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Library of Alexandria (Original)

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« Reply #375 on: April 13, 2008, 03:49:40 pm »

Absonite

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  posted 03-08-2006 04:09 AM                       
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By the fourth hour after landing they were settled near the eastern end of the long and broad avenue, one hundred feet wide and five miles long, which stretched on out to the western limits of this city of one million people. After the first survey of the city's chief attractions -- university (museum), library , the royal mausoleum of Alexander, the palace, temple of Neptune, theater, and gymnasium -- Gonod addressed himself to business while Jesus and Ganid went to the  library , the greatest in the world. Here were assembled nearly a million manuscripts from all the civilized world: Greece, Rome, Palestine, Parthia, India, China, and even Japan. In this  library Ganid saw the largest collection of Indian literature in all the world; and they spent some time here each day throughout their stay in Alexandria.


http://urantiabook.org/newbook/papers/p130.htm
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« Reply #376 on: April 13, 2008, 03:50:11 pm »

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   posted 03-08-2006 10:19 AM                       
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I thought this link may be useful to this thread...

All about scribes:

http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/5/5.5/

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« Reply #377 on: April 13, 2008, 03:50:34 pm »

Riven

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  posted 03-10-2006 07:55 AM                       
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Thanks for that excellent link rockessence.

The old city was on the west side below the lighthouse Absonite.

Here is another key suspect in the persecutions of Christianity and The Library.

Diocletian
Catholic Encyclopedia

(VALERIUS DIOCLETIANUS).

Roman Emperor and persecutor of the Church, b. of parents who had been slaves, at Dioclea, near Salona, in Dalmatia, A.D. 245; d. at Salona, A.D. 313.

He entered the army and by his marked abilities attained the offices of Governor of Mœsia, consul, and commander of the guards of the palace. In the Persian war, under Carus, he especially distinguished himself. When the son and successor of Carus, Numerian, was murdered at Chalcedon, the choice of the army fell upon Diocletian, who immediately slew with his own hand the murderer Aper (17 Sept., 284). His career as emperor belongs to secular history. Here only a summary will be given. The reign of Diocletian (284-305) marked an era both in the military and political history of the empire. The triumph which he celebrated together with his colleague Maximian (20 Nov., 303) was the last triumph which Rome ever beheld. Britain, the Rhine, the Danube, and the Nile furnished trophies; but the proudest boast of the conqueror was that Persia, the persistent enemy of Rome, had at last been subdued. Soon after his accession to power Diocletian realized that the empire was too unwieldy and too much exposed to attack to be safely ruled by a single head. Accordingly, he associated with himself Maximian, a bold but rude soldier, at first as Cæsar and afterwards as Augustus (286). Later on, he further distributed his power by granting the inferior title of Cæsar to two generals, Galerius and Constantius (292). He reserved for his own portion Thrace, Egypt, and Asia; Italy and Africa were Maximian's provinces, while Galerius was stationed on the Danube, and Constantius had charge of Gaul, Spain, and Britain. But the supreme control remained in Diocletian's hands. None of the rulers resided in Rome, and thus the way was prepared for the downfall of the imperial city. Moreover, Diocletian undermined the authority of the Senate, assumed the diadem, and introduced the servile ceremonial of the Persian court. After a prosperious reign of nearly twenty-one years, he abdicated the throne and retired to Salona, where he lived in magnificent seclusion until his death.

Diocletian's name is associated with the last and most terrible of all the ten persecutions of the early Church. Nevertheless it is a fact that the Christians enjoyed peace and prosperity during the greater portion of his reign. Eusebius, who lived at this time, describes in glowing terms "the glory and the liberty with which the doctrine of piety was honoured", and he extols the clemency of the emperors towards the Christian governors whom they appointed, and towards the Christian members of their households. He tells us that the rulers of the Church "were courted and honoured with the greatest subserviency by all the rulers and governors". He speaks of the vast multitudes that flocked to the religion of Christ, and of the spacious and splendid churches erected in the place of the humbler buildings of earlier days. At the same time he bewails the falling from ancient fervour "by reason of exccessive liberty" (Hist. Eccl., VIII, i). Had Diocletian remained sole emperor, he would probably have allowed this toleration to continue undisturbed. It was his subordinate Galerius who first induced him to turn persecutor. These two rulers of the East, at a council held at Nicomedia in 302, resolved to suppress Christianity throughout the empire. The cathedral of Nicomedia was demolished (24 Feb., 303). An edict was issued "to tear down the churches to the foundations and to destroy the Sacred Scriptures by fire; and commanding also that those who were in honourable stations should be degraded if they persevered in their adherence to Christianity" (Euseb., op. cit., VIII, ii). Three further edicts (303-304) marked successive stages in the severity of the persecution: the first ordering that the bishops, presbyters, and deacons should be imprisoned; the second that they should be tortured and compelled by every means to sacrifice; the third including the laity as well as the clergy. The atrocious cruelty with which these edicts were enforced, and the vast numbers of those who suffered for the Faith are attested by Eusebius and the Acts of the Martyrs. We read even of the massacre of the whole population of a town because they declared themselves Christians (Euseb., loc. cit., xi, xii; Lactant., "Div. Instit.", V, xi). The abdication of Diocletian (1 May, 305) and the subsequent partition of the empire brought relief to many provinces. In the East, however, where Galerius and Maximian held sway, the persecution continued to rage. Thus it will be seen that the so-called Diocletian persecution should be attributed to the influence of Galerius; it continued for seven years after Diocletian's abdication. (See PERSECUTIONS.)

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05007b.htm

[ 03-10-2006, 07:55 AM: Message edited by: Riven ]

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« Reply #378 on: April 13, 2008, 03:50:56 pm »

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pardon me to show here but, the origin of christianity persecution was the jewish diaspora in rome which was part of patrician families by marriage.

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« Reply #379 on: April 13, 2008, 03:51:16 pm »

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  posted 03-10-2006 08:24 AM                       
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The old city was on the west side below the lighthouse Absonite.

??

I'm missing you point ®iven.
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« Reply #380 on: April 13, 2008, 03:51:56 pm »

Riven

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Thanks huggy bear for your tidbit.

Absonite;

Your post;


quote:
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By the fourth hour after landing they were settled near the eastern end of the long and broad avenue, one hundred feet wide and five miles long, which stretched on out to the western limits of this city of one million people. After the first survey of the city's chief attractions -- university (museum), library , the royal mausoleum of Alexander, the palace, temple of Neptune, theater, and gymnasium -- Gonod addressed himself to business while Jesus and Ganid went to the library , the greatest in the world. Here were assembled nearly a million manuscripts from all the civilized world: Greece, Rome, Palestine, Parthia, India, China, and even Japan. In this library Ganid saw the largest collection of Indian literature in all the world; and they spent some time here each day throughout their stay in Alexandria.
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They landed on the East side of Alexandria at the causeway which stretched to the west side. As such, it also stated that afterwards they went to the library. (funny that this causeway resembles the Atlantean Canal in different terms)

I believe this to be in the old part of the city which was more directly below the lighthouse and westward whereas the newer part is towards the eastern side.

As you see here, this photo is west of the lighthouse.

http://www.mts.net/~goldlion/chalci5.jpg

[ 03-10-2006, 02:50 PM: Message edited by: Riven ]
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« Reply #381 on: April 13, 2008, 03:52:22 pm »

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  posted 03-10-2006 03:06 PM                       
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®iven,.

first of all it's nice to see you back in research mode instead of dreamscape.

I need to see a larger map of the whole area in order to get my bearings on Alexandria, perhaps a visit there would be nice although it's not in the cards in the near future. Besides, I might have some trouble with the anti-semitic stuff. 

The passage starts out that after 4 hours they were settled near the eastern end. I wonder why it took four hours to settle in after landing. Possibly they did not land on the eastern side of Alexendria?

[ 03-12-2006, 10:43 PM: Message edited by: 1 ]
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« Reply #382 on: April 13, 2008, 03:52:51 pm »

Riven

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  posted 03-10-2006 07:20 PM                       
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Absonite;

It took them four hours because...

The Urantia Book

PAPER 130


ON THE WAY TO ROME

130:0.1 THE tour of the Roman world consumed most of the twenty-eighth and the entire twenty-ninth year of Jesus' life on earth. Jesus and the two natives from India -- Gonod and his son Ganid -- left Jerusalem on a Sunday morning, April 26, A.D. 22. They made their journey according to schedule, and Jesus said good-bye to the father and son in the city of Charax on the Persian Gulf on the tenth day of December the following year, A.D. 23.

130:0.2 From Jerusalem they went to Caesarea by way of Joppa. At Caesarea they took a boat for Alexandria. From Alexandria they sailed for Lasea in Crete. From Crete they sailed for Carthage, touching at Cyrene. At Carthage they took a boat for Naples, stopping at Malta, Syracuse, and Messina. From Naples they went to Capua, whence they traveled by the Appian Way to Rome.

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I was just trying to figure which side your post is saying the Great library was on, east or west.


Imagine the Pharos Lighthouse centered on the Alexandrian shoreline with a harbour on either side, just like Atlantis I,Azores Josephine.

Google Earth is all you need!


Wooah, I almost missed this from your post Absonite;

They made their journey according to schedule, and Jesus said good-bye to the father and son in the city of Charax on the Persian Gulf on the tenth day of December the following year, A.D. 23.


As you know, I revealed Snoferu as the murderer of Philitis (Jesa The Pure) on December 10th, 3474.bC. !! 


Is there a hidden message in your post Absonite?


woo woo.

[ 03-10-2006, 07:23 PM: Message edited by: Riven ]
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« Reply #383 on: April 13, 2008, 03:53:15 pm »

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The reception of Plato's Atlantis through history
Even though Plato himself sustains the thruth of his story, already short time after he had published it, Atlantis was interpreted by some as an educational legend invented by Solon and /or Plato in order to glorify the virtue of the Athenians and to illustrate their philosophical ideas. Aristotle (384-322 BC), as inferred from two passages in Strabo (Geographica II, 102 and XIII, 598) was among the first major critics. On the other hand, there were also sustainors of Platon's theory, as Plutarch (Solon 32.1-2), Proclus (410-485 AD, 76.1-10), Strabo (67 BC- 23 AD, Geographica II.3.6-7), Posidonius (135-51 BC), Ammianus Marcellinus (330-400 AD) who tell that the legend was regarded a historic fact in Alexandria (from Friedrich, 1994). One thing is very clear: invented or not, the major purpose of Platon's dialogues was not to tell a historic story or a fascinating science fiction, but to educate people and glorify Athens and its virtues. In this, the decadence of Atlantis from its divine origins and its prosperity to decadence and total destruction acts as both as a counterpoint to Athens and as a warning. It is also important to note, that the connection between gods, humans and nature is always present and naturally embedded in Plato's and the Ancient world. So to say, there are several levels within Plato's story: the Ancient world where gods and humans are connected and natural phenomena, especially if exceptionally powerful, are acts of gods, the educational and moral aspects of the tale, and finally, the story in terms of actual or fictional events. Today, we tend to see only this last aspect, but for Plato it was surely the least important one. This makes it even more difficult to judge whether Plato was telling pure fiction, pure reality or a mixture of both. Most likely, the latter is true. The story is rich in details, some of which seem invented and some appear surprisingly real. It is very improbable, in fact, that he based his story on nothing, and it is also unlikely, that he had such a detailed report (the translation of the old Egyptian report). Even if he had, it is natural to assume, that he modified it according to the purposes of his tale, which as has been said, certainly were not the telling of facts.
So, it is fair to assume, that there is a historic core of Plato's legend. Until this point, most people agree. But then...

REFERENCES:

- Friedrich, W.L. (1994) Feuer im Meer. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin Oxford, 256 p.

- Galanopoulos, A:G: and Bacon, E. (1969) "Atlantis. The Truth behind the Legend." Nelson, London

- Luce, J.V. (1969) "The End of Atlantis - New Light on an Old Legend." Thames and Hudson, London, 224 p.


http://www.decadevolcano.net/santorini/atlantis.htm

[ 03-18-2006, 03:37 AM: Message edited by: Apollo ]

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« Reply #384 on: April 13, 2008, 03:53:39 pm »

 
Riven

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  posted 03-18-2006 06:01 PM                       
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Apollo;


The day before, Socrates had already established that the theme was to be;

Virtue of Athens or Virtue of Cities and what would be the most glorious legends they could attribute to their theme.

Because their histories were for the most part lost, they were as children, so the Egyptian Priest also stated.


Now Socrates had already outlined this Virtue of Athens such as they spoke most highly of The Battle of Salamis.


The story of Atlantis broke out because of Solon, and Amynander had reminded the audience of the apaturia festival of Solon and Atlantis.

This he knew from Critias II.


The present day of the Dialogue, one person is missing, or the fourth, possibly Amynander who had taken ill and was present the day before when Socrates established the theme of Virtuosity or The One, so to say was The Platonian way!

There is no mistaking that the Legend of Atlantis is a seperate account of fact that the Greeks embellished with their "supremacy" as such we see they claim to have won a battle that they never would have won were it not for the disaster of floods and earthquakes.

The Greeks did nothing more than to help Egypt and Phoenicia and their prized Ionia and Caria districts also.

Such as also was the false interjection of Athens being 20,000 in number. There is no such evidence in the latin script nor the greek scripts of a precise censure of athens.

It was an estimated value interjected by later translators.

However, it is clear as to the huge size of the Atlantean army, and an army Greater than Athens, Egypt and Phoenicia combined!!


The point is that ALL those people involved with the Atlantis story SWORE TO TRUTH....


even Socrates who was WANTING to know of this Legend for he knew not and felt embarrassed to say so admits this truth by his statement of wanting to know this legend veritable not as the work of poets or artists, but as FACT and TRUTH.


ALL those Scholars from Solon to Plato knew this as Truth.


A Truth that certain bu ZZ bumbled bees also know as they know how to keep trying to cover up this TRUTH.


It is their works, those who suppress Atlantis who do so in VAIN.


Funny because here I am swearing Truth of our Legend also.........


something in time you all will realize.......


You see, those scholars are full of crap who keep trying with their perverted politics and twist upon the words of truth...


Socrates knew what was merited to Atlantis and what was merited to Athens.


True, we learn the same moral either way.


Be Careful and don't become Evil and Unworthy and learn from our mistakes....


any one could tell you this.



quote:
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Soc. Very good. And what is this ancient famous action of the Athenians, which Critias declared, on the authority of Solon, to be not a mere legend, but an actual fact?
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[ 03-18-2006, 06:18 PM: Message edited by: Riven ]
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Posts: 4048 | From: Azores Atlantis Isles. | Registered: May 2003   
 
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« Reply #385 on: April 13, 2008, 03:54:03 pm »

Gwen Parker

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   posted 03-18-2006 10:58 PM                       
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Nice work, Riven.
Did you ever see this reference from Marcellus I highlighted in this passage?


quote:
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Testimony of Ancient Writers

It only remains now to summarize some of the evidence obtainable from ancient writers, from early race traditions, and from archaic flood-legends.

Aelian in his Varia Historia,[1] states that Theopompus (400 B.C.) recorded an interview between the King of Phrygia and Silenus, in which the latter referred to the existence of a great continent beyond the Atlantic, larger than Asia, Europe and Libya together.

Proclus quotes an extract from an ancient writer who refers to the islands in the sea beyond the Pillars of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar), and says that the inhabitants of one of these islands had a tradition from their ancestors of an extremely large island called Atlantis, which for a long time ruled over all the islands of the Atlantic Ocean.

Marcellus speaks of seven islands in the Atlantic, and states that their inhabitants preserve the memory of a much greater island, Atlantis, "which had for a long time exercised dominion over the smaller ones."

Diodorus Siculus relates that the Phoenicians discovered "a large island in the Atlantic Ocean beyond the Pillars of Hercules several days' sail from the coast of Africa."

But the greatest authority on this subject is Plato. In the Timaeus he refers to the island continent, while the Critias or Atlanticus is nothing less than a detailed account of the history, arts, manners and customs of

[1. Lib. iii., ch. xviii.]
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http://www.sacred-texts.com/atl/soa/soa07.htm

Often a lot of these third party quotations seem to reach in an effort to make the connection with Atlantis, but that one sounds a lot like the Atlantis that Plato wrote of.
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« Reply #386 on: April 13, 2008, 03:54:28 pm »

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A book I'd like to recommend to everyone:

Forbidden History : Prehistoric Technologies, Extraterrestrial Intervention, and the Suppressed Origins of Civilization (Paperback)
by J. Douglas Kenyon

Book Description
Challenges the scientific theories on the establishment of civilization and technology

• Contains 42 essays by 17 key thinkers in the fields of alternative science and history, including Christopher Dunn, Frank Joseph, Will Hart, Rand Flem-Ath, and Moira Timmes

• Edited by Atlantis Rising publisher, J. Douglas Kenyon

In Forbidden History writer and editor J. Douglas Kenyon has chosen 42 essays that have appeared in the bimonthly journal Atlantis Rising to provide readers with an overview of the core positions of key thinkers in the field of ancient mysteries and alternative history. The 17 contributors include among others, Rand Flem-Ath, Frank Joseph, Christopher Dunn, and Will Hart, all of whom challenge the scientific establishment to reexamine its underlying premises in understanding ancient civilizations and open up to the possibility of meaningful debate around alternative theories of humanity's true past.

Each of the essays builds upon the work of the other contributors. Kenyon has carefully crafted his vision and selected writings in six areas: Darwinism Under Fire, Earth Changes--Sudden or Gradual, Civilization's Greater Antiquity, Ancestors from Space, Ancient High Tech, and The Search for Lost Origins. He explores the most current ideas in the Atlantis debate, the origins of the Pyramids, and many other controversial themes.

http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/product-description/1591430453/102-6854632-5608119

But what really got me interested in it was this quote from the book:


quote:
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All the works of Statius Sebosus were lost with the fall of Classical civilization. Dionysus of Miletus, also known as “Skytobrachion” for his prosthetic leather arm, wrote A Voyage to Atlantis around 550 BC, predating not only Plato but even Solon. A copy of Dionysus’s manuscript was found among the personal papers of historical writer Pierre Benoit. Tragically, it was lost between the borrowers and restorers who made use of this valuable piece of source material after Benoit’s death.
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Actually, at 550 bc (remembering bc is counting backwards) it comes after Solon's visit to Neith, yet it still predates Plato by hundreds of years.

The exact quote (from the Atlantis Encyclopedia) is said to read like this:

"From it's deep-rooted base, the Phlegyan isle stern Poseidon shook and plunged beneath the waves it's impious inhabitants."

"This is all that survives from a lengthy discussion of Atlantis in the Argonautica, mentioned 400 years later by Diodorus in his ancient history of North Africa.

As reported in the December 15, 1968 Paris Jour, a complete or more extensive copy of his manuscript was found among the personal property of the historical writer Pierre Benoit. Tragically, it was lost between the borrowers and restorers who made use of this valuable piece of source material after Benoit's death."

Anyone know more about it?

http://www.coolfrenchcomics.com/atlantide.htm
http://www.violetbooks.com/cinema-haggard.html
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« Reply #387 on: April 13, 2008, 03:54:52 pm »

Gwen Parker

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   posted 05-01-2006 01:11 AM                       
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Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (129-200 AD), better known in English as Galen, was an ancient Greek physician. His views dominated European medicine for over a thousand years.

Life

Galen was born in Pergamum (modern-day Bergama, Turkey), the son of Nicon, a wealthy architect. His interests were eclectic - agriculture, architecture, astronomy, astrology, philosophy - until he concentrated on medicine.


By the age of twenty he had become a therapeutes ("attendant" or "associate") of the god Asclepius in the local temple for four years. After his father's death in 148 or 149 he left to study abroad. He studied in Smyrna and Corinth and at Alexandria. He studied medicine for a total of twelve years. When he returned to Pergamum in 157, he worked as a physician in a gladiator school for three or four years. During this time he gained experience of trauma and wound treatment. He later regarded wounds as "windows into the body".

From 162 he lived in Rome where he wrote extensively, lectured and publicly demonstrated his knowledge of anatomy. He gained a reputation as an experienced physician and his practice had widespread clientele. One of them was the consul Flavius Boethius who introduced him to the court where he became a court physician to Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Later he also treated Lucius Verus, Commodus and Septimius Severus. Reputedly he spoke mostly Greek, which was a more respected language of medicine than Latin at the time. He briefly returned to Pergamum during 166-169.

Galen spent the rest of his life in the Imperial court, writing and experimenting. He performed vivisections of numerous animals to study the function of the kidneys and the spinal cord. His favorite subject was the barbary ape. Reportedly he employed twenty scribes to write down his words. In 191, fire in the Temple of Peace destroyed some of his records. His exact date of death has traditionally been placed around the year 200, based on a reference from the 10th century Suda Lexicon. Some, however, have argued for dates as late as 216,on the basis that his last writings seem to be as late as 207.


Work and impact

Galen transmitted Hippocratic medicine all the way to the Renaissance. His On the Elements According to Hippocrates describes the philosopher's system of four bodily humours, which were identified with the four classical elements. He created his own theories from those principles. In turn, he mainly ignored Latin writings of Celsus.

Amongst Galen's own major works is a seventeen-volume On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Human Body. He also wrote about philosophy and philology. His collected works total twenty-two volumes.

Galen's own theories, in accord with Plato's, emphasized purposeful creation by a single Creator ("Nature" - Greek phusis) - a major reason why later Christian and Muslim scholars could accept his views. His fundamental principle of life was pneuma (air, breath) that later writers connected with the soul. Pneuma physicon (animal spirit) in the brain took care of movement, perception, and senses. Pneuma zoticon (vital spirit) in the heart controlled blood and body temperature. "Natural spirit" in the liver handled nutrition and metabolism.

Galen expanded his knowledge partly by experimenting with live animals. One of his methods was to publicly dissect a living pig and cut its nerve bundles one at a time. Eventually he cut a laryngeal nerve (now also known as Galen's Nerve) and the pig stopped squealing. He tied the ureters of living animals to show that urine comes from the kidneys. He severed spinal cords to demonstrate paralysis.

From the modern viewpoint, Galen's theories were partially correct, partially flawed. He demonstrated that arteries carry blood, not air and made first studies about nerve functions, and the brain and heart. He also argued that the mind was in the brain, not in the heart as Aristotle had claimed.

However, much of Galen's understanding is flawed from the modern point of view. He did not recognize blood circulation and thought that venous and arterial systems were separate. This view did not change until William Harvey's work in the 17th century. Since most of his knowledge of anatomy was based on dissection of pigs, dogs, and Barbary apes, he also assumed that rete mirabile, a blood vessel plexus of ungulates, also existed in the human body. He also resisted the idea of tourniquets to stop bleeding and vigorously propagated blood letting as a treatment.

Galen's authority dominated medicine all the way to the 16th century. Experimenters' disciples did not bother to experiment and studies of physiology and anatomy stopped - Galen had already written about everything. Blood letting became a standard medical procedure. Vesalius presented the first serious challenge to his hegemony.

Much of medieval Islamic medicine drew on the works of the ancient Greeks, especially those elucidated by Galen, such as his expanded humoral theory. Most of Galen's Greek writings were first translated to the Syriac language by Nestorian monks in the university of Gundishapur, Persia. Muslim scholars primarily in Baghdad translated the Syriac manuscripts into Arabic, along with many other Greek classics. They became some of the main sources for Arabian scholars such as Avicenna, Rhazes, and Maimonides. Galen was known in Arabic as Jalinos, and many people with that name today are considered to be descendents of him
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« Reply #388 on: April 13, 2008, 03:55:29 pm »

Gwen Parker

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Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (129-200 AD), better known in English as Galen, was an ancient Greek physician. His views dominated European medicine for over a thousand years.

Life

Galen was born in Pergamum (modern-day Bergama, Turkey), the son of Nicon, a wealthy architect. His interests were eclectic - agriculture, architecture, astronomy, astrology, philosophy - until he concentrated on medicine.


By the age of twenty he had become a therapeutes ("attendant" or "associate") of the god Asclepius in the local temple for four years. After his father's death in 148 or 149 he left to study abroad. He studied in Smyrna and Corinth and at Alexandria. He studied medicine for a total of twelve years. When he returned to Pergamum in 157, he worked as a physician in a gladiator school for three or four years. During this time he gained experience of trauma and wound treatment. He later regarded wounds as "windows into the body".

From 162 he lived in Rome where he wrote extensively, lectured and publicly demonstrated his knowledge of anatomy. He gained a reputation as an experienced physician and his practice had widespread clientele. One of them was the consul Flavius Boethius who introduced him to the court where he became a court physician to Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Later he also treated Lucius Verus, Commodus and Septimius Severus. Reputedly he spoke mostly Greek, which was a more respected language of medicine than Latin at the time. He briefly returned to Pergamum during 166-169.

Galen spent the rest of his life in the Imperial court, writing and experimenting. He performed vivisections of numerous animals to study the function of the kidneys and the spinal cord. His favorite subject was the barbary ape. Reportedly he employed twenty scribes to write down his words. In 191, fire in the Temple of Peace destroyed some of his records. His exact date of death has traditionally been placed around the year 200, based on a reference from the 10th century Suda Lexicon. Some, however, have argued for dates as late as 216,on the basis that his last writings seem to be as late as 207.


Work and impact

Galen transmitted Hippocratic medicine all the way to the Renaissance. His On the Elements According to Hippocrates describes the philosopher's system of four bodily humours, which were identified with the four classical elements. He created his own theories from those principles. In turn, he mainly ignored Latin writings of Celsus.

Amongst Galen's own major works is a seventeen-volume On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Human Body. He also wrote about philosophy and philology. His collected works total twenty-two volumes.

Galen's own theories, in accord with Plato's, emphasized purposeful creation by a single Creator ("Nature" - Greek phusis) - a major reason why later Christian and Muslim scholars could accept his views. His fundamental principle of life was pneuma (air, breath) that later writers connected with the soul. Pneuma physicon (animal spirit) in the brain took care of movement, perception, and senses. Pneuma zoticon (vital spirit) in the heart controlled blood and body temperature. "Natural spirit" in the liver handled nutrition and metabolism.

Galen expanded his knowledge partly by experimenting with live animals. One of his methods was to publicly dissect a living pig and cut its nerve bundles one at a time. Eventually he cut a laryngeal nerve (now also known as Galen's Nerve) and the pig stopped squealing. He tied the ureters of living animals to show that urine comes from the kidneys. He severed spinal cords to demonstrate paralysis.

From the modern viewpoint, Galen's theories were partially correct, partially flawed. He demonstrated that arteries carry blood, not air and made first studies about nerve functions, and the brain and heart. He also argued that the mind was in the brain, not in the heart as Aristotle had claimed.

However, much of Galen's understanding is flawed from the modern point of view. He did not recognize blood circulation and thought that venous and arterial systems were separate. This view did not change until William Harvey's work in the 17th century. Since most of his knowledge of anatomy was based on dissection of pigs, dogs, and Barbary apes, he also assumed that rete mirabile, a blood vessel plexus of ungulates, also existed in the human body. He also resisted the idea of tourniquets to stop bleeding and vigorously propagated blood letting as a treatment.

Galen's authority dominated medicine all the way to the 16th century. Experimenters' disciples did not bother to experiment and studies of physiology and anatomy stopped - Galen had already written about everything. Blood letting became a standard medical procedure. Vesalius presented the first serious challenge to his hegemony.

Much of medieval Islamic medicine drew on the works of the ancient Greeks, especially those elucidated by Galen, such as his expanded humoral theory. Most of Galen's Greek writings were first translated to the Syriac language by Nestorian monks in the university of Gundishapur, Persia. Muslim scholars primarily in Baghdad translated the Syriac manuscripts into Arabic, along with many other Greek classics. They became some of the main sources for Arabian scholars such as Avicenna, Rhazes, and Maimonides. Galen was known in Arabic as Jalinos, and many people with that name today are considered to be descendents of him.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galen

[ 05-01-2006, 01:43 AM: Message edited by: Gwen Parker ]
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« Reply #389 on: April 13, 2008, 03:55:59 pm »

Allison-

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   posted 05-04-2006 09:46 PM                       
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Come to think of it we haven't seen Riven around much lately either.
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(Psalms) 31:5,
"Into your hands I commit my spirit; redeem me, O LORD, the God of truth."
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