and let his knights plunder the enemy camp; Zengi returned and destroyed the unorganized pillagers. Robert authorized the Spanish Templars to lead a naval expedition of about 70 ships against Lisbon, but this also ended in defeat. In 1140 the Templars resisted a numerically superior Turkish army at the Battle of Tecua. In 1143, after protracted negotiations between Raymond Berenguer IV (the Count of Barcelona and a Templar) the order's mission on the Iberian peninsula was defined. According to William of Tyre, Robert participated in the Council of Acre during the Second Crusade in 1148, but according to the Obituary of Reims, he died in January of 1147, and was succeeded by Everard des Barres in April of that year.
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« Reply #214 on: January 06, 2008, 04:22:34 am »

 
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Everard des Barres

Seal of Everard des Barres.Everard des Barres (died 1174) was the third Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1147 to 1151.

As Preceptor of the Templars in France from 1143, he was one of the highest dignitaries of the Order when Robert de Craon died in 1147. He was chosen to succeed Robert, and as soon as he was elected, he accompanied Louis VII of France on the Second Crusade, and was among those sent ahead to Constantinople before Louis' arrival there. He later saved Louis during a battle with the Seljuk Turks in Pisidia.

According to the chronicler Odo de Deuil, Everard was extremely pious and valiant. He seems to have had a strong influence on Louis. After the failure of the crusade at the Siege of Damascus in 1148, Louis returned to France, followed by Everard, who was in charge of the king's treasury. Everard's Templars stayed behind and helped defend Jerusalem against a Turkish raid in 1149.

Back in France, Everard abdicated officially in 1151 and became a monk at Clairvaux, despite the protests of the Templars. He was succeeded by Bernard de Tremelay (who actually led the Order since Everard's departure in 1149) and died in 1174.

Bernard de Tremelay

Bernard de Tramelay (died August 16, 1153) was the fourth Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

He was born in the castle of Tramelay near Saint-Claude in the Jura. According to Du Cange, he succeeded a certain Hugues as Master of the Temple, although this Hugues is otherwise unknown. He was elected Grand Master in June of 1151, after the abdication of Everard des Barres, who had returned to France following the Second Crusade. King Baldwin III of Jerusalem granted him the ruined city of Gaza, which Bernard rebuilt for the Templars.

In 1153 the Templars participated in the Battle of Ascalon, a fortress at that time controlled by Egypt. The Templars constructed a siege tower, which was burned down by the Egyptian soldiers inside Ascalon. The wind caught the flames and part of the walls of Ascalon burned down as well.

According to William of Tyre, knights of the Order rushed through the breach without Baldwin's knowledge while Bernard prevented other crusaders from following, as he did not want to share the spoils of the city with the king. Bernard and about forty of his Templars were killed by the larger Egyptian garrison. Their bodies were displayed on the ramparts and their heads were sent to the sultan.

In a differing account by a Damascene chronicler in the city, the breach of the wall is mentioned as a pre-cursor to the fall of the city; he makes no mention of the incident with the Templars. Regardless of which account is believed, Bernard was killed during the fighting.

A few days later, Baldwin captured the fortress; shortly thereafter, the Templars elected André de Montbard as their Grand Master.

André de Montbard

André de Montbard (c. 1103-January 17, 1156) was the fifth Grand Master of the Knights Templar and also one of the new founders of the Order.

The Montbard family came from Hochadel in Burgundy, and André was an uncle of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. He entered the Order in 1129 and went to Palestine, where he quickly rose to the rank of seneschal, deputy and second-in-command to the Grand Master. After the Siege of Ascalon on August 22, 1153, André was elected Grand Master to replace Bernard de Tremelay, who had been killed during an assault on the city on August 16.

He died on January 17, 1156, in Jerusalem and was succeeded by Bertrand de Blanchefort.
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« Reply #215 on: January 06, 2008, 04:23:05 am »

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Everard des Barres

Seal of Everard des Barres.Everard des Barres (died 1174) was the third Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1147 to 1151.

As Preceptor of the Templars in France from 1143, he was one of the highest dignitaries of the Order when Robert de Craon died in 1147. He was chosen to succeed Robert, and as soon as he was elected, he accompanied Louis VII of France on the Second Crusade, and was among those sent ahead to Constantinople before Louis' arrival there. He later saved Louis during a battle with the Seljuk Turks in Pisidia.

According to the chronicler Odo de Deuil, Everard was extremely pious and valiant. He seems to have had a strong influence on Louis. After the failure of the crusade at the Siege of Damascus in 1148, Louis returned to France, followed by Everard, who was in charge of the king's treasury. Everard's Templars stayed behind and helped defend Jerusalem against a Turkish raid in 1149.

Back in France, Everard abdicated officially in 1151 and became a monk at Clairvaux, despite the protests of the Templars. He was succeeded by Bernard de Tremelay (who actually led the Order since Everard's departure in 1149) and died in 1174.

Bernard de Tremelay

Bernard de Tramelay (died August 16, 1153) was the fourth Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

He was born in the castle of Tramelay near Saint-Claude in the Jura. According to Du Cange, he succeeded a certain Hugues as Master of the Temple, although this Hugues is otherwise unknown. He was elected Grand Master in June of 1151, after the abdication of Everard des Barres, who had returned to France following the Second Crusade. King Baldwin III of Jerusalem granted him the ruined city of Gaza, which Bernard rebuilt for the Templars.

In 1153 the Templars participated in the Battle of Ascalon, a fortress at that time controlled by Egypt. The Templars constructed a siege tower, which was burned down by the Egyptian soldiers inside Ascalon. The wind caught the flames and part of the walls of Ascalon burned down as well.

According to William of Tyre, knights of the Order rushed through the breach without Baldwin's knowledge while Bernard prevented other crusaders from following, as he did not want to share the spoils of the city with the king. Bernard and about forty of his Templars were killed by the larger Egyptian garrison. Their bodies were displayed on the ramparts and their heads were sent to the sultan.

In a differing account by a Damascene chronicler in the city, the breach of the wall is mentioned as a pre-cursor to the fall of the city; he makes no mention of the incident with the Templars. Regardless of which account is believed, Bernard was killed during the fighting.

A few days later, Baldwin captured the fortress; shortly thereafter, the Templars elected André de Montbard as their Grand Master.

André de Montbard

André de Montbard (c. 1103-January 17, 1156) was the fifth Grand Master of the Knights Templar and also one of the new founders of the Order.

The Montbard family came from Hochadel in Burgundy, and André was an uncle of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. He entered the Order in 1129 and went to Palestine, where he quickly rose to the rank of seneschal, deputy and second-in-command to the Grand Master. After the Siege of Ascalon on August 22, 1153, André was elected Grand Master to replace Bernard de Tremelay, who had been killed during an assault on the city on August 16.

He died on January 17, 1156, in Jerusalem and was succeeded by Bertrand de Blanchefort.
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« Reply #216 on: January 06, 2008, 04:23:40 am »

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Everard des Barres

Seal of Everard des Barres.Everard des Barres (died 1174) was the third Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1147 to 1151.

As Preceptor of the Templars in France from 1143, he was one of the highest dignitaries of the Order when Robert de Craon died in 1147. He was chosen to succeed Robert, and as soon as he was elected, he accompanied Louis VII of France on the Second Crusade, and was among those sent ahead to Constantinople before Louis' arrival there. He later saved Louis during a battle with the Seljuk Turks in Pisidia.

According to the chronicler Odo de Deuil, Everard was extremely pious and valiant. He seems to have had a strong influence on Louis. After the failure of the crusade at the Siege of Damascus in 1148, Louis returned to France, followed by Everard, who was in charge of the king's treasury. Everard's Templars stayed behind and helped defend Jerusalem against a Turkish raid in 1149.

Back in France, Everard abdicated officially in 1151 and became a monk at Clairvaux, despite the protests of the Templars. He was succeeded by Bernard de Tremelay (who actually led the Order since Everard's departure in 1149) and died in 1174.

Bernard de Tremelay

Bernard de Tramelay (died August 16, 1153) was the fourth Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

He was born in the castle of Tramelay near Saint-Claude in the Jura. According to Du Cange, he succeeded a certain Hugues as Master of the Temple, although this Hugues is otherwise unknown. He was elected Grand Master in June of 1151, after the abdication of Everard des Barres, who had returned to France following the Second Crusade. King Baldwin III of Jerusalem granted him the ruined city of Gaza, which Bernard rebuilt for the Templars.

In 1153 the Templars participated in the Battle of Ascalon, a fortress at that time controlled by Egypt. The Templars constructed a siege tower, which was burned down by the Egyptian soldiers inside Ascalon. The wind caught the flames and part of the walls of Ascalon burned down as well.

According to William of Tyre, knights of the Order rushed through the breach without Baldwin's knowledge while Bernard prevented other crusaders from following, as he did not want to share the spoils of the city with the king. Bernard and about forty of his Templars were killed by the larger Egyptian garrison. Their bodies were displayed on the ramparts and their heads were sent to the sultan.

In a differing account by a Damascene chronicler in the city, the breach of the wall is mentioned as a pre-cursor to the fall of the city; he makes no mention of the incident with the Templars. Regardless of which account is believed, Bernard was killed during the fighting.

A few days later, Baldwin captured the fortress; shortly thereafter, the Templars elected André de Montbard as their Grand Master.

André de Montbard

André de Montbard (c. 1103-January 17, 1156) was the fifth Grand Master of the Knights Templar and also one of the new founders of the Order.

The Montbard family came from Hochadel in Burgundy, and André was an uncle of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. He entered the Order in 1129 and went to Palestine, where he quickly rose to the rank of seneschal, deputy and second-in-command to the Grand Master. After the Siege of Ascalon on August 22, 1153, André was elected Grand Master to replace Bernard de Tremelay, who had been killed during an assault on the city on August 16.

He died on January 17, 1156, in Jerusalem and was succeeded by Bertrand de Blanchefort.
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« Reply #217 on: January 06, 2008, 04:24:09 am »

 
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Bertrand de Blanchefort

Seal of Bertrand de BlanchefortBertrand de Blanchefort or Blanquefort (c. 1109-January 2, 1169) was the sixth Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from 1156 until his death.

He was the younger son of Godfrey of Blanchefort, a knight of Aquitaine. He succeeded André de Montbard, and introduced reforms to the Rule of the Order. He obtained from the Pope the right to use the title "Master by the grace of God", and to carry the baton known as the Abacus. During his rule, he fought against Nur ad-Din, and was taken prisoner after King Baldwin III of Jerusalem was defeated at Banyas in 1157. He was held in captivity for three years in Aleppo before being released to Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus when the emperor made peace with Nur ad-Din.

Bernard accompanied King Amalric I during the expedition against Egypt in 1163. The expedition ended in failure and a treaty was negotiated by the Templars. Because of this treaty, Bernard refused to participate in a second expedition in 1168.

He died on January 2, 1169, and was succeeded by Philip of Milly.


Philip of Milly

Philip of Milly, also known as Philip of Nablus (c. 1120-April 3, 1171) was the seventh Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

Philip was the son of Guy of Milly, a knight from Picardy who participated in the First Crusade, and his (possibly second) wife Stephanie of Flanders. Guy and Stephanie had three sons, all born in the Holy Land, of whom Philip was probably the oldest. He was first mentioned as Guy's son in 1138, and must have become lord of Nablus sometime between that date and 1144, when his name next appears. By this time he had also married his wife Isabella.

As lord of Nablus, Philip became one of the most influential barons in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1144, Queen Melisende sent him to relieve the siege of Edessa, but he arrived after the city had already fallen. In 1148, upon the arrival of the Second Crusade, Philip participated in the council held at Acre, where he and the other native barons were overruled and the ill-fated decision to attack Damascus was made.

Along with the powerful Ibelin family, into which his half-sister Helvis had married, Philip was a supporter of Melisende during her conflict with her son Baldwin III. In the division of the kingdom in 1151, Melisende gained control of the southern part of the kingdom, including Nablus. Despite this arrangement, Philip seems to have been completely loyal to Baldwin, participating in the king's capture of Ascalon in 1153 and the relief of Banyas in 1157.

In July of 1161, as Melisende lay dying, Philip exchanged the lordship of Nablus with Baldwin III in order to become lord of Oultrejordain. This allowed Baldwin to regain control of the southern half of the kingdom while his mother was in no condition to oppose him, but he was probably also aiming to strengthen Oultrejordain with a powerful and loyal baron. Baldwin died in 1163 and was succeeded by his brother Amalric, who was a friend of Philip and a fellow supporter of Melisende during the earlier struggle in 1151.

Philip's personal life is largely a mystery, but it is known that sometime after he became lord of Oultrejordain, he made a pilgrimage the monastery of St. Catherine's on Mount Sinai. With his wife Isabella he had a son, Rainier, and two daughters, Helena and Stephanie, but Isabella died probably in 1166, which apparently caused Philip to withdraw from public life and to join the Knights Templar. This withdrawal was brief, however, as he joined Amalric's invasion of Egypt in 1167. The Ibelin family later recalled an event during the siege of Bilbeis, in which Philip saved the life of Hugh of Ibelin, who had broken his leg when his horse fell in a ditch, although the veracity of this story is unknown.

The Templars as a whole refused to support Amalric's invasion, and the king blamed them for the failure of the expedition. After the death of their Grand Master Bertrand de Blanchefort in January of 1169, Amalric pressured them to elect Philip in his place, which they did in August of that year. Not much is known about Philip's time as Grand Master, although he likely led the defense of Templar-held Gaza when Saladin, who had gained control of Egypt in 1169, attacked the city in 1170.

For unknown reasons he resigned as Grand Master in 1171, and was succeeded by Odo de St Amand. Philip accompanied Amalric to Constantinople as ambassador to the Byzantine Empire in order to restore good relations with them after the failure of the Egyptian invasion. He probably died on April 3, before reaching Constantinople.
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« Reply #218 on: January 06, 2008, 04:24:47 am »

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   posted 06-24-2006 04:36 AM                       
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For future study, I am hauling this one out of mothballs. It's one of my favorite threads.
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« Reply #219 on: January 06, 2008, 04:25:57 am »

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Odo de St Amand

Odo de St Amand (or Eudes or Odon) was Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

Odo came from a family from the Limousin. He was marshal of Jerusalem and later viscount. In 1157, during the siege of the Christian town of Banias near the source of the Jordan, he was taken prisoner along with then-master Bertrand de Blanchefort, during the disastrous fight that followed.

The construction of the Templar fortress at Jacob's Ford on the upper Jordan led to a fresh Saracen invasion and the disastrous Battle of Marj Uyun (1179), from which the young king Baldwin IV and the True Cross escaped with difficulty, while Odo de St Amand, the Grand Master, was carried away captive and never returned.

Odo de St Amand was succeeded as Grand Master by Arnaud de Toroge.
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« Reply #220 on: January 06, 2008, 04:26:16 am »

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Arnaud de Toroge

Arnold of Torroja (in French, Arnaud de Toroge) was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1179 until his death in 1184.

In that year he set out with Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem and Roger de Moulins (Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller) to gather European support for the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He died at Verona on September 30, 1184.

Gerard de Ridefort

Gerard of Ridefort (died October 1, 1189) was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1184 until his death.

He was the younger son of a Flemish lord, and, seeing no opportunity for success in Europe, joined the Second Crusade in 1146. After the failure of the crusade, he remained in the Holy Land, in the service of Raymond III of Tripoli. Raymond promised Lucia of Botrun to him, which would give him a valuable piece of land in the County of Tripoli, but Raymond later broke his promise when he was offered money by a Pisan merchant. Gerard then left Raymond's service and joined the Knights Templar. Around 1183 he became seneschal of the order, and in 1184 became Grand Master.

Because of the broken marriage promise, Gerard held a grudge against Raymond for the rest of his life. In 1186, when Baldwin V of Jerusalem died, Gerard took the side of the royal court faction in the ensuing succession struggle, simply because Raymond was the leader of the baronial faction. Raymond opposed the accession of Guy of Lusignan, but Gerard and the Templars gave him the support he needed to counteract Raymond's influence.

In 1187 Gerard seized part of money sent by Henry II of England to be cared for by the Templars and the Knights Hospitaller. This money was part of Henry's penance for the murder of Thomas Becket, and was supposed to be spent at Henry's request, assuming he ever arrived in the kingdom. Instead, Gerard spent it raising mercenaries to defend the Kingdom of Jerusalem from Saladin. On May 1, Gerard and fewer than 100 Templars attacked Saladin at the Battle of Cresson; Saladin, however, had over 5000 men, and Gerard was one of a very small number of survivors.

In July of the same year Gerard led the Templars at the Battle of Hattin. Saladin had captured Tiberias and Guy was contemplating a march on the city to retake it. Raymond advised him to wait for Saladin to come to them, since they were in a well-defended, well-watered position, and would have to cross a dry open plain to reach Tiberias. Gerard opposed this, probably only because it was Raymond who proposed it, and convinced Guy to continue the march. He was supported by Raynald of Chatillon, a fellow participant in the Second Crusade decades before, and a fellow enemy of Raymond.

The Crusaders ended up trapped on the dry plain and were massacred on July 4. Raymond escaped but Gerard, Guy, and Raynald were captured by Saladin. The rest of the Templars were executed but Guy convinced Saladin to set Gerard free. Saladin did so on the condition that Gerard would surrender Gaza to him.

In 1189 Gerard led the Templars against Saladin in the Siege of Acre. This time he did not escape, either dying in battle or being captured and executed by Saladin on October 1.
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« Reply #221 on: January 06, 2008, 04:26:38 am »

 
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Robert de Sablé

Robert de Sablé was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1191 to 1193. He was also Lord of Cyprus (1191-1192) and Lord of La Suze and Briollay in Anjou, France prior to joining the order in 1191.

Gilbert Horal

Gilbert Horal (d. December 1200) was the 12th Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

He was born an Aragonaise (from Aragon in Spain), and entered the Templars at a young age. He stayed in the provinces of Provence and Aragon, where he took part in the battles of Reconquista, and became Grand Master of the province until 1190. In 1193, after the death of Robert de Sablé, he became Grand Master of the Order, and in 1194, Pope Céléstin III gave the Templars more privileges.

Horal was known for wanting peace between the Christians and the Moslems, though some disagreed and thought that this showed treason and collusion with the enemy.

During his leadership the quarrel between the Templars and Hospitaliers increased. The arbitration of Pope Innocent III was in favour of the Hospitaliers because the Pope could not forgive the Templars for making the agreements that they had with Malek-Adel, brother of Saladin.

Another of Gilbert Horal's accomplishments was that he took the time to organize and consolidate the possessions of the Templars in France and Apulia.

In Spain, the Templars took an active part in the Reconquista, and were given the fortress of Alhambra by Alfonso II of Aragon as a reward for their efforts in the battle.
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« Reply #222 on: January 06, 2008, 04:26:58 am »

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Phillipe de Plessis

Phillipe de Plessis (1165-1209) was Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

He was born in the fortress of Plessis-Macé. In 1189 he joined the Third Crusade as a simple knight, and discovered the Order of the Temple in Palestine. After the death of Gilbert Horal he became Grand Master. He helped uphold the treaty between Saladin and Richard I. In the renewal of this treaty in 1208 he suggested that the Teutonic Order and Hospitallers should make a new peace treaty offer with Malek-Adel. The accord was criticised by Pope Innocent III.

There were few military actions during his rule; the Fourth Crusade never arrived in the Holy Land. The German King was in opposition to the Knights regarding the Gastein stronghold. The Templars were initially expelled from Germany, but the pope intervened in the dispute.

Relations with the Hospitaliers were tense. During his rule the Order of the Temple reached its greatest height in Europe.

His name is last documented in 1209. The Obituary of Reims gives the date of his death as November 12, 1209.

Guillaume de Chartres

Guillaume de Chartres (Guillielmus de Carnoto, Willemus de Carnoto), Prince of the Cistercian Principality of Seborga, was a grand master of the Knights Templar 1210 – 26 August 1218.

In 1210, he assisted at the coronation of Jean de Brienne as King of Jerusalem. In 1211, he arbitrated between Leo II of Armenia and the Templars, regarding the castle of Bagras. During his rule, the order flourished in Spain, achieving important victories against the Moors.

Guillaume died of pestilence, (possibly endemic typhus), secondary to being wounded during the siege of Damietta, in Seborga in the Holy Land.
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« Reply #223 on: January 06, 2008, 04:27:20 am »

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Pedro de Montaigu

Seal of Pedro de Montaigu.Pedro de Montaigu was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1219 to 1230. He took part in the Fifth Crusade and was against the Sultan of Egypt's conditions for raising the siege of Damietta.

Armand de Périgord

Armand de Périgord (or Hermann de Pierre-Grosse) (1178–1247?) was a descendant of the Counts of Périgord and Grand Master of the Knights Templar.

He was master of the Province of Apulia and Sicily 1205–1232. In 1232 he was elected Grand Master of the Templars. He organized attacks on Cana, Safita, and Sephoria, and against the Muslim positions around the Sea of Galilee. All of these expeditions were failures and diminished the Templars' effectiveness.

In 1236 on the border between Syria and Cilicia, 120 knights, along with some archers and Turcopoles, were ambushed near the town of Darbsâk (Terbezek). In the first phase of the battle the Templars reached the town but they met fierce resistance. When reinforcements from Aleppo arrived, the Templars were massacred. Fewer than 20 of them returned to their castle in Bagras, 15 km from the battle.

In September 1239 Armand arrived at Acre. He made a treaty with Sultan of Damascus, in parallel with the Hospitaller treaty with the Sultan of Egypt. In 1244 the Sultan of Damascus demanded that the Templars help repel the Khwarezmians from Asia Minor. In October 1244 the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights, together with the Sultan of Damas, confronted with Sultan of Egypt and his Khwarezmian allies at the Battle of La Forbie. The Christian-Muslim coalition was defeated, with more then 30 000 deaths. Some Templars and Hospitallers reached Ascalon, still in Christian hands. Armand de Périgord may have been killed during the battle, but may have been captured and survived until 1247.
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« Reply #224 on: January 06, 2008, 04:27:41 am »

 
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Richard de Bures (1245-1247)

Guillaume de Sonnac

Guillaume de Sonnac was Grand Master of the Knights Templar Temple from 1247 to 1250. He distinguished himself at the siege of Damietta, and commanded the vanguard of the Christian army together with the Count of Artois. He lost an eye during the fighting.

Renaud de Vichiers (1250-1256)
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