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Library of Alexandria (Original)

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Raven
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« Reply #165 on: April 07, 2008, 01:21:05 pm »

 
Riven

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Wilkipedia is a joke.

I would not rely on it to defend a torte.

You could apply a natural 500+/- to any Carbon dating, including Kings lists, so 1000.bC is a safe approximation.

Interesting to note that the spread of the Muslims also parallels the spread of the Phoenicians who subjugated Carthage and Gades,Spain.

The point is not so much Muslims, but rather Phoenicians and groups of, from Tyre and Byblos.

Basicaly, this change came about since the invasion and subjugation of the Hyksos ca 1650.bC, and later the Ramses Kings who "Sold Out" to the Persians and the two became integrated through marriages and bloodlines... hence the gradual downfall of Egypt, and as you can see, the many parallels to arise in The Bible from Arian Intervention.

The main point however are these inbred philosophies and barbaric personalities that lead to immoral actions upon fellow humans, or a "HATRED" divine to Evil.

This same doctrine is hidden in our perceptions of society through media, a media very much from those same people to generate money, such as the almost 3 Trillion dollars(Rense.com) unaccounted for by the US Army, and the ploys of wars and justice to "Syphon" money.

It wasn't until Tyson became Islamic, that he bit off Hoylfields ear. 

These are not people who think before they speak, therefore they are quick to smite thee with their sabres and low mentality for fellow humans and the world as a whole because of their self rightousness.

As I said, this is part of the problem with man's Evils to claim God as his own with no consolidation for fellow humans and their beliefs.

On the upside, this is part of the purpose of English becoming our Earth language,for mankind to naturaly accept One God and integrate religions to a common and practical sense of Scientific and Spiritual Knowledge with a simple message of "be careful and be good" to prosper.

When we have this, we will have World Peace and less prosecution from our fellow neighbours.

It is not the "Jews" who formed around 1300.bC (also in parallel with the Phoenician movements) that are at fault, but rather.........

The Black Priests from the Blood of Brine and their followers, some people, even Jews, testify that these are Zionists who are also known as the "Dark Brothers" or "The Black Hand".

You see, the Palestineans (oldest original neighbours from Egyptian/Arabian mixtures) were pushed North and stripped of their dignity and history that their trade interactions and pottery from 4000.bC found in Egypt testify to.

Isn't it funny that "Hamitic" or Ham, is actualy a Hebrew word for "Slave" and "Adamite" is a man of Steel?

You see, that's why the Greeks had no choice but to see and why they can only remember their History to Homer and 800.bC....see.

These wheels of change were already implemented by Sesostris II ca 1860.bC when he subjugated Crete, and Greece.

The Hercules of Egypt.

To add insult to injury, then came the "Renaissance" and "Mid-evil" times and later the Scientific Societist propaganda of Germany from the 20's and onward to Hitler....another Blood of Brine.

So you can see how difficult it would be to say what Books are from Alexandria and which books were "conformed" like the Myths.

"For one to sail the Ship of Ulysses......"

I would say look to Sicily and Aleppo for clues to those books of Alexandria.

As for Oxyrynchus, it would be the equivalent of Wilkipedia.

Not to be trusted in it's entirety.

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.111.[R].Riven The Seer and Royal Bloodline to Atlantis.[R].111.

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« Reply #166 on: April 07, 2008, 01:21:25 pm »

Herr_Saltzman

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Wikipedia is a good measuring of the consensus of people. And that particular information can be found throughout history.

And why are you stereotyping Muslims? Don't forget that it was what you call their "low mentality" that preserved Greek and Roman learning, bringing Europe out of the Dark Age.

And where on Earth did you get "Blood of Brine" from? Buffy the Vampire Slayer?

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« Reply #167 on: April 07, 2008, 01:21:54 pm »

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Riven, I have looked a little more into who destroyed the Library of Alexandria and believe that the Christians (as usual) have been unfairly maligned in it's destruction.

It's fashionable these days to blame the Christians for everything, but clearly, the Muslims were most responsible:

ALEXANDRIA HISTORY
332 BCE: Founded by the Macedonian king, Alexander the Great, near the fishing village Rhakotis. This act was directed both by political and commercial interests, since the location offered a natural harbour. The harbour facilities were enhanced through the construction of a 1.6 km pier out to the island of Pharos. On Pharos, a lighthouse was erected, which soon came to be considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
323 BCE: Alexander the Great is buried in Alexandria.
305 BCE: Alexandria is made the capital of the kingdom of the Ptolomies.
3rd century BCE: The library of Alexandria is reported to consist of 500,000 volumes.
31 BCE: Ptolemaic forces are beaten by the Romans, and Alexandria falls under Roman control.
116 CE: A revolt among local Jews leads to an annihilation of the Jewish community, and heavy destruction of the city.
215: An ordering to massacre the male population of Alexandria is given by the Roman emperor, Caracalla.
284: Strong persecution of the Christians, and thousands are killed. According to the history of the Coptic church, 144,000 were killed.
4th century: Alexandria is weakened by insurrection, civil war, famine and disease.
391: The Coptic Patriarch instigates violent actions upon the pagan communities in Alexandria, and the temple and library of Serapis are sacked. Among those killed is the famous female scholar Hypatia.
638: Alexandria is besieged and destroyed by Muslim troops, and then abandoned.
646: Alexandria is once again put under Muslim attack, and heavily destroyed. After conquering the city, the Muslims give little attention to Alexandria, and the real decline of the city begins.
968: With the establishment of Cairo as capital and cultural centre, Alexandria loses forever its position as the most important city of Egypt.

http://i-cias.com/e.o/alexandr.htm

You can see that they invaded and destroyed the city twice according to the timeline.

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« Reply #168 on: April 07, 2008, 01:22:38 pm »

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And the book, "Slavery, Treason & Islam" would seem to put to rest the idea that not only did the Muslims not destroy libraries (they did), but that Islam is an enlightened religion:

JUST THE FACTS
Slavery, Terrorism and Islam exposes the falsehood of these and other prevalent myths propagated about Islam. Far from Islam being a great religion of learning, tolerance and peace, this book presents the historical facts, and sets the record straight. Muhammad declared that if other books confirmed what was in the Quran then they didn't need them. And if the books did not confirm what was in the Quran they didn't want them. So the order was: Burn them! The Muslims burned libraries all across North Africa and the Middle East. They burned the library of Alexandria - the largest library in the world at that time. It probably included original copies of the Bible and other priceless manuscripts.

A TRAIL OF DESTRUCTION
Over 3200 churches were destroyed or converted into mosques during the first century of Islamic Jihad alone. During the Muslim invasion of Syria in AD 634 thousands of Christians were massacred. As Mesopotamia was conquered between AD 635 and 643 many churches and monasteries were ransacked, and ministers and Christians slain. In the conquest of Egypt AD 640 and 641, the towns of Behnesa, Fayum, Nikiu and Aboit were all put to the sword. When the Muslims invaded Cyprus, they looted and pillaged homes and churches and massacred much of the population. In North Africa, when Tripoli was captured in AD 643, all the Jews and Christians were forced to hand their women and children over as slaves. When Carthage was captured, it was burned to the ground and most of its inhabitants slaughtered.

Beginning in AD 712 the Muslim armies invaded India. They smashed and demolished temples, plundered palaces, slaughtered millions of Indian men and enslaved the women and children. The ancient cities of Baranasai Mathura, Uggain, Maheshwar, Jwalamukhi and Dwarka were sacked, the populations massacred, and not one temple left standing.

“THE BLOODIEST STORY IN HISTORY”
Will Durant in his The Story of Civilisations, describes the Muslim invasion of India as “probably the bloodiest story in history.” The North Western region of India is called the Hindu Kush (“the slaughter of the Hindu”) as a reminder of the vast number of Hindu slaves who died while being marched across the Afghan Mountains to the Muslim slave markets in Central Asia. The Buddhists were also targeted for destruction. In AD 1193 Muhammad Khilji burned to the ground their famous library and the Buddhist stronghold of Bihar.

Shah Jahan is remembered as the builder of the Taj Mahal. What few Westerners know is that the builder of the Taj Mahal launched 48 military campaigns against non-Muslims in just 30 years. In AD 1628 he killed all his male relatives. Shah Jahan had 5,000 concubines in his harem but also indulged in incestuous sex with his daughters. In just one town, Banares, Jahan destroyed 76 Hindu temples. He also demolished Christian churches at Agra and Lahore. When he captured Hugh, a Portuguese enclave near Calcutta, he had 10,000 inhabitants “blown up with powder, drowned in water or burned by fire.” Another 4,000 were enslaved and offered Islam or death. Those who refused to convert were killed.

SPAIN UNDER THE MOORS
Neither was Spain under the Muslim Moors the jewel of Islamic tolerance that it is often purported to be. In AD 920 all the inhabitants of Muez were put to the sword. Cordova, Zarajoza and Merida were burned to the ground, with all adult males executed and all women and children enslaved. In AD 1066 all the Jews of Grenada were slaughtered. In AD 1126, all the Christians of Grenada were deported to Morocco.

In AD 1009, Kalif Hakem of Egypt ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre and all Christian places of worship in Jerusalem. Christians were persecuted cruelly and pilgrims were attacked.

http://www.frontline.org.za/news/end_of_islam.htm

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« Reply #169 on: April 07, 2008, 01:23:07 pm »

 
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I've looked into this, too. Who doesn't love the ancient Library of Alexandria?



quote:
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Properly, the Mouseion was a shrine of the Muses, the goddesses of literature and the arts, and its head was a priest of the Muses, first nominated by the kings of Egypt, and later by the Roman emperors. We believe that the facility was dedicated in about 300 BC, but it was Soter's successor, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who called the most learned men in all fields to come to Alexandria and lecture. They did come, mostly from Athens, the largest number of whom were scientists and philosophers. For many years, illustrious scholars arrived in Alexandria and lived under the patronage of the Ptolemies, free from want and taxes. They studied, wrote, collated manuscripts, researched, lectured and theorized in their respective disciplines. The German historian, Ferdinand Gregorovius wrote that:

"This unique establishment diffused a splendor over the civilized world which lasted longer than any other university, whether Paris, Bologna or Padua. Long after the creative power of Greek genius was exhausted, encyclopedic knowledge and Greek sophistry were to be found in the Mouseion of Alexandria."

Undoubtedly, many of the scholars came to the university because of the great library, which offered to its privileged fellows, and subsequently to all the scholars of the world, the resources of the first real, and the most comprehensive and innovative, collection of intellectual materials ever assembled during antiquity. Hence, this library became the central attraction for writers, teachers and scientists from every part of the world.

Ptolemy sought to collect and bring to Alexandria "the books of all the peoples of the world", which he estimated would require some five hundred thousand scrolls. Ptolemy composed a letter "to all the sovereigns and governors on earth", imploring them "not to hesitate to send him" works by authors of every kind, including "poets and prose-writers, rhetoricians and sophists, doctors and soothsayers, historians, and all the others too". He gave orders that any books on board ships calling at Alexandria were to be copied, and only the copies returned to the owners. Eventually, the library is thought to have contained some six hundred to seven hundred thousand volumes. This massive collection of books and scrolls was not limited to Greek and Roman works. Oriental writings were translated into Greek and placed in the Library, as were ancient Egyptian texts, the Hebrew Scriptures and writing ascribed to the Persian prophet, Zoroaster. There were 123 plays by Sophocles and others by Aeschylus and Eurepides. It contained a history of the world from the time of the Biblical Flood written by Prossos, a Babylonian monk. Prossos dated the Flood to 433,000 years before his time.

The Ptolemies spared no expense in gathering works for the Library. The legendary physician, Galen, inferred that Ptolemy borrowed the original copy of the works of the great Athenian tragic poets in order to have them copied. Ptolemy was required to make a deposit in the sum of fifteen gold talents, but when the work was completed, he chose to forfeit his money and instead sent back the copies to Athens, retaining the originals.

The Mouseion, the great library and their scholars, who at times even included the Egyptian kings (Ptolemy I Soter, for example, was himself a historian who wrote a worthy first hand account of Alexander's campaigns), became the fabric in which Alexandria was cloaked. Alexandria's history is one of intellectualism, which was integral to its ancient personality. The library's first curator and director was Demetrius Phalereus, a distinguished Athenian scholar who was also instrumental in creating the Mouseion itself. Demetrius was a member of the Peripatic school and a former Athenian politician who sought refuge in Alexandria after his fall from power in Athens. It was he who advised the king to "collect together books on kingship and the exercise of power, and to read them". He became so intimate with the king that he was called "the first of his friends", and was even credited with inspiring the laws enacted by Ptolemy. Thus Alexandria became not only the capital of Egypt, but also of the scholarly world, with the Great Library and the Mouseion at its center.

The Mouseion was thought to be divided into schools similar to modern universities, and in each of these, various scholars produced notable works. It would be difficult to note all of the scholars but, for example, Apollonius (262-190 BC) studied the cone sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) which later helped the German astronomer Johannes Kepler identify the orbits of the planets.

In the fields of mathematics and geometry, Euclid (300 BC), in his book The Elements, laid the foundations of mathematics, geometry and mathematical logic. His teachings were still taught up until the 20th century. In time, The Elements was translated into many languages and it is said that after reading the book, the great thinker Isaac Newton was changed forever. In the 20th century another form of geometry was innovated. We now have Euclidian and non-Euclidian geometry.

In medicine Herophilus (335-280 BC), considered the father of anatomy, laid down the scientific bases of medicine. He proved that the brain and not the liver or the heart was the cause of feelings and emotion. He also described and named the duodenum and the prostate. He laid down the basics of gynecology and said that the menses was not a disease but a normal condition. He measured the pulse, and described the thick membranes (dura mater) that cover the brain, and gave his name to a part of it (torcular herophili). Herophilus also described a part of the cerebellum and called it calamus scriptorius, because it looked like a writing pen (the word calamus reminds us of the Arabic word qalam, which means pen, and of the Greek word for squid, calamari, which spurts ink when attacked).

Erasistratus (276-195 BC), known as the father of physiology, described the nervous system and the epiglottis. He also identified, described and named the tricuspid valve of the heart.

In the field of geography, Eratosthenes proved the earth was spherical and measured its circumference by an ingenious but quite simple method. His calculation was within one percent of the present measurement. He noticed that at noon on 21 June of each year, the sun was vertical at Cyene (Syene, now Aswan). At that exact time, the tall obelisks of Cyene did not cast shadows and one could see the sun reflected on the water in deep wells. He assumed that the rays of the sun traveled in parallel paths and that, if the earth was flat, then a planted vertical stick in Alexandria would also fail to produce a shadow. But to his surprise the stick in Alexandria did cast a shadow. From the angle of the shadow and the distance between Alexandria and Cyene he calculated the circumference of the earth. This achievement was his ticket to greatness. Following his discoveries, maps were drawn in a spherical form, allowing later navigators to sail round the world.

Hipparchus (190-125 BC) defined latitude and longitude. Claudius Ptolemy (85-165 AD, who was no kin to the governing dynasty, added many details to the geography of the earth in his book, translated in Arabic as Al-Majesty. Yet most of the work of Ptolemy was copied directly from the books of other scientists. Newton would later describe this plagiarism very frankly, calling it "an immoral crime committed against his colleagues and against science".

Eratosthenes compiled one of the first histories that was not colored by superstition and legend.

Pappus (circa 320 AD) wrote his famous book Synagogue (meaning "conference", not the Jewish temple) in which he outlined the history of the Mouseion and its scientists.

In Astronomy, Aristarcus of Samos (310-230 BC) was the first astronomer to prove heliocentricity (as against geocentricity). He was persecuted by the religious authorities, who refused to believe that the earth and planets circled the sun and not the other way around. This theory was later proven again by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus admitted in his early writings the effect of Aristarcus's work on his thinking, but later failed to mention it.

Archimedes (287-212 BC) spent a good part of his life at the Mouseion, and is considered one of the three greatest mathematicians of all time (Newton and Gauss being the other two). Archimedes added profusely to Integral Calculus, and also laid the foundations of Differential Calculus. He discovered the laws of governing the relation between a sphere and its surrounding cylinder and the measurement of the surface area of a ball. Through his discovery of the rule of floating and sinking objects it became possible to study specific gravity. He also discovered the laws of levers, and determined a more accurate value for ¹, the number that identifies the relationship between the circumference and diameter of a circle.

In its later years, the Mouseion had an important faculty of philosophy. Early on it adopted the philosophy of the Peripatetics, and later that of the Stoics. Platonius started the school of Neoplatonism, later presided over by Hypatia, the daughter of Theon, the last director of the Mouseion and a brilliant mathematician.

Many Egyptians came to study at the Mouseion, and many became staff members. The most famous of these was Manetho of Sebennytos, an Egyptian monk of the early 3rd century BC, during the reign of Ptolemy I and II. In 250 BC, Manetho compiled a three-volume book, “Aegyptica”, in which he divided the dynastic periods of the ancient Egyptian kingdom (after unification by Menes) into thirty dynasties, the first starting in 3150 BC, and the last ending by the Macedonian conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. Manetho also wrote about the “pre-dynastic period” but in a rather mythical fashion, including the time when Egypt was ruled by gods, demigods, the spirits of dead and finally the mortal kings. Unfortunately those books were lost, but parts of their material have reached us through later scholars such as the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in AD 60, Christian writers such as Julius Africanus in AD 300, Eusebius in AD 340, and George Syncellus in AD 800. Also, “Horapollon the philosopher" originally came from Upper Egypt to study in Alexandria, and later became head of the pagan school. His father too had been a professor at Alexandria before him.

We know very little about the Mouseion's demise, and very little about the end of the famous library, though its loss must be considered one of the greatest sorrows of mankind's history. Some believe that the library may have been destroyed accidentally during the Alexandria War when Caesar set ablaze some sixty ships of Ptolemy's fleet riding at anchor in the port. This fire spread to other parts of the city. This obviously included houses and buildings near the waterfront. It was reported that books were stored in some of these buildings, and apparently the fire may have been fueled by some forty thousand of them. However, the Library was within the palace walls, protected by sturdy stone buildings, and it is doubtful that this fire could have harmed its books. If indeed these books were destroyed, they were almost certainly scrolls destined to be shipped into or out of Egypt.
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« Reply #170 on: April 07, 2008, 01:23:44 pm »

 
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In addition, the Mouseion certainly survived this fire, and seems to have continued to function in a regular manner, which it probably could not have done had the library been destroyed by Caesar's fire. In fact, most of the writers that recount this story are at least somewhat removed from the time period. Seneca was the first writer to mention it, some one hundred years afterwards, and many writers fail to mention the destruction of scrolls at all. Furthermore, the continued existence of the Library is also supported by an ancient inscription found in the early 20th century, dedicated to Tiberius Claudius Balbillus of Rome (d. 56 CE). As noted in the "Handbuch der Bibliothekswissenschaft" (Georg Leyh, Wiesbaden 1955):

"We have to understand the office which Ti. Claudius Balbillus held [...], which included the title 'supra Museum et ab Alexandrina bibliotheca', to have combined the direction of the Museum with that of the united libraries, as an academy."

Legend also has it that the Library found its end in the Arab invasion. However, by this time, it is believed that the great books collected by the Ptolemies had probably already been lost, and many believe this account to mostly be an early Christian propaganda attack on the Muslim invaders. Also this was refuted 200 years ago by, among others, Edward Gibbon in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, when he asserts that the tale was invented 600 years after the supposed event by an apologist for Salaheddin, the chronicler Abdel-Latif Al-Boghdadi. On his victorious entry into Cairo in 1171 Salaheddin had burned Shi'ite books, and had consequently been scorned for destroying sacred literature. Gibbon believed that the library- burning story was planted to prove there had been a precedent for Salaheddin's iconoclasm.

In fact, the Muslim invasion was not, strictly speaking, Egypt's first Arab invasion. During the Roman times of Aurelian, Queen Zenobia, an Arab from Palmyra who claimed descent from Cleopatra, had captured Alexandria, only to lose it again to the Emperor Aurelian. However, in the course of Aurelian's campaign, the Royal Quarters were seriously damaged. A few years later, the city was completely sacked by Diocletian. Hence, many scholars believe that if the Muslims did destroyed any books, they may have only been second rate replacements of earlier lost editions. In fact, many believe that, rather than destroying the scientific books they found, the Arabs preserved many of them until they could be translated into Arabic. After all, during the dark age in Europe, the Arabic world became the center of enlightenment.

In reality, there is a growing consensus among historians that the Library of Alexandria likely suffered from several destructive events, but that the destruction of Alexandria's pagan temples in the late 4th century was probably the most severe and final one. The evidence for that destruction is the most definitive and secure.

One certainty is that the "Daughter Library" at the Serapeum (the Temple of Serapis) was sacked during the Jewish revolt of 115 AD, and again destroyed by the monks of Theophilus in 391. It is entirely possible that the Great Library may have fallen victim to the same campaign, though we know with certainty that the Mouseion functioned for some time afterwards.

Civil wars, decreasing investments in maintenance and acquisition of new scrolls and generally declining interest in non-religious pursuits likely contributed to a reduction in the body of material available in the Library, especially in the fourth century. Furthermore, it is entirely possible that many of the scrolls could have been sold off or otherwise moved to other locations.

If indeed a Christian mob (there were no shortages of mobs of every kind in ancient Alexandria) was responsible for the destruction of the Library, it is to be expected that such an act embarrassed later generations, who may have decided to alter or not to preserve the historical records in order to conceal it. In any case, both the contradictions in the historical record and the lack of a definitive account of the destruction of the Library in pre-Christian times are striking, given that it was the goal of Christian writers such as Orosius to highlight such evidence wherever they could find it.

As for the Mouseion, Mostafa El-Abbadi writes in Life and Fate of the ancient Library of Alexandria (Paris 1992):

"The Mouseion, being at the same time a 'shrine of the Muses', enjoyed a degree of sanctity as long as other pagan temples remained unmolested. Synesius of Cyrene, who studied under Hypatia at the end of the fourth century, saw the Mouseion and described the images of the philosophers in it. We have no later reference to its existence in the fifth century. As Theon, the distinguished mathematician and father of Hypatia, herself a renowned scholar, was the last recorded scholar-member (c. 380), it is likely that the Mouseion did not long survive the promulgation of Theodosius' decree in 391 to destroy all pagan temples in the City."

Of course, stone buildings and the scholars who inhabit them cannot be destroyed or displaced as easily as books. Undoubtedly, the end of the Mouseion itself is wrapped up in the stories of Hypatia and the Christian patriarch Cyril, together with the Alexandria infamous mob. Hypatia was initiated early into her father's studies, including philosophy and mathematics at the university. She was a brilliant student who later assisted her father in his voluminous writings on Euclid and Porphyry. She eventually became the recognized head of Neoplatonic studies, and students from every corner of the world competed for her classes. It is also said that, in addition to her searing intelligence, her eloquence and rare beauty made her remarkable and legendary for her time.

However, various evidence suggests that she devoted much of her efforts to astronomy and mathematics, and that even her philosophical opinions embraced the intellectual rather than the mystical side of Neoplatonism.

Within Alexandria, a division took place that on the one hand, included the Roman prefect, Orestes, who was in fact a Christian, although his supporters included not only Christians and high government officials, but also the esteemed Jewish leaders of the city, many of whom had been students of Hypatia. On the other side stood the Christian patriarch, Cyril and his staunch adherents, including the orthodox faithful of the city and the hundreds of Nitrian monks under his jurisdiction. In the following account, there is perhaps some bias. Cyril is not always looked upon with such harshness as these events might indicate. For any shortcomings he might have had, he nevertheless played a very important role in the early Christian Church.

Hypatia was much loved in the city, and even glorified. She was bestowed with many civic honors and was considered one of the pillars of Alexandria, while Cyril was scorned and mocked from the day he was chosen patriarch. An envious man, he began to spread vicious lies portraying Hypatia as a witch with powers of sorcery and black magic. He even managed to convince many of his followers that the Roman prefect Orestes was the first person victimized by her spells. It seems that Orestes had curtailed some of his daily devotions as a Christian and was often seen in her company, along with many of the Jewish citizens.

Cyril began by focusing his attention on the Jewish citizens. Some of the Jews were attending the theater to watch performances rather than celebrating the Sabbath, and Cyril stationed agents there to keep watch on them, which rankled the crowd. The Jews even accused Orestes of allowing Cyril's informers to spy on them and create problems.

In retaliation, the Jews began raiding Christian homes and launching secret attacks. On one evening the Jews even ran through the streets of the city shouting that the Church of St. Alexander was consumed in flames. When the Christians hurried to save their church, the Jews attacked and killed many of them.

Of course, this really inflamed Cyril, who ordered his army of supporters to the Jewish Quarter of the city, where they plundered the synagogues, set fire to Jewish homes and chased many of them completely out of Alexandria.

Orestes attempted to halt the marauding clergy, but was silenced when he passed through the streets with a small column of soldiers. He was easily dragged from his carriage by a band of 500 Nitrian monks, and even though he proclaimed his Christianity, was nevertheless stoned to unconsciousness on the street. Among those who stoned him was a fanatic monk named Ammonius, and a few brave citizens of Alexandria came to the prefect's rescue, in the process beating Ammonius to death.

Cyril commanded the body of Ammonius to be transported to the cathedral in a solemn procession, and had his name changed to Thaumasius (the Wonderful). His tomb was decorated with the trophies of martyrdom, and the troubles continued.

Next, he turned his attention to Hypatia, who he despised, and he passed on to his clergy these feelings. On a day during the holy season of Lent, Hypatia was pulled from her carriage, stripped naked, dragged to the cathedral and butchered by a young reader named Peter and a fanatical mob of Christian monks. Afterwards, they scraped the flesh from her bones with broken pieces of tile and threw her limbs to the flames.

Upon her death, the spirit of Greek intellectualism seems to have died in Alexandria, and with it, the famous Mouseion.

While we know much about the scholars and their work at the ancient university, much also remains unknown. We have little idea how the Library functioned, even whether the scholars taught or lectured there. The new discoveries in Alexandria currently raise more questions, if dated between the 5th and 7th centuries, than provide answers, but perhaps, just perhaps, such finds may eventually lead us to at least a few of the marvels of ancient Alexandria.

Today, a new Library of Alexandria has been raised from the dust of the old, with the high intentions of setting ablaze once more the beacon of intellectualism known from Alexandria's ancient past. Bibliotheca Alexandrina, which includes a museum, was dedicated with much pomp and ceremony, and with not a small amount of media attention, the new facility is already becoming a focus of our beloved and revived, Alexandria.
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« Reply #171 on: April 07, 2008, 01:24:12 pm »

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Anyway, the point is, all three people had a hand in the destruction, but scholars still believe that the Christian attack in the fourth century was the most severe.
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« Reply #172 on: April 10, 2008, 01:08:46 pm »

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Thank you Faith and Artemis;

Here is some of my notepad scratches from your posts and the internet. I know it's messy, but I wanted the clues out there anyway. 


"From the time of its creation in the third century B.C. until its destruction seven centuries later, it was the brain and heart of the ancient world.

The Old Testament comes down to us mainly from the Greek translations made in the Alexandrian Library. The Ptolemys devoted much of their enormous wealth to the acquisition of every Greek book, as well as works from Africa, Persia, India, Israel and other parts of the world. Ptolemy III Euergetes wished to borrow from Athens the original manuscripts or official state copies of the great ancient tragedies of Sophocles, Aeschylus and Euripides.


But Ptolemy valued those scrolls more than gold or silver. He forfeited the deposit gladly and enshrined, as well he might, the originals in the Library. The outraged Athenians had to content themselves with the copies that Ptolemy, only a little shamefacedly, presented to them. Rarely has a state so avidly supported the pursuit of knowledge.

The Ptolemys did not merely collect established knowledge; they encouraged and financed scientific research and so generated new knowledge.

Alexandria was the greatest city the Western world had ever seen. People of all nations came there to live, to trade, to learn. On any given day, its harbors were thronged with merchants, scholars and tourists. This was a city where Greeks, Egyptians, Arabs, Syrians, Hebrews, Persians, Nubians, Phoenicians, Italians, Gauls and Iberians exchanged merchandise and ideas. It is probably here that the word cosmopolitan realized its true meaning -- citizen, not just of a nation, but of the Cosmos. To be a citizen of the Cosmos...

Here clearly were the seeds of the modern world. What prevented them from taking root and flourishing? Why instead did the West slumber through a thousand years of darkness until Columbus and Copernicus and their contemporaries rediscovered the work done in Alexandria? I cannot give you a simple answer. But I do know this: there is no record, in the entire history of the Library, that any of its illustrious scientists and scholars ever seriously challenged the political, economic and religious assumptions of their society.

The last scientist who worked in the Library was a mathematician, astronomer, physicist and the head of the Neoplatonic school of philosophy -- an extraordinary range of accomplishments for any individual in any age. Her name was Hypatia. She was born in Alexandria in 370. At a time when women had few options and were treated as property, Hypatia moved freely and unselfconsciously through traditional male domains. By all accounts she was a great beauty. She had many suitors but rejected all offers of marriage. The Alexandria of Hypatia's time -- by then long under Roman rule -- was a city under grave strain. Slavery had sapped classical civilization of its vitality. The growing Christian Church was consolidating its power and attempting to eradicate pagan influence and culture. Hypatia stood at the epicenter of these mighty social forces. Cyril, the Archbishop of Alexandria, despised her because of her close friendship with the Roman governor, and because she was a symbol of learning and science, which were largely identified by the early Church with paganism In great personal danger, she continued to teach and publish, until, in the year 415, on her way to work she was set upon by a fanatical mob of Cyril's parishioners. They dragged her from her chariot, tore off her clothes, and armed with abalone shells, flayed her flesh from her bones. Her remains were burned, her works obliterated, her name forgotten. Cyril was made a saint.

(415aD)-Its last remnants were destroyed soon after Hypatia's death." - Carl Sagan.

Aristotle's books were the only ones spared. (hmmmm, and Aristotle opposed (envious of) Plato... and taught Alexander)-Riven.

"Alexandria was founded in Egypt by Alexandria the Great. His successor as Pharaoh, Ptolomy II Soter, founded the Museum or Royal Library of Alexandria in 283 BC. The Museum was a shrine of the Muses modeled after the Lyceum of Aristotle in Athens." -Preston Chesser.

Julius Caesar 48 BC

pursuing Pompey into Egypt when he was suddenly cut off by an Egyptian fleet at Alexandria. Greatly outnumbered and in enemy territory, Caesar ordered the ships in the harbor to be set on fire. The fire spread and destroyed the Egyptian fleet. Unfortunately, it also burned down part of the city - the area where the great Library stood. Caesar wrote of starting the fire in the harbor but neglected to mention the burning of the Library.

Theophilus was Patriarch of Alexandria from 385 to 412 AD. During his reign the Temple of Serapis was converted into a Christian Church (probably around 391 AD) and it is likely that many documents were destroyed then. The Temple of Serapis was estimated to hold about ten percent of the overall Library of Alexandria's holdings. After his death, his nephew Cyril became Patriarch. Shortly after that, riots broke out when Hierax, a Christian monk, was publicly killed by order of Orestes the city Prefect. Orestes was said to be under the influence of Hypatia, a female philosopher and daughter of the "last member of the Library of Alexandria".

Immediately after the death of Hierax a group of Jews who had helped instigate his killing lured more Christians into the street at night by proclaiming that the Church was on fire. When the Christians rushed out the largely Jewish mob slew many of them. After this there was mass havoc as Christians retaliated against both the Jews and the Pagans - one of which was Hypatia. The story varies slightly depending upon who tells it but she was taken by the Christians, dragged through the streets and murdered.

Some regard the death of Hypatia as the final destruction of the Library. Others blame Theophilus for destroying the last of the scrolls when he razed the Temple of Serapis prior to making it a Christian church. Still others have confused both incidents and blamed Theophilus for simultaneously murdering Hypatia and destroying the Library though it is obvious Theophilus died sometime prior to Hypatia.

the Moslem Caliph Omar. In 640 AD the Moslems took the city of Alexandria. Upon learning of "a great library containing all the knowledge of the world" the conquering general supposedly asked Caliph Omar for instructions. The Caliph has been quoted as saying of the Library's holdings, "they will either contradict the Koran, in which case they are heresy, or they will agree with it, so they are superfluous." So, allegedly, all the texts were destroyed by using them as tinder for the bathhouses of the city. Even then it was said to have taken six months to burn all the documents. But these details, from the Caliph's quote to the incredulous six months it supposedly took to burn all the books, weren't written down until 300 years after the fact. These facts condemning Omar were written by Bishop Gregory Bar Hebræus, a Christian who spent a great deal of time writing about Moslem atrocities without much historical documentation.

So who did burn the Library of Alexandria?

Unfortunately most of the writers from Plutarch (who apparently blamed Caesar) to Edward Gibbons (a staunch atheist or deist who liked very much to blame Christians and blamed Theophilus) to Bishop Gregory (who was particularly anti-Moslem, blamed Omar) all had an axe to grind and consequently must be seen as biased. Probably everyone mentioned above had some hand in destroying some part of the Library's holdings. The collection may have ebbed and flowed as some documents were destroyed and others were added. For instance, Mark Antony was supposed to have given Cleopatra over 200,000 scrolls for the Library long after Julius Caesar is accused of burning it.

the outlying "daughter" library at the Temple of Serapis continued on...

Demetrius of Phaleron was the 1st recorded librarian at Alexandria between 290 - 282 BCE. Demetrius began
the translation of many works into Greek, his first job was the translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew
into Greek for which the Library hired 72 rabbis.

Kallimachos of Kyrene was the most famous librarian

A covered marble colonnade connected the Museum with an adjacent stately building

Here in ten great Halls,
separate rooms for individuals or groups engaged in special studies

In 2004 a Polish-Egyptian team claimed to have discovered part of the library while excavating in the Bruchion region

Bibliotheca Alexandrina http://www.bibalex.gov.eg

A final summary is interesting: of the 16 writers, 10, Caesar himself, the author of the Alexandrian War, Cicero, Strabo, Livy (as far as we know), Lucan, Florus, Suetonius, Appian, and even Athenaeus apparently knew nothing of the burning of the Museum,

1. Seneca (AD 49), the first writer to mention it (and that nearly 100 years after the alleged event), definitely says that 40,000 books were burned.


2. Plutarch (c. 117) says that the fire destroyed the great Library.


3. Aulus Gellius (123 - 169) says that during the "sack" of Alexandria 700,000 volumes were all burned.


4. Dio Cassius (155 - 235) says that storehouses containing grain and books were burned, and that these books were of great number and excellence.


5. Ammianus Marcellinus (390) says that in the "sack" of the city 70,000 volumes were burned.


6. Orosius (c. 415), the last writer, singularly confirms Seneca as to number and the thing destroyed: 40,000 books.

Of all the sources, Plutarch is the only one to refer explicitly to the destruction of the Library. Plutarch was also the first writer to refer to Caesar by name.

Furthermore, the Library was a very large stone building and the scrolls were stored away in armaria (and some of them put in capsules), so it is hard to see how a fire in the harbor could have affected a significant part of its contents.

generally accepted that the Museum of Alexandria existed until ca. 400 aD.

The auditoriums were found near the portico of the Roman Theater in the eastern part of the ancient city.
"This is the oldest university ever found in the world," Grzegory Majderek, head of the Polish mission, told The Associated Press.

Urantia from Absonite;

By the fourth hour after landing they were settled near the eastern end of the long and broad avenue, one hundred feet wide and five miles long, which stretched on out to the western limits of this city of one million people. After the first survey of the city's chief attractionsÖuniversity (museum), library, the royal mausoleum of Alexander, the palace, temple of Neptune, theater, and gymnasiumÖGonod addressed himself to business while Jesus and Ganid went to the library, the greatest in the world.

"But Yahweh is the God developed from the revelations of Melchizedek and the covenant of Abraham. The Jews were the offspring of Abraham and subsequently occupied the very land wherein (Machiventa) Melchizedek had lived and taught, and from which he sent teachers to all the world; and their religion eventually portrayed a clearer recognition of the Lord God of Israel as the Universal Father in heaven than any other world religion."

Although these translations were made at Alexandria, Ganid did not finally arrange these selections and add his own personal conclusions until near the end of their sojourn in Rome. He was much surprised to discover that the best of the authors of the world's sacred literature all more or less clearly recognized the existence of an eternal God and were much in agreement with regard to his character and his relationship with mortal man.

"Teacher , you know more than these professors; you should stand up and tell them the great things you have told me; they are befogged by much thinking. I shall speak to my father and have him arrange it." Jesus smiled, saying: "You are an admiring pupil, but these teachers are not minded that you and I should instruct them. The pride of unspiritualized learning is a treacherous thing in human experience. The true teacher maintains his intellectual integrity by ever remaining a learner."

Here was located the largest Jewish synagogue in the world, the seat of government of the Alexandria Sanhedrin, the seventy ruling elders.

Ê Ê Ê Ê Ê Among the many men with whom Gonod transacted business was a certain Jewish banker, Alexander, whose brother, Philo, was a famous religious philosopher of that time. Philo was engaged in the laudable but exceedingly difficult task of harmonizing Greek philosophy and Hebrew theology. Ganid and Jesus talked much about Philo's teachings and expected to attend some of his lectures, but throughout their stay at Alexandria this famous Hellenistic Jew lay sick abed.

A one-eyed person can never hope to visualize depth of perspective. Neither can single-eyed material scientists nor single-eyed spiritual mystics and allegorists correctly visualize and adequately comprehend the true depths of universe reality. All true values of creature experience are concealed in depth of recognition.


Theon of Alexandria was the last person definitely known to have been associated with the Museum, because he recorded two eclipses (solar/Lunar) he was credited during the reign of Theodosius I to a height of his writings at 360-370aD.

His daughter, Hypatia, was associated with the Neo-Platonic School, a different institution.

Around 400.aD, Alexandria was a turbulent mix of Cultures.

The Roman Empire, of which Alexandria was a part, was under external pressure from the Huns and Visigoths. It split in 395.aD into the Western Empire (ruled from Rome) and the Eastern Empire (ruled from Constantinople).

The official religion was Christianity, reformed under Constantinople.

Julian the Apostate had reigned over the combined empire from 361-363.aD.

At the time of Hypatia's death, the local governor was Orestes, a Christian unsympathetic to other views, but whos authority was under challenge from that of the less tolerant Cyril of Alexandria (St.Cyril), who acceded to the bishopric in 412.aD. The divisions that beset the city were prone to erupt into sectarian violence; the great libraries associated with the Museum were one by one destroyed, the last going up in smoke in 392 when the temple of Serapis was put to the torch during a riot.

Shortly after Hypatia was murdered, which following and possibly because of this, the thrust of Neoplatonist thought and education moved from Alexandria to Athens..

Three names require mention, Proclus (410-485.aD) was the last of the great mathematicians of Greek antiquity, who frequented the neoplatonic school in Athens, and is best remembered for a commentary on Book I of Euclid's "Elements".
After Proclus came Isisdorus and his pupil Damascius.

In 529 the Emperor Justinian, enforcing Christianity as the state religion, closed the Neoplatonic School and Damascius went into exile in Persia.

The oldest accounts of Hypatia come to us from either the "Suda (Suidae) Lexicon or from the writings of the early Christian Church, other sources known as the "Patrologiae Graecae", gives earlier accounts of her death, than the Suda and also preserves letters to her and about her from the hands of one of her pupils. Synesisu of Cyrene.

Peter the Reader was blamed for her death ca 415.aD.

*Adobe Acrobat PDF File;
http://www.maa.org/pubs/Calc_articles/ma055.pdf

Hypatia wrote a commentary on Diophantus, the astronomical Canon, and on Apollonius's "Conics".

Most of these come to us from Arabic commentators (editors,translators).

Theon, Hypatia's Father, was a prolific author of Commentaries such as the Elements, and Euclid's Data and Optics, and Ptolemy's, Almagest and Handy Tables.

One of Hypatia's works, Seriatum, reflects the wisdom of her Father Theon.

Theon is more visualized as an editor, teacher and textbook writer, rather than a research mathematician.

Recent work by Roshdi Rashed, Sesiano and others has suggested that some of the lost books of Diophantus in fact survive in Arabic translations.

Michael A.B. Deakin
Dept. of Mathematics
Monash University
Clayton, Vic. 3168
Australia.

Printed in;

The American Mathematical Monthly, March 1994, Volume 101, Number 3, pp. 234-243.


The Alexandrian Wars
By Julius Caesar
http://classics.mit.edu/Caesar/alexandrian.html


What can I say Faith?

It's abhorrent and very much a Genocide from Phoenicians.

Twas the Temple Host where darkness fell,
One Hundred fifty years of Hell.
For the Good Shepherd Philitis knew,
the chosen few, and soon to be born,
a "Prodigal Child" to adorn,
not of the Blood of Brine,
but third Son to fall out of line.
so the struggle goes,4500 years to and fro
no relenquish for the treasure of mind.-Riven.


You see Faith, the miracle of all this for me is that which knowledge I uncovered here in my last 2 years of this hidden "Evil".

The Irony is, that this was already foretold to me about 28 years ago from one of my visions.

[ 01-03-2006, 11:20 AM: Message edited by: Riven ]

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.111.[R].Riven The Seer and Royal Bloodline to Atlantis.[R].111.

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« Reply #173 on: April 10, 2008, 01:09:07 pm »

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  posted 01-03-2006 02:13 PM                       
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Speaking of straight from the Horses Mouth;


quote:
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"Not suggesting that.

But I am suggesting that these Renaissance Cartographers knew more than they are given credit for. I am suggesting that the Renaissance Cartographers, especially Muslims ones, found some unknown source. I am suggesting that this source was a body of knowledge recovered. Incidentally, the period of strange mapping starts with the discovery of the Hermetica... which makes one think, was there a Fatima-type cover-up underway with the Hermetica? Do we really believe that if Cosimo de Medici found something important he would share it?
_________________
Cower in Holy Fear, Infidel. Cheers, and Good Mental Health, Herr Saltzman"
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« Reply #174 on: April 10, 2008, 01:09:31 pm »

+Faith+

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Great job getting all the research in order, Riven, I wish that I could get it all straight like that. It is indeed a pity about Hypatia, hers is one of the most tragic stories in history, wrought by ignorant people towards one of history's most enlightened people.

Your notes seem to place most of the blame for the Library's destruction on the Romans. That would make the age when the library was at it's peak even briefer than what people have already imagined. Then, the Colossus of Rhodes only stood for something like fifty years, the rest of it's nine hundred some years, it lay on the ground - before the Muslims carted it off with their camels.

I can't help but to get the feeling that a lot of what we are hearng about from the assumed Christian role in the destruction is being overplayed by people who don't like Christians and do what they will to slander us. The Muslims did either destroy or convert over 3200 churches into mosques during the first century of Islamic Jihad alone, and did massacre Christians.

In North Africa, when Tripoli was captured in AD 643, all the Jews and Christians were forced to hand their women and children over as slaves. When Carthage was captured, it was burned to the ground and most of its inhabitants slaughtered. Their invasion of Alexandria was only about five years before that. All the evidence taken together, they would still seem to have the biggest role, to my thinking, at least.

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« Reply #175 on: April 10, 2008, 01:10:16 pm »

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Riven, why are you deleting your posts?
Whatever is bothering you, I bid you do not despair.
Don't let anyone, or anything tear you down.

God Bless

+Faith+

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« Reply #176 on: April 10, 2008, 01:10:44 pm »

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Faith,

They are not worthy of the ink upon the pages.

I do know who are.

No, not the Romans Faith, I defend you, not reprimand you.

But rather the poison of Socrates.

The Murderers of Plato.

The Evil which AROSE OUT of Egypt and UNTO Phoenicia....

...see it is written where Cain trodded to Cannan, with the BLOOD OF BRINE in him.

No, tis naught the name of a people, but rather what POISONS them.....Cain.

The same that poisoned Europe,Africa,Asia, America and S.America.

The same that poisoned Christian Neo-Platonism.

The allayahs, Cyril.

along those lines, see, for it is not me, but the friends we keep....said the West to the East...

this eastern poison from Serpents of Phoenicia where Able was murdered.

Tho they much enjoyed the Bactrian Orgies of Black Bishops.........see.

The Doctrine.

Fear not, my steps are with you...


these people know not the seriousness.


The Romans, including Caesar, only maintained what was conquered by Alexander..... and who poisoned Alexander?

Aristotle.

No, twas not Caesar......


I will go now........for I gave back to the people Atlantis I and II, their God JA, their Ships, their Secrets of Egypt and the LIES OF THE EAST,....

now I have a Library to Build far greater than Aristotle for you Faith and Chronos.

1 of many.

[ 01-04-2006, 01:47 AM: Message edited by: Riven ]
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« Reply #177 on: April 10, 2008, 01:11:14 pm »

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quote:
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Originally posted by Riven:
Sometimes I wonder Chronos,
using GOOGLE EARTH,
and looking WEST of the Great Pyramid
to the Roash hills of birth,
appear a magnificient labyrinth of lines.

Further left, you'll see
large Circular lines so divine,
arranged as such, a library would
to preserve the age of time. 

Tis tru to know the Rose line
to the sun of shadow and light
can a man walk upon the labyrinth
with a book held tight in his might.

and he shall call his book,The Book of Thoth-Riv.

http://www.mts.net/~perasa/Roash%20Labyrinth_Thoth%20Roseline_Riven05.jpg
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Well, of course I agree. The Atlanteans could well have built a mirror of their ancient homeland in the new colony of Egypt.

I also agree that the Library of Alexandria certainly held documents related to the truth of Atlantis that (after a minimum three destructions), are now perhaps irrevocablty lost to us. Modern archaeology has so shortened the timeline of human history because it doesn't have them. We have, in turn, Manetho's king's list, which hints at the older world, and yet is ignored by mainstream Egyptologists because, at first glance, it seems to be incovenient.

But you know what? We really don't need those older records. Those of us who are gifted with the ability to put logic and insight together can already see many of the pieces come together.

Riven, I certainly hope your last message is not meant to be taken as a goodbye. You are like a brother to me and we have much more work to be done here.

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« Reply #178 on: April 10, 2008, 01:11:52 pm »

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Europa,

Happy New Year to you too! I've been out of town.
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« Reply #179 on: April 10, 2008, 01:12:15 pm »

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I would like to wish everyone a Happy New Year, too, and would especially like to thank Faith, Riven, Europa, Artemis, George, and all the others for the additions they have made to this over the holiday. I haven't had the chance to read them all, but it's nice to know that the topic has sparked so much interest.

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