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Catastrophes and Prehistory


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Author Topic: Catastrophes and Prehistory  (Read 6353 times)
Troy Exeter
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« Reply #15 on: March 18, 2007, 10:23:07 pm »

Here is some of the data used for the graph. (Ma = Million Years).
  CRATER NAME DIAMETER AGE
Ma ERROR
MARGIN
Ma LOCATION
Siljan 52 368
 Sweden
Charlevoix 54 357 15 Quebec, Canada
Araguainha Dome 40 247 5.5 Brazil
Rochechouart 25 214 8 France  (see Nature 395, p126, 1998)
Red Wing 9 200 25 North Dakota, U.S.A.
Obolon 15 215 25 Ukraine
St Martin 40 219 32 Manitoba, Canada  (see Nature 395, p126, 1998)
Manicouagan 100 214 1 Quebec, Canada (see Nature 395, p126, 1998)
Puchezh-Katunki 80 175 3 Russia
Gosses Bluff 24 142.5 0.8 Australia
Mjolnir 40 142 2.6 Norway
Morokweng 70 145 3 South Africa
Tookoonooka 55 128 5 Queensland, Australi
Kara 65 73 3 Russia
Chicxulub 170 64.98 0.05 Yucatan, Mexico
Chesapeake Bay 90 35.2 0.3 Virginia, U.S.A. (see Nature 388, p365,1997)
Popigai 100 35.7 0.8 Russia (see Nature 388, p365,1997)
Kara-Kul 52 5
 Tajikistan
Eltanin 30? 2.14
 South Pacific - ocean impact
(see Nature 390, p357,1997)
SPECULATIVE CRATERS
 
 
 
 
Bedout 180 250?
 Western Australia
Woodleigh  120 250-360?
 Western Australia (PDF) Note about age.
Ewing Structure 55-150 11
 Western Pacific?


Several craters between 20km and 80km are missing from this table but shown in the graph. See NRC (updated URL) for a full list of craters. "Eltanin" was an ocean impact and did not leave a crater. Bedout and Woodleigh are speculative - see below. Ewing is a possible oceanic crater. Woodleigh is now in the NRC database and Bedout is looking promising.

NRC also has an excellent series of maps of the continents over geologic time.

Uni Arizona: Interactive global map of impact craters. Australia.

Uni Tennessee: Suspected Earth Impact Sites - new (2006) online database.

"Impacts - no crater" are cases where there is evidence of an impact, such as tektites, but no crater has been found. Eltanin (see above) is an example. The other cases are described by Dallas Abbott in a pending EPSL paper - stay tuned for an online copy.



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  GEOLOGIC BOUNDARIES
 
Period or Epoch  Ma
Precambriam/Cambrian 570
Cambrian/Ordovician 505
Ordovician/Silurian 438
Silurian/Devonian 408
Frasnian/Famennian (Trilobites) 367
Devonian/Carboniferous 350
Carboniferous/Permian 286
Permian/Triassic 250
Triassic/Jurassic ? 208
Jurassic/Cretaceous 144
*Cretaceous/Tertiary (Dinosaurs) 65
* KT stands for Cretaceous Tertiary, Kriede is the German word for Cretaceous.
More information
  ERUPTIONS Ma
Ethiopean Plateau 35
Deccan Traps, India 65
Emperor-Hawaii Chain 65
Sudan Volcanics 144
Central Atlantic Volcanics 213
Siberian Traps 250
Antrim Plateau 511
Flood basalts and mass extinctions - some "other" eruptions and "minor" geologic boundaries shown in the graph are from this website. This website indicates the Triassic/Jurassic boundary occurred 208 Ma. There may have been two or more extinction episodes at this time.
Volcano and climate change links:
Alan Robock's publications
Volcano World including Dead Dinosaurs and Gases
Time Magazine When life nearly died
Dinosaur Volcano Greenhouse - an alternative view of the K/T extinctions. Information about the Deccan Traps.
Large Igneous Provinces - Scientific American, October 1993.
3 Feb 2000 BBC: Supervolcanoes could trigger global freeze.
21 Nov 2000 SpaceDaily: Massive Lava Flows Triggered Apocalyptic Climate Changes. Also University of Buffalo press release.
Scientific American: Volcanic Accomplice. See clarification.
Abstracts of GSA 2000 (CCNet item 13) refer to impacts and eruptions.
9 Mar 01 BBC: 'Quick' demise for the dinosaurs. The work lends support to the idea that a single, giant impact of an asteroid or comet was responsible for the mass extinction of life that occurred 65 million years ago.  In so doing, the research also undermines the popular, alternative theory for the demise of the dinosaurs: climate change brought on by huge volcanic eruptions.
13 Mar 01: K–T TRANSITION GREENHOUSE AND EMBRYOGENESIS DYSFUNCTION IN THE
DINOSAURIAN EXTINCTIONS. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
30 Apr 01 SciAm: Scientists Shake Up Theory of Plate Tectonics.
BBC: Supervolcanoes.
American Museum of Natural History: Climate Effects of Historic Volcanoes.
13 Jun 02 Buffalo Times: Study of Dust in Ice Cores Shows [recent] Volcanic Eruptions Interfere with the
19 Oct 03 EPSL (abstract):Rapid eruption of Siberian flood-volcanic rocks and evidence for coincidence with the Permian-Triassic boundary and mass extinction at 251 Ma
Effect of Sunspots on Global Climate (CC)
MantlePlumes.org - This website discusses the origin of "hotspot" volcanism.
CCNet: LARGE IMPACTS AND VOLCANISM AND MASS EXTINCTIONS.
Jones A. P. and others (2002), Impact induced melting and the development of large igneous provinces. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 202, 551-561.(PDF)
Jones A.Pand others (2003) Impact decompression melting: a possible trigger for impact induced volcanism and mantle hotspots? In: Impact markers in the Stratigraphic Record (eds. C. Koeberl and F. Martinez-Ruiz), Springer, Berlin, p 91-120.(PDF)
22 Dec 04 SciAm: How do volcanoes affect world climate?
10 Mar 05 BBC: Experts weigh super-volcano risks + Live Science: Super Volcano Will Challenge Civilization, Geologists Warn. See also Nature: Super-eruptions might not be as environmentally devastating as we thought. (CC)
6 Dec 05 BBC: Poison [volcanic] gas 'caused' great [P/T] dying.

2 Dec 05 EPSL: Absence of extraterrestrial 3He in Permian–Triassic age sedimentary rocks
27 May 06 SciAm: The Secrets of Supervolcanoes - A supervolcano eruption packs the devastating force of a small asteroid colliding with the earth and occurs 10 times more often...
24 Jul 06 EPSL: Volatile fluxes during flood basalt eruptions and potential effects on the global environment: A Deccan perspective - atmospheric perturbations associated with SO2 emissions from just one of these long-lasting eruptions were likely to have been severe, and constantly augmented over a decade or longer. By contrast, the amounts of CO2 released would have been small compared with the mass already present in the atmosphere, and thus much more limited in effect [global warming]. (more at CCNet)
1 Oct 06 SciAm: Impact from the Deep - Strangling heat and gases emanating from the earth and sea, not asteroids, most likely caused several ancient mass extinctions.
15 Mar 07 EPSL: Contemporaneous massive subaerial volcanism and late cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2.
More on Extinctions and Impacts + Updates (at end of list)
Explorezone Did asteroid-induced firestorm kill the dinosaurs?
New Scientist article What really killed the dinosaurs?
How Dinsoaurs became extinct
Extinction lab - University of Arizona - more links on the K/T event.
DINOSAURS, COMETS, AND ASTEROIDS -- RESOURCES - NASA education site
Earth Science Resources: Geology, Oceanography, Astronomy & Ecology - Miami University
BBC The Extinction Files
"The March Towards Extinction" National Geographic, June 1989 (paper version only). This was written before Chicxulub was discovered.
Interview with David Raup about mass extinctions.
BBC: Ill wind 'killed dinosaurs' - one of the more extreme ideas.
8 Sep 2000 Space.com: Rocks Reveal Details of Mass Extinction - possible evidence of a NEO impact associated with the Permian extinction 251 million years ago.
27 Oct 2000 CCNet: 'UPPER EOCENE IMPACTS NOT RELATED TO LATE EOCENE MASS EXTINCTION '
Global Climate Change (and impacts) - Tri-College University
National Geographic, Sep 2000: When Life Nearly Came to an End (Permian extinction)
Dinosaurs, Meteorites, and Extinctions by Wendy Wolbach.
23 Feb 01 Space.com: Mass Extinction & Rise of Dinosaurs Tied to Cosmic Collision. Also Washington Uni press release. Scientific American: E.T. Molecules Explain a Mass Extinction. Science@NASA: Apocalypse Then.
23 Feb 01 University of Washington: Asteroid or comet triggered death of most species 250 million years ago

15 Apr 01 SciAm: Deeper Impact (updated URL) - Was yet another mass extinction (PT) the work of an asteroid?
14 May 01 Science: SUDDEN PRODUCTIVITY COLLAPSE ASSOCIATED WITH THE TRIASSIC-JURASSIC BOUNDARY MASS EXTINCTION (subs reqd). CNN, Excite.
31 May 01: Left Hand Network - many extinctions links
1 Jun 01: PSRD Hot Idea: Impact at the end of the Permian
6 Jun 01 Uni Oregon: Lecture course on astronomy covers extinctions.
28 Aug 2001: GSA Permian Extraterrestrial Impact Caused Largest Mass Extinction on Earth.
 EXTINCTIONS Fossil Company
8 Dec 01 Abstracts of Annual AGU meeeting: "Ewing structure: a possible abyssal impact crater" by Dallas Abbott - about 150km in diameter...about the age of the late/middle Miocene boundary, a prominent mass extinction event" [not in my list but see this New Zealand article - an ocean impact might have started off the Antarctic ice sheet due to the water released and the global cooling]. GSA 2002: MICROFOSSIL MELTING BY THE EWING IMPACT
29 Jan 02 NASA Science News: The Great Dying 250 Million Years Ago - telltale signs of a collision between our planet and an asteroid 6 to 12 km across...
March 02 Scientific American: Repeated Blows (UCSB copy plus other papers) - by Luann Becker. Extraterrestrial impacts ended the age of the dinosaurs. New  research shows that they could have been the culprits behind many mass extinctions as well. This article uses the above graph.

31 Mar 02 Nature: Two cheers for extinction + Determinants of extinction in the fossil record
17 May 02 BBC: Impact led to dino rule. Also New Scientist: Giant dinosuars arrived with a bang. From Science.
17 May 02 NAI: The Cambrian Explosion: Tooth and Claw + Evolution’s Slow Recovery.
7 Jun 02 BBC: Volcanic 'flood' linked to [PT] extinction. (larger than previously thought). From Science:
7 Jun 02 Nature: FORGET NEO IMPACTS: "VOLCANOES KILLED OFF PERMIAN SPECIES"
8 Jun 02 Geology.about: Extinction links.
12 Jun 02 BBC: Dino heatwave recorded in leaves + New Scientist: Fossils point to asteroid causing dinosaurs' demise.
11 Feb 03 NAI: Great Impact Debate I: Benefits of Hard Bodies (mass extinctions)
19 Mar 03 CCNet: THE BULLET THEORY: A NEW LINK BETWEEN MASS EXTINCTIONS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMANKIND.
6 May 03 ACA: Asteroid impact puts heat on Snowball Earth theory of key evolutionary jump
8 May 03 Astrobiology: Comparing the Evidence Relevant to Impact and Flood Basalt at Times of Major Mass Extinctions - (the) Walter Alvarez
28 May 03 EPSL: A case for a comet impact trigger for the Paleocene/Eocene (55My) thermal maximum and carbon isotope excursion
13 Jun 03 LSU: Evidence for meteor in early mass extinction found - not sure if this is referring to the Frasnian/Famennian which could be associated with the Woodleigh impact structure in Western Australia
Age and implications of the 120 km-diameter Woodleigh impact structure, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia
Killer Crater Found (Woodleigh)

Progress in meteoritic impact and crustal evolution research - ANU report
23 Aug 03 Nature: Boiling seas linked to mass extinction (CC) - see also Rocks from Space - impacts may trigger methane releases.
11 Sep 03 SpaceDaily: Did Earth Blow Up The Dinosaurs
26 Sep 03 Princton: Princeton paleontologist produces evidence for new theory [?] on dinosaur extinction (NNN)
4 Nov 03 CCNet: K/T MASS EXTINCTION DEBATE KICKED WIDE OPEN AGAIN + GSL Forum
20 Nov 03: PhD student Peter Schulte has several publications about the Chicxulub impact.
4 Dec 03 Astrobiology Magazine: Repeated Blows: The Great Dying (possible PT impact)
1 Feb 04 Science Direct: Causes and consequences of extreme Permo-Triassic warming to globally equable climate and relation to the Permo-Triassic extinction and recovery (abstract). No mention of possible post-impact Greenhouse effect (assuming a major impact is associated with PT).
4 Feb 04 Astronomy & Geophysics v45.1 Feb04: A COMET IMPACT IN AD 536? (Abstract - full text at CCNet?)
3 May 04: Multiple impacts at the KT boundary and the death of the dinosaurs 1997 paper by Dr.Chatterjee, Texas Tech Uni plus Animations of Plate techonics at Uni California, Berkeley (thanks Richard Lazzara).
8 May 04: Mass Extinctions of Life: An Update on Astrophysical Causes by Charles A. Breiterman
11 May 04 NewSci: FOUR DAYS THAT SHOOK THE WORLD (speculative alternative to impacts)
14 May 04 Bedout Structure and the P/T Mass Extinction
BBC: Boost to asteroid wipe-out theory
NASA Announces Site Of "Great Dying" Meteor Crater (CC)

Times Despatch: Scientists will reveal today where a major space rock hit Earth (CC)
GRA: GLOBAL EVIDENCE FOR AN END-PERMIAN EXTINCTION EVENT (CC)

Science: Evidence of Huge, Deadly Impact Found Off Australian Coast? + Bedout: A Possible End-Permian Impact Crater Offshore of Northwestern Australia.
The Bedout structure has been shown as a speculative impact structure associated with the P/T extinction for several years on the above graph - this latest work by Luann Becker and her team confirms earlier work, particularly by John Gorter.

15 May 04 GSA 2003: THE SHIVA CRATER: IMPLICATIONS FOR DECCAN VOLCANISM, INDIA-SEYCHELLES RIFTING, DINOSAUR EXTINCTION, AND PETROLEUM ENTRAPMENT AT THE KT BOUNDARY.
13 Oct 04 ABC: Asteroid did not end dinosaurs: NZ scientists +  Trends in Ecology & Evolution: The rise of birds and mammals: are microevolutionary processes sufficient for macroevolution? See also: How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event

The Mass-Extinction Debates - How Science Works in a Crisis. Edited by William Glen. This (1994) book examines the arguments and behavior of the scientists who have been locked in conflict over two competing theories to explain why, 65 million years ago, most life on earth—including the dinosaurs—perished.
1 Dec 04 SpaceDaily: New Evidence Supports Terrestrial Cause Of End-Permian Mass Extinction - "Our geochemical analyses of these two famous end-Permian sections in Austria and Italy reveal no tangible evidence of extraterrestrial impact," said Koeberl.
9 Dec 04 Kansas City Star: Debate still rages on demise of dinosaurs
6 Mar 05 Space.com: Huge Space Clouds May Have Caused Mass Extinctions.
15 May 05 EPSL (abs): Basaltic volcanism and mass extinction at the Permo-Triassic boundary: Environmental impact and modeling of the global carbon cycle.
2 Sep 05 EPSL (abs): Geophysical evaluation of the enigmatic Bedout basement high, offshore northwestern Australia [Evidence suggests no major impact] (CC)
21 Sep 05 NYT (regn): Fossils Offer Support for Meteor's [sic] Role in Dinosaur Extinction + Geology (abs): Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary deposits at Loma Capiro, central Cuba: Evidence for the Chicxulub impact (CC)
29 Oct 05 EPSL (abs): Giant meteoroid impacts can cause volcanism. Our model demonstrates that a giant impactor could cause a flood basalt, and this process may have been significant early in Earth history...
30 Dec 05 EPSL (abs): The 3.26-3.24 Ga Barberton asteroid impact cluster: Tests of tectonic and
magmatic consequences, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia - ...imply impact-triggered reactivation of mantle convection, crustal anatexis, faulting and strong vertical movements in Archaean granite–greenstone terrains associated with large asteroid impacts.
16 Mar 06 LPSC: Extraterrestrial Chromium at the Graphite Peak P/Tr boundary and in the Bedout Impact Melt Breccia.
8 Jun 06 ABC Science: Killer crater may have spawned Australia [PT extinction?] + PPP: Close-up of the end-Permian mass extinction horizon recorded in the Meishan section, South China: Sedimentary, elemental, and biotic characterization and a negative shift of sulfate sulfur isotope ratio (thanks CCNet)
2 Oct 06 EPSL (abs): Chicxulub impact event is Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in age: New micropaleontological evidence.
30 Nov 06 Universe Today: Just a Single Asteroid Strike Wiped out the Dinosaurs (see EPSL item above)
10 Mar 07 EPSL ($): Chicxulub impact predates K–T boundary: New evidence from Brazos, Texas


See also the bibliography for Rocks in Space.



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