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the Crusades (Original)

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Ceneca
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« Reply #180 on: December 31, 2007, 04:15:32 am »

Rachel Dearth

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Timeline of the Crusades: Second Crusade Aftermath 1150 - 1186
1150 Fatimid rulers fortify the Egyptian city of Ascalon with 53 towers.
1151 The Toltec Empire in Mexico ended.
1152 Baldwin III is crowned king of Jerusalem.
1152 King Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine, thus gaining control of her lands in France. Eleanor would give birth to Richard the Lionheart, one of the leaders of the Third Crusade. She had previously been married to King Louis of France and her involvement in the Second Crusade was blamed by some for its failure.
March 04, 1152 Friedrich I Barbarossa, nephew of Conrad III, is elected German King in Frankfurt. He would later become Holy Roman Emperor.
1153 King Baldwin III of Jerusalem captures Ascalon after a siege of several months, thus drawing Egypt into an alliance with the Turks in Palestine. Reynald of Chantillon is named Prince of Antioch.
August 20, 1153 St. Bernard of Clairvaux dies. Bernard had founded the famous abbey at Clairvaux and was largely responsible for inspiring many Europeans to set off on the Second Crusade. The failures of the Second Crusade deeply troubled Bernard and he had blamed them on the sins of the Crusaders themselves.
April 25, 1154 Because European Crusaders had laid siege to the city in 1148 despite the existence of a truce with them, citizens of Damascus decide that the Crusaders could no longer be trusted and hand control over to Nur ad-Din Mahmud bin Zengi. In assuming control of this city, Nur ad-Din is able to unite all of Muslim Syria. One of Nur ad-Din's lieutenants, Saladin (Salah-al-Din Yusuf ib-Ayyub), would rise to prominence in the coming conflicts.
1155 King Baldwin III enters into an alliance with Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus in order to more effectively counter the growing threat from Nur ad-Din.
1156 Baldwin III signs a peace treaty with Nur ad-Din, but the following year he would break it and capture the city of Narim.
1156 Reynald of Chantillon, Prince of Antioch, launches an attack against Cyprus.
August 1157 A strong earthquake hits Syria. Through the previous couple of years, numerous earthquakes had been recorded all through the Levant.
September 08, 1157 Richard I Lionheart of England is born. Richard would be one of the leaders of the Third Crusade.
October 1157 Nur ad-Din is struck by a severe illness, halting his steady campaign against the Crusaders.
1158 Baldwin III defeats Seljuk ruler Nur ad-Din.
1160 Birth of Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester and leader of the Crusade against the Cathars in southern France.
1160 Raymond of Chantillion is captured during a Muslim ambush and is imprisoned for 14 years in Aleppo. Once released, his hatred of Islam and Muslims would be even greater than before and would be instrumental in the Third Crusade being launched.
1161 Explosives were first used in China at the Battle of Ts'ai-shih.
February 10, 1162 King Baldwin III dies at Tripoli and control of Jerusalem passes to his brother, Amalric I. Amalric's chief goal is the conquest of Egypt and, in fact, his continual failure to capture Egypt may have been an important cause of the decline in power of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1163 - 1169 Egypt and Jerusalem are in a constant state of war. During this time one of Nur ad-Din's lieutenants, Saladin (Salah al-Din), rises to prominence.
1163 Nur ad-Din lays siege the fortress of Krak des Chevaliers (headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller in Syria) but fails to take it.
September 1163 Amalric I, king of Jerusalem. launches his first invasion of Egypt. He manages to get as far as the Nile, but is turned back by the flooding.
May 1164 Shawar is reinstated as Vizier of Cairo with the help of Nur ad-Din Mahmud bin Zengi.
July 1164 A joint army of Egyptians and Franks besiege Shirkun in Bilbeis.
1165 Cathars have become so numerous in Languedoc that they are able to defy local prelates and meet at Lombers (Lombez) where there heretical doctrines are proclaimed openly.
August 21, 1165 Philip II Augustus of France is born. Philip would be one of the leaders of the Third Crusade.
1166 Saladin orders the construction of fortifications in Cairo which become known as "The Citadel."
1167 Papa Nicetas, a Bogomil heretic from the east, attends an assembly of Cathars leaders in Languedoc at Saint-Felix-de-Caraman (near Toulouse).
1167 Amalric I launches his second of three unsuccessful invasions of Egypt, although he briefly captures the city of Cairo. This same year he marries Maria Comnena, grand-niece of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus.
1168 Arab forces recapture Cairo from the Crusaders.
1168 - 1250 The Ayyubid dynasty, founded by Salah-al-Din Yusuf ib-Ayyub, rules Egypt.
October 10, 1168 Amalric I launches his third of three unsuccessful invasions of Egypt. This is a joint project with Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus Megas.
November 01, 1168 Amalric I, King of Jerusalem. massacres the inhabitants of Bilbeis, a fortress city on the eastern edge of the southern Nile delta in Egypt. The harsh treatment of locals manges to turn most Egyptians against the Crusaders, even the Coptic Christians who might have otherwise provided valuable aid and intelligence.
1169 Christians complete the reconstruction of the Church of Nativity in Bethlehem.
January 02, 1169 Amalric I, King of Jerusalem. leaves Egypt before Shirkuh and a Syrian army arrive.
January 08, 1169 Shirkuh, chief advisor and general for Nur ad-Din and Saladin's uncle, enters Cairo.
January 17, 1169 Vizier Shawar of Cairo is killed and Saladin takes control of both the city and Egypt.
November 1169 A Byzantine fleet and army attack Damietta, but they are forced to withdraw without accomplishing anything.
1170 Saladin captures the Crusader-controlled city of Eilat, located on the Red Sea.
1171 In the bull Non parum animus noster, Pope Alexander III equates Crusades against pagan Estonians and Finns in the north with Crusading in the Holy Land: "We therefore grant to those who fight with might and courage against the aforesaid pagans one year's remission for the sins they confess and receive penance for, trusting in God's mercy and the merits of the apostles Peter and Paul, just as we usually grant to those who visit the Sepulcher of the Lord; and if those who perish in the fight are doing their penance, to them we grant remission of all their sins."
1171 Battle of Santarem: The last battle that drives the Muslims out of Portugal.
March 12, 1171 For a time Byzantine emperor Manuel ends Venetian commercial privileges in Constantinople, a factor that would eventually play in Venice's decision to have the armies of the Fourth Crusade conquer and loot the city. Every Venetian in the empire is arrested and all of their property is confiscated. In retaliation, Venetian ships sack the Byzantine islands of Chios and Lesbos.
June 1171 Under orders from Nur ad-Din, Saladin removes the last Fatimid Caliph from power. The Caliph of Egypt would eventually die and the Caliph of Baghdad would be recognized in Egypt.
September 10, 1171 Saladin announces the formation of the Abbasid Caliphate in Egypt.
1173 Saladin launches an attack on the Fortress of Kerak but fails.
1174 King Henry II of England is forced to humble himself at the grave of Thomas Becket, canonized the year before. As part of his penance for his complicity in Becket's murder, Henry is required by Pope Alexander III to send twice a year enough funds and supplies to support 200 Templar and Hospitaller knights in the Holy Land. This support would end up playing an important role in financing the Third Crusade.
January 81, 1174 Bernard of Clairvaux is canonized.
May 15, 1174 Nur ad-Din Mahmud bin Zengi dies. Saladin would eventually take over for him, controlling a Muslim empire that stretches from the Tigris river to the Libyan desert and surrounding the Crusader states on three sides. First, though, Saladin had to defeat ed-Din's son As-Salih Ismail.
July 11, 1174 Amalric I, king of Jerusalem. dies and is succeeded by his son, Baldwin IV. Baldwin, unfortunately, is only thirteen years old and had been showing signs of leprosy since he was nine - so no one was very confident that he would be able to truly take control of the kingdom.
September 1174 Count Raymond of Tripoli is named regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Raymond is not a popular choice. Although supported by many barons, the Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers, and others, he is opposed by the Templars and other influential families like the Lusignans. These divisions would plague the Crusaders states and contribute to their eventual downfall.
October 28, 1174 Saladin captures Damascus and becomes the ruler of both Egypt and Damascus.
1175 Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus fortifies the Anatolian city of Dorylaeum.
1175 Reynald of Châtillon and Joscelin of Courtenay are released by the atabeg of Aleppo. The atabeg was grateful to the Christian Crusaders because they had come to his aid against Saladin. Opposition to Count Raymond of Tripoli coalesces around Reynald and Joscelin.
1176 Battle of Myriocephalum: Muslims defeat the Byzantines under Manuel I Comnenus Megas and capture the city of Dorylaeum.
August 1176 Saladin besieges the city of Masyaf.
1177 Sibylla, sister of leper king Baldwin IV and daughter of Amalric I, is married to William of Montferrat. William, however, dies shortly thereafter due to malaria.
November 18, 1177 Saladin leaves Egypt in the hope of quickly capturing Jerusalem from the Crusaders. A small force of Knights Templar are kept pinned down so that the main army can continue northward.
November 25, 1177 Battle of Ramleh (Montgisard): Although a force of 500 led by King Baldwin IV attempts to stop Saladin at Ascalon, the same site where an Egyptian relief force was defeated almost one hundred years before, the Egyptian army is able to bypass the Crusaders and continue on towards the goal of Jerusalem. Baldwin is able to join up with the Templars from Gaza, however, and surprise Saladin from the rear. The Egyptian army is routed and Saladin himself barely escapes. Luckily for Saladin, the Crusaders were unable to seriously press their unexpected advantage and threaten his holdings in Damascus or Egypt.
1179 Saladin defeats Crusader forces at Marj Ayun (Valley of the Springs), capturing the Master of the Knights Templar in the process.
1180 Meinhard, an Augustinian monk from Holstein, leads the first attempt to convert Baltic pagans in what most regard as the first steps of the Baltic Crusades.
March 1180 Sibylla, sister of King Baldwin IV, marries Guy De Lusignan. King Baldwin also negotiates a peace treaty with Saladin, bringing hostilities to a temporary end. Reynald of Châtillon throws his support behind Guy for the throne of Jerusalem and against Raymond of Tripoli, regent of Jerusalem.
September 18, 1180 Death of French King Louis VII, one of the leaders of the Second Crusade.
September 24, 1180 Death of Manuel I Comnenus Megas, Byzantine Emperor. Manuel had let the armies of the Second Crusade pass through his lands on their way to Palestine, but during much of his reign he was at war with various European powers like the Normans and Venice. Manuel is succeeded by his son Alexius II, just eleven years old. Manuel's wife, Maria, is Latin by birth and greatly resented among the people, leading to an insurrection two years later.
1181 Al-Salih Ismail, heir of Nur ad-Din, dies. This allows Saladin to complete his take-over of ad-Din's empire.
1181 Reynald of Châtillon raids a large caravan of pilgrims on their way to Mecca. The violates a peace treaty which outrages Saladin.
1182 Andronicus Comnenus leads an insurrection against empress Maria, killing many Italian merchants as well as the young Alexius II, heir to the throne of the Byzantine empire. Andronicus becomes a ruthless leader, killing large numbers of alleged rivals and dissenters.
May 11, 1182 Saladin sets out from Cairo with a large Muslim army. His intention is to link up with other Muslim forces elsewhere, gathering enough soldiers under his immediate command to put an end to the Crusader states once and for all.
1183 Reynald of Chantillon, Prince of Antioch, launches a military expedition down the Red Sea. His intention is to invade Arabia and travel to Mecca where he would destroy Muhammed's tomb and smash the Kaaba. He takes with him a small force, lands at el-Haura, and is surprised by an Egyptian group that had been marching to Mecca already. Only a few, including Reynald, manage to escape.
1183 Saladin captures the city of Aleppo.
September 17, 1183 Saladin leaves Damascus with a large Muslim army and heads for the Crusader states. He meets the Crusader forces at the Pools of Goliath but the Christians retreat to Jerusalem. Guy of Lusignan's decision to withdraw here causes him to lose the confidence of other Christian leaders who now come to believe that he is indecisive at best, but more likely a coward.
1184 Meinhard oversees the building of the Christian church built in the Baltic region: the village of Uexküll (in modern-day Latvia).
1184 Saladin launches a second attack on the Fortress of Kerak, but fails again.
1184 Isaac Comnenus takes control of Cyprus. Isaac is a great-nephew of Manuel I and had launched a rebellion against the harsh rule of Byzantine emperor Andronicus, establishing an independent kingdom in Cyprus. Constantinople is far too weak to crush this rebellion and Isaac would hold on to power for 7 years.
1185 - 1195 Isaac II Angelus becomes Byzantine emperor. Andronicus Comnenus had ordered him arrested and killed, but his years of heavy-handed rule had taken their toll and the people refused. Isaac is made emperor by popular acclamation and Andronicus is forced to flee, but he is captured and killed by a mob. Isaac would not be as ruthless as Andronicus, but at the same time Isaac would be far more corrupt.
March 1185 King Baldwin IV dies of leprosy and King Baldwin V, still an infant, succeeds him as King of Jerusalem. Raymond of Tripoli is named regent.
August 1185 Normans lay siege to and sack Thessalonica, a Greek Christian city.
December 06, 1185 Death of Afonso I Henriques of Portugal in Coimbra. The first king of Portugal, Alfonso had created the nation of Portugal by liberating it from Muslim invaders and attempts at dominance from Castile in Spain.
1186 Meinhard is consecrated as the first Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexküll).
1186 Reynald of Chantillon breaks a truce with Saladin by attacking a Muslim caravan and taking several prisoners, including a sister of Saladin. This infuriates the Muslim leader who vows to kill Reynald with his own hands.
March 03, 1186 The city of Mosul, Iraq, submits to Saladin.
August 1186 Baldwin V, young king of Jerusalem. dies of an illness. His mother, Sibylla, sister of King Baldwin IV, is crowned Queen of Jerusalem by Joscelin of Courtenay and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, is crowned King. This is contrary to the previous king's will. The forces of Raymond of Tripoli are based in Nablus and Raymond himself is in Tiberias; as a consequence, the entire kingdom is effectively split in two and chaos reigns.
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Ceneca
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« Reply #181 on: December 31, 2007, 04:16:01 am »

Rachel Dearth

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Timeline of the Crusades: Third Crusade & Aftermath 1187 - 1197
1186 Reynald of Chantillon breaks a truce with Saladin by attacking a Muslim caravan and taking several prisoners, including a sister of Saladin. This infuriates the Muslim leader who vows to kill Reynald with his own hands.
March 03, 1186 The city of Mosul, Iraq, submits to Saladin.
August 1186 Baldwin V, young king of Jerusalem. dies of an illness. His mother, Sibylla, sister of King Baldwin IV, is crowned Queen of Jerusalem by Joscelin of Courtenay and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, is crowned King. This is contrary to the previous king's will. The forces of Raymond of Tripoli are based in Nablus and Raymond himself is in Tiberias; as a consequence, the entire kingdom is effectively split in two and chaos reigns.
1187 - 1192 The Third Crusade is led by Frederick I Barbarossa, Richard I Lion Heart of England, and Philip II Augustus of France. It would end with a peace treaty giving Christians access to Jerusalem and the Holy Places.
March 1187 In response to his sister being taken prisoner and a caravan being captured by Reynald of Chantillon, Saladin begins his call for a holy war against the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
May 01, 1187 A large reconnaissance force of Muslims cross the Jordan river with the intent of provoking the Christians into attacking and thus allowing a larger war to commence. The incursion is designed to last just a single day and, near the end, several dozens Templars and Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers charged the much larger Muslim force. Nearly all of the Christians died.
June 26, 1187 Saladin launches his invasion of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem by crossing into Palestine.
July 01, 1187 Saladin crosses the Jordan River with a large army intent on defeating the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. He is observed by Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers in the fortress of Belvoir but their numbers are too small to do anything but watch.
July 02, 1187 Muslim forces under Saladin capture the city of Tiberias but the garrison, led by Count Raymond's wife Eschiva, manage to hold out in the citadel. Christian forces camp at Sephoria in order to decide what to do. They don't have the strength to attack, but they are inspired to move forward by the image of Eschiva holding out. Guy of Lusignan is inclined to remain where he is and Raymond supports him, despite the likely fate of his wife if she is captured. Guy, however, is still plagued by the belief of others that he is a coward and late that night Gerard, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, convinces him to attack. This would be a serious mistake.
July 03, 1187 Crusaders march from Sephoria in order to engage Saladin's forces. They brought no water with them, expecting to replenish their supplies at Hattin. That night they would camp on a hill with a well, only to discover that it was already dried up. Saladin would also set fire to the brush; the drifting smoke made the tired and thirsty Crusaders even more miserable.
July 04, 1187 Battle of Hattin: Saladin defeats the Crusaders in an area northwest of Lake Tiberias and assumes control of most of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Crusaders should never have left Sephoria - they were defeated as much by the hot desert and lack of water as they were by Saladin's army. Raymond of Tripoli dies of his wounds after the battle. Reynald of Chantillon, Prince of Antioch, is personally beheaded by Saladin but the other Crusader leaders are treated better. Gerard de Ridefort, the Grand Master of the Knights Templar, and the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller are ransomed. After the battle Saladin moves north and captures the cities of Acre, Beirut, and Sidon with little effort.
July 08, 1187 Saladin and his forces arrive at Acre. The city capitulates to him immediately, having heard of his victory at Hattin. Other cities which also surrender to Saladin are treated well. One city which resists, Jaffa, is taken by force and the entire population sold into slavery.
July 14, 1187 Conrad of Montferrat arrives at Tyre to take up the Crusading banner. Conrad had intended to land at Acre, but finding it under Saladin's control already he moves on to Tyre where he takes over from another Christian leader who is far more timid. Saladin had captured Conrad's father, William, at Hattin and offers a trade, but Conrad prefers to shoot at his own father rather than surrender. Tyre is the only Crusader Kingdom that Saladin is unable to defeat and it would last for another hundred years.
July 29, 1187 The city of Sidon surrenders to Saladin.
August 09, 1187 The city of Beirut is captured by Saladin.
August 10, 1187 The city of Ascalon surrenders to Saladin and Muslim forces re-establish control over the region. By the following month Saladin would also control the cities of Nablus, Jaffa, Toron, Sidon, Gaza ,and Ramla, completing a ring around the prize, Jerusalem.
September 19, 1187 Saladin breaks camp at Ascalon and moves his army towards Jerusalem.
September 20, 1187 Saladin and his forces arrive outside of Jerusalem and prepare to assault the city. Defense of Jerusalem is led by Balian of Ibelin. Balian had escaped capture at Hattin and Saladin personally gave permission for him to enter Jerusalem in order to retrieve his wife and children. Once there, however, the people beg him to stay and take up their defense - a defense that consists of three knights, if one includes Balain himself. Everyone else had been lost in the disaster at Hattin. Balian not only gains Saladin's permission to stay, but Saladin also ensures that his wife and children are given safe conduct out of the city and taken to safety in Tyre. Actions like this help ensure Saladin's reputation in Europe as an honorable and chivalrous leader.
September 26, 1187 After five days of scouting the city and the immediate surrounding area, Saladin launches his assault to retake Jerusalem from the Christian occupiers. Every male Christian had been given a weapon, whether they knew how to fight or not. The Christian citizens of Jerusalem would rely on a miracle to save them.
September 28, 1187 After two days of heavy battering, the walls of Jerusalem begin to buckle under the Muslim assault. St. Stephen's tower falls partially and a breach begins to appear at St. Stephen's Gate, the same place where the Crusaders had broken through nearly a hundred years earlier.
September 30, 1187 http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blxtn_jerusalem.htm is officially surrendered to Saladin, commander of the Muslim forces besieging the city. In order to save face Saladin demands that a heavy ransom be paid for the release of any Latin Christians; those who cannot be ransomed are kept in slavery. Orthodox and Jacobite Christians are permitted to remain in the city. To show mercy Saladin finds many excuses to let Christians go for little or no ransom at all - even buying the freedom of many himself. Many Christian leaders, on the other hand, smuggle gold and treasure out of Jerusalem rather than use to free others from slavery. These greedy leaders include Patriarch Heraclius as well as many Templars and Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers.
October 02, 1187 Muslim forces under the command of Saladin officially takes control Jerusalem from the Crusaders, effectively ending any major Christian presence in the Levant (also known as Outremer: the general region of the Crusader states through Syria, Palestine, and Jordan). Saladin had delayed his entry into the city by two days so that it would fall on the anniversary of when Muslims believe that Muhammed ascended from Jerusalem (the Dome of the Rock, specifically) to heaven to be in the presence of Allah. Unlike the Christian capture of Jerusalem almost a hundred years earlier, there is no mass slaughter - merely debates about whether Christian shrines like the Church of the Holy Sepulcher should be destroyed to take away Christian pilgrims' reason for returning to Jerusalem. In the end, Saladin insists that no shrines are to be touched and the holy sites of Christians should be respected. This stands in sharp contrast to Reynald of Chantillon's failed attempt to march on Mecca and Medina for the purpose of destroying them in 1183. Saladin also has the walls of Jerusalem destroyed so that, if the Christians ever take it again, they would not be able to hold it.
October 29, 1187 In response to the recapture of Jerusalem by Saladin, Pope Gregory VIII issues the Bull Audita Tremendi calling for the Third Crusade. The Third Crusade would be led by Frederick I Barbarossa of Germany, Philip II Augustus of France, and Richard I the Lionheart of England. In addition to the obvious religious purpose, Gregory has strong political motives as well: the squabbling between France and England, among others, was sapping the strength of the European kingdoms and he believes that if they could unite in a common cause, it would divert their warring energies and reduce the threat that European society would be undermined. In this he is briefly successful, but the two kings are able to set aside their differences for only a few months.
October 30, 1187 Saladin leads his Muslim army out of Jerusalem.
November 1187 Saladin launches a second assault on Tyre, but this one fails as well. Not only had Tyre's defenses been improved, but it was now filled with refugees and soldiers had been allowed to go free from other cities Saladin captured in the region. This meant that it was filled with eager warriors.
December 1187 Richard the Lionheart of England becomes the first European ruler to take up the cross and agree to participate in the Third Crusade.
December 30, 1187 Conrad of Montferrat, commander of the Christian defenses of Tyre, launches a night raid against several Muslim ships participating in the siege of the city. He is able to capture them and chase away several more, effectively eliminating Saladin's naval forces for the time being.
January 21, 1188 Henry II Plantagenet of England and Philip II of France meet in France to listen to Archbishop of Tyre Josias describe the loss of Jerusalem and most of the Crusader positions in the Holy Land. They agree to take up the cross and participate in a military expedition against Saladin. They also decide to impose a special tithe, known as the "Saladin Tithe," to help fund the Third Crusade. This tax amounts to one tenth of a person's income over a three year period; only those who participated on the Crusade were exempt - a great recruiting tool.
May 30, 1188 Saladin lays siege the fortress of Krak des Chevaliers (headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller in Syria and the largest of all the Crusader fortresses even before most had been captured by Saladin) but fails to take it.
July 1188 Saladin agrees to release Guy of Lusignan, king of Jerusalem. who had been captured at the Battle of Hattin a year before. Guy is under oath not to take up arms against Saladin again, but he manages to find a priest who declares the oath to an infidel invalid. The Marquis William of Montferrat is released at the same time.
August 1188 Henry II Plantagenet of England and Philip II of France meet again in France and nearly come to blows over their various political disagreements.
December 06, 1188 The fortress of Safed surrenders to Saladin.
1189 Last known Norse visit to North America occurs.
January 21, 1189 Troops for the third crusade, called in response to the victories of Muslims under the command of Saladin, began to gather under King Philip II Augustus of France, King Henry II of England (shortly followed by his son, King Richard I), and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. Frederick drowned the next year on the way to Palestine - German folklore developed that asserted he was hidden in a mountain waiting to return and lead Germany to a new and brighter future.
March 1189 Saladin returns to Damascus.
April 1189 Fifty-two warships from Pisa arrive at Tyre to aid in the city's defense.
May 11, 1189 German ruler Frederick I Barbarossa sets off on the Third Crusade. The march through Byzantine land has to be made quickly because Emperor Isaac II Angelus has signed a treaty with Saladin against the Crusaders.
May 18, 1189 Frederick I Barbarossa captures the Seljuk city of Iconium (Konya) (Konya, Turkey, located in central Anatolia).
July 06, 1189 King Henry II Plantagenet dies and is succeeded by his son, Richard Lionheart. Richard would only spend a small amount of time in England, leaving the administration of his kingdom to various appointed officials. He was not very concerned about England and didn't even learn much English - he was much more concerned with protecting his possessions in France and making a name for himself that would last through the ages.
July 15, 1189 Jabala Castle surrenders to Saladin.
July 29, 1189 Sahyun Castle surrenders to Saladin, who leads the assault personally, and the fortress is renamed Qalaat Saladin.
August 26, 1189 Baghras Castle is captured by Saladin.
August 28, 1189 Guy of Lusignan arrives at the gates Acre with a force far smaller than that in the city's Muslim garrison, but he is determined to have a city to call his own because Conrad of Montferrat refuses to turn control of Tyre over to him. Conrad is supported by the Balians and the Garniers, two of the most powerful families in Palestine, and lays claim to the crown Guy wears. Conrad's house of Montferrat is related to the Hohenstaufen and an ally of the Capetians, further complicating the political relationships among the leaders of the Crusade.
August 31, 1189 Guy of Lusignan launches an assault against the well-defended city of Acre and fails to take it, but his efforts attract most of those streaming into Palestine to participate in the Third Crusade.
September 1189 Danish and Frisian war ships arrive at Acre to participate in the siege by blockading the city by sea.
September 03, 1189 Richard the Lionheart is crowned king of England in a ceremony at Westminster. When Jews arrive with gifts, they are attacked, stripped naked, and whipped by a mob which then moves on to burn down houses in the Jewish quarter of London. Not until Christian houses catch fire do authorities move in to restore order. In the following months Crusaders slaughter hundreds of Jews throughout England.
September 15, 1189 Alarmed by the growing threat of the Crusaders camped outside of Acre, Saladin launches an attack on the Crusader camp which fails.
October 04, 1189 Joined by Conrad of Montferrat, Guy of Lusignan launches an attack on the Muslim camp defending Acre which nearly succeeds in routing Saladin's forces - but only at the expense of heavy casualties among the Christians. Among those captured and killed is Gerard de Ridefort, Master of the Knights Templar who had previously been capture and then ransomed off after the Battle of Hattin. Conrad himself was nearly captured as well, but he was rescued by his enemy Guy.
December 26, 1189 An Egyptian fleet reaches the besieged city of Acre but it unable to lift the sea blockade.
1190 Queen Sibylla of Jerusalem dies and Guy of Lusignan claims sole rule of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Both of their daughters had already died of disease a few days before, which means that Sibylla's sister Isabella was technically the successor in the eyes of many. Conrad in Tyre also claims the throne, however, and confusion over who rules divides the Crusader forces.
1190 The Teutonic Knights are established by Germans in Palestine who also create a hospital near Acre.
March 07, 1190 Crusaders slaughter Jews in Stamford, England.
March 16, 1190 Jews in York England committed mass suicide in order to avoid having to submit to baptism.
March 16, 1190 Jews in York are massacred by Crusaders preparing to set off for the Holy Land. Many killed themselves rather than fall into the hands of the Christians.
March 18, 1190 Crusaders on a rampage kill 57 Jews in Bury St. Edmonds, England
April 20, 1190 Philip II Augustus of France arrives at Acre to participate in the Third Crusade.
June 10, 1190 Wearing heavy armor, Frederick Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph River in Cilcia, after which the German forces of the Third Crusade fall apart and are devastated by Muslim attacks. This was especially unfortunate because unlike armies in the First and Second Crusade, the German army had managed to cross the plains of Anatolia without serious loss and Saladin was very concerned about what Frederick might accomplish. Eventually, a mere 5,000 of the original 100,000 German soldiers make it to Acre. Had Frederick lived, the entire course of the Third Crusade would have been altered - it likely would have been a success and Saladin would not have become such a revered hero in Muslim tradition.
June 24, 1190 Philip II of France and Richard the Lionheart of England break camp at Vezelay and head off for the Holy Land, officially launching the Third Crusade. Together their armies are estimated to total over 100,000 men.
October 04, 1190 After a number of his soldiers are killed in anti-English rioting, Richard I Lionheart leads a small force to capture Messina, Sicily. The Crusaders under Richard and Philip II of France would be staying in Sicily for the winter.
November 24, 1190 Conrad of Montferrat marries a reluctant Isabella, sister Sibylla, deceased wife of Guy of Lusignan. With this marriage questions about Guy's claim to the throne of Jerusalem (which he only held because of his original marriage to Sibylla) were made more urgent. Eventually the two are able to resolve their differences when Conrad recognizes Guy's claim to the crown of Jerusalem in exchange for Guy turning control of Sidon, Beirut, and Tyre over to Conrad.
February 05, 1191 In order to quell a long-simmering feud, Richard Lionheart and Tancred, king of Sicily, meet together at Catania.
March 1191 A ship loaded with corn arrives for the Crusader forces outside of Acre, giving the Crusaders hope and allowing the siege to continue.
March 30, 1191 King Philip of France leaves Sicily and sets sail for the Holy Land to begin his military campaign against Saladin.
April 10, 1191 King Richard Lionheart of England departs from Sicily with a fleet of over 200 ships, setting sail for what is left of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. His journey is not nearly so calm and quick as that of his colleague, Philip of France.
April 20, 1191 Philip II Augustus of France arrives to aid the Crusaders besieging Acre. Philip spends much of his time building siege engines and harassing the defenders on the walls.
May 06, 1191 Richard the Lionheart's Crusader fleet arrives in the port of Lemesos (now Limassol) in Cyprus where he begins his conquest of the island. Richard had been travelling from Sicily to Palestine but fierce storm scattered his fleet. Most of the ships collected at Rhodes but a couple, including those carrying the bulk of his treasure and Ferengaria of Navarre, the future Queen of England, were blown to Cyprus. Here Isaac Comnenus treated them shabbily - he refused to allow them to come ashore for water and the crew of one ship that wrecked was imprisoned. Richard demanded the release of all prisoners and all stolen treasure, but Isaac refused - to his later regret.
May 12, 1191 Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre, first-born daughter of King Sancho VI of Navarre.
June 01, 1191 The Count of Flanders is killed during the siege of Acre. Flemish soldiers and nobles had played important roles in the Third Crusade since the first reports of the fall of Jerusalem had been heard in Europe and the Count had been one of the first to take up the Cross and agree to participate in the Crusade.
June 05, 1191 Richard I the Lionheart departs Famagusta, Cyprus, and sets sail for the Holy Land.
June 06, 1191 Richard Lionheart, king of England, arrives at Tyre but Conrad of Montferrat refuses to allow Richard to enter the city. Richard had sided with Conrad's enemy, Guy of Lusignan, and so is made to camp on the beaches.
June 07, 1191 Disgusted with his treatment at the hands of Conrad of Montferrat, Richard Lionheart leaves Tyre and heads for Acre where the rest of the Crusading forces are besieging the city.
June 08, 1191 Richard I the Lionheart of England arrives with 25 galleys to aid the Crusaders besieging Acre. Richard's tactical skills and military training make a huge difference, allowing Richard to take command of the Crusader forces.
July 02, 1191 A large fleet of English ships arrives at Acre with reinforcements for the siege of the city.
July 04, 1191 The Muslim defenders of Acre offer to surrender to the Crusaders, but their offer is rebuffed.
July 08, 1191 English and French Crusaders manage to penetrate the outermost of Acre's two defensive walls.
July 11, 1191 Saladin launches a final assault on the 50,000 strong Crusader army besieging Acre but fails to break through.
July 12, 1191 Acre surrenders to Richard I the Lionheart of England and Philip II Augustus of France. During the siege 6 archbishops, 12 bishops, 40 earls, 500 barons, and 300,000 soldiers are reported killed. Acre would remain in Christian hands until 1291.
August 1191 Richard I the Lionheart takes the large Crusader army and marches down the coast of Palestine.
August 26, 1191 Richard I the Lionheart marches 2,700 Muslim soldiers out of Acre, onto the road of Nazareth in front of the forward positions of the Muslim army, and has them executed one by one. Saladin had for more than a month delayed on fulfilling his side of the agreement that had led to the surrender of Acre and Richard means this as a warning of what would happen if the delays continue.
September 07, 1191 Battle of Arsuf: Richard I the Lion Heart and Hugh, Duke of Burgundy, are ambushed by Saladin in Arsuf, a small town near Jaffa about 50 miles from Jerusalem. Richard had prepared for this and the Muslim forces are defeated.
1192 Muslims conquer Dehli and later all of Northern and Eastern India, establishing a Dehli sultanate. Hindus would suffer many periods of persecution at the hands of Muslim rulers.
January 20, 1192 After deciding that a siege of Jerusalem during the winter weather would be unwise, Richard the Lionheart's Crusading forces move into the ruined city of Ascalon, demolished by Saladin the previous year in order to deny it to the Crusaders.
April 1192 The population of Cyprus revolts against their rulers, the Knights Templar. Richard the Lionheart had sold Cyprus to them, but they were cruel overlords known for their high taxation.
April 20, 1192 Conrad of Monteferrat learns that king Richard now supported his claim on the throne of Jerusalem. Richard had previously supported Guy of Lusignan, but when he learned that none of the local barons supported Guy in any way, he chose not to oppose them. In order to prevent a civil war from breaking out, Richard would later sell the island of Cyprus to Guy, whose descendants would continue to rule it for another two centuries.
April 28, 1192 Conrad of Montferrat is murdered by two members of the sect of the Assassins who had, for the previous two months, posed as monks in order to gain his trust. The Assassins had not sided with Saladin against the Crusaders - instead, they were paying Conrad back for his capture of a shipload of Assassin treasure the year before. Because Conrad was dead and his rival Guy of Lusignan had already been deposed, the throne of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was now vacant.
May 05, 1192 Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem and wife of the now deceased Conrad of Montferrat (killed by assassins the month before), marries Henry of Champagne. A quick marriage was urged by the local barons so as to ensure political and social stability among the Christian Crusaders.
June 1192 Crusaders under the command of Richard the Lion Heart march on Jerusalem. but they are turned back. The Crusader efforts were seriously hampered by Saladin's scorched-earth tactics which denied the Crusaders food and water during their campaign.
September 02, 1192 The Treaty of Jaffa puts an end to hostilities of the Third Crusade. Negotiated between Richard I the Lion Heart and Saladin, Christian pilgrims are granted special rights of travel around Palestine and in Jerusalem. Richard had also managed to capture the cities of Daron, Jaffa, Acre, and Ascalon - an improvement over the situation when Richard first arrived, but not much of one. Although the Kingdom of Jerusalem was never large or secure, it was now still very weak and did not reach inland more than 10 miles at any point.
October 09, 1192 Richard I the Lion Heart, ruler of England, departs the Holy Land for home. On the way back he is taken hostage by Leopold of Austria and he doesn't see England again until 1194.
March 03, 1193 Saladin dies and his sons begin to fight over who will take control of the Ayyubid Empire which consists of Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and some of Iraq. Saladin's death is probably what saves the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem from being quickly defeated and allows Christian rulers to remain a while longer.
May 1193 Henry, king of Jerusalem. discovers that Pisan leaders had been conspiring with Guy of Cyprus to take over the city of Tyre. Henry arrests those responsible, but Pisan ships begin raiding the coast in retaliation, forcing Henry to get expel the Pisan merchants altogether.
1194 The last Seljuk Sultan, Toghril bin Arslan, is killed in battle against the Khwarazm-Shah Tekish.
February 20, 1194 Tancred, king of Sicily, dies.
May 1194 Death of Guy of Cyprus, originally Guy of Lusignan and once king of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Amalric of Lusignan, Guy's brother, is named his successor. Henry, king of Jerusalem. is able to make a treaty with Amalric. Three of Amalric's sons are married to three daughters of Isabella, two of which were also Henry's daughters.
1195 Alexius III deposes his brother Emperor Isaac II Angelus of Byzantium, blinding him and putting him in prison. Under Alexius the Byzantine Empire begins to fall apart.
1195 Battle of Alacros: Almohad leader Yaqib Aben Juzef (also known as el-Mansur, "the Victorious") calls for a Jihad against Castile. He gathers a massive army that includes Arabs, Africans, and others and marches against the forces of Alfonso VIII in Alacros. The Christian army is vastly outnumbered and its soldiers are slaughtered in large numbers.
1196 Berthold, Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexküll), launches the first armed conflict of the Baltic Crusades when he sets a Crusading army against local pagans in Livonia (modern Latvia and Estonia). Many are forcibly converted during the following years.
1197 - 1198 German Crusaders under the command of Emperor Henry VI launch attacks throughout Palestine, but fail to achieve any significant goals. Henry is the son of Frederick Barbarossa, a leader of the Second Crusade who tragically drowned on the way to Palestine before his forces could accomplish anything and Henry had been determined to finish what his father had started.
September 10, 1197 Henry of Champagne, king of Jerusalem. dies in Acre when he accidentally falls from a balcony. This was the second husband of Isabella's to die. The situation is urgent because the Crusader city of Jaffa is being threatened by Muslim forces under the command of Al-Adil, Saladin's brother. Amalric I of Cyprus is chosen as Henry's successor. After marrying Isabella, the daughter of Amalric I of Jerusalem. he becomes Amalric II, king of Jerusalem and Cyprus. Jaffa would be lost, but Amalric II is able to capture Beirut and Sidon.
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« Reply #182 on: December 31, 2007, 04:16:22 am »

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Timeline of the Crusades: Fourth Crusade 1198 - 1207
1198 - 1216 The power of the medieval papacy reaches its apex with the reign of Pope Innocent III (1161 - 1216) who managed to excommunicate both Holy Roman emperor Otto IV (1182 - 1218) and King John of England (c. 1167 - 1216) in 1209.
1198 - 1204 The Fourth Crusade is called to recapture Jerusalem. but it is diverted to Constantinople instead. The capital of the Byzantine Empire would be captured, sacked, and held by Latin rulers until 1261.
March 05, 1198 The Teutonic Knights are re-formed as a military order in a ceremony at Acre in Palestine.
August 1198 Pope Innocent III proclaims the launch of the Fourth Crusade.
December 1198 A special tax on churches is created for the purpose of funding the Fourth Crusade.
1199 A political Crusade is launched against Markward of Anweiler.
1199 Berthold, Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexküll), dies in battle and his successor Albert arrives with a new Crusading army.
February 19, 1199 Pope Innocent III issues a bull which assigns the uniform of a white tunic with a black cross to the Teutonic Knights. This uniform is worn during the Crusades.
April 06, 1199 Richard I Lionheart, king of England, dies from the effects of an arrow wound received during the siege of Chalus in France. Richard had been one of the leaders of the Third Crusade.
c. 1200 Muslim conquests in India started a decline of Buddhism in northern India, eventually resulting in its effective elimination in the nation of its origin.
1200 French nobles gather at the court of Theobald III of Champagne for a tournament. Here Fulk of Neuilly promotes the Fourth Crusade and they agree to "take the cross," electing Theobald their leader
1200 Saladin's brother, Al-Adil, takes control of the Ayyubid Empire.
1201 Death of Count Theobald III of Champagne, son of Henry I of Champagne and original leader of the Fourth Crusade. Boniface of Montferrat (brother of Conrad of Montferrat, an important figure in the Third Crusade) would be elected leader in Theobald's place.
1201 Alexius, son of deposed Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelus, escapes from prison and travels to Europe to seek help in recovering his throne.
1201 Even while negotiating with Europeans on a price for transporting Crusader to Egypt, Venetians negotiate a secret treaty with the sultan of Egypt, guaranteeing that nation against invasion.
1202 Albert, the third Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexküll), establishes the knightly crusading order known as the Swordbrothers (also sometimes referred to as the Livonian Order, Livonian Brothers of the Sword (latin Fratres militiae Christi), the Christ Knights, or The Militia of Christ of Livonia). Mostly non-landed members of the lower nobility, the Swordbrothers are separated into classes of knights, priests, and servants.
November 1202 Christians on the Fourth Crusade arrive at Venice in the hopes of being transported by ship to Venice, but they don't have the 85,000 marks required for payment so the Venetians, under doge Enrico Dandolo, barricades them on the island of Lido until he figures out what to do with them. Eventually, he decides that they can make up the difference by capturing some cities for Venice.
November 24, 1202 After just five days of fighting, Crusaders capture the Hungarian port of Zara, a Christian city on the coast of Dalmatia. The Venetians had once controlled Zara but lost it to the Hungarians and offered passage to Egypt to the Crusaders in exchange for Zara. The importance of this port had been growing and the Venetians feared the rivalry from the Hungarians. Pope Innocent III is infuriated by this and excommunicates the entire Crusade as well as the city of Venice, not that anyone seems to notice or care.
1203 Crusaders abandon the city of Zara and move on Constantinople. Alexius Angelus, son of deposed Byzantine Emperor Isaac II, offers the Crusaders 200,000 marks and the reunification of the Byzantine Church with Rome if they capture Constantinople for him.
April 06, 1203 Crusaders launch an attack on the Christian city of Constantinople.
June 23, 1203 A fleet carrying Crusaders on the Fourth Crusade enters Bosphorus.
July 17, 1203 Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, falls to Crusading forces from Western Europe. Deposed emperor Isaac II is freed and resumes rule alongside his son, Alexius IV, while Alexius III flees to Mosynopolis in Thrace. Unfortunately, there is no money to pay the Crusaders and the Byzantine nobility are infuriated at what happened. Thomas Morosini of Venice is installed as patriarch of Constantinople, increasing the rivalry between Eastern and Western churches.
1204 Albert, the third Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexküll), gets official approval from Pope Innocent III for his Crusade in the Baltic region.
February 1204 The Byzantine nobility re-imprison Isaac II, strangle Alexius IV, and install Alexius Ducas Murtzuphlos, brother-in-law of Alexius III, on the throne as Alexius V Ducas.
April 11, 1204 After months of not being paid and infuriated at the execution of their ally, Alexius III, soldiers of the Fourth Crusade once again attack Constantinople. Pope Innocent III had again ordered them not to attack fellow Christians, but the papal letter was suppressed by clergy on the scene.
April 12, 1204 The armies of the Fourth Crusade capture Constantinople again and establish the Latin Empire of Byzantium, but not before they sack the city and **** its inhabitants for three straight days - during Easter week. Alexius V Ducas is forced to flee to Thrace. Although Pope Innocent III protests at the behavior of the Crusaders, he does not hesitate to accept a formal reunion of the Greek and Latin churches.
May 16, 1204 Baldwin of Flanders becomes the first Latin Emperor of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire and French is made the official language. Boniface of Montferrat, the leader of the Fourth Crusade, goes on to capture the city of Thessalonica (second-largest Byzantine city) and founds the Kingdom of Thessalonica.
April 01, 1205 Death of Amalric II, king of both Jerusalem and Cyprus. His son, Hugh I, assumes control of Cyprus while John of Ibelin becomes regent for Amalric's daughter Maria for the kingdom of Jerusalem (even though Jerusalem is still in Muslim hands).
August 20, 1205 Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire, formerly the Byzantine Empire, after the death of Baldwin I.
1206 Mongol leader Temujin is proclaimed "Genghis Khan," which means "emperor within the Seas."
1206 Theodore I Lascaris assumes the title Emperor of Nicaea. After the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders, Byzantine Greeks spread throughout what is left of their empire. Theodore, son-in-law of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius III, sets himself up in Nicaea and leads a series of defensive campaigns against the Latin invaders. In 1259 Michael VIII Palaeologus would capture the throne and later capture Constantinople from the Latins in 1261.
May 1207 Raymond VI of Toulouse (descendant of Raymond IV or Toulouse, a leader of the First Crusade) refuses to assist in the suppression of the Cathars in southern France and is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.
September 04, 1207 Boniface of Montferrat, leader of the Fourth Crusade and founder the Kingdom of Thessalonica, is ambushed and killed by Kaloyan, Tsar of Bulgaria.
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« Reply #183 on: December 31, 2007, 04:16:56 am »

Rachel Dearth

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Timeline of the Crusades: Cathar & Baltic Crusades 1208 - 1300
1208 - 1229 A Crusade against the Cathars (Albigenses) in southern France is launched by Pope lnnocent III.
1208 Albert, the third Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexküll), makes strong advances in the Baltic Crusade by forcibly converting the Kur and Lett peoples to Christianity. Albert and the Swordbrothers make great use of the fact that most of the tribes in the region are not on good terms with each other. The most effective means for advancing Christianity is to conquer one group, which would not be aided by anyone else, and then convince them to launch an attack on a neighbor whom they already disliked. In this manner one tribe after another was absorbed into Christendom.
January 1208 Pierre de Castelnau, a papal legate in southern France who had been making some progress in converting Cathar heretics (also known as Albigensians) to orthodox Catholicism, is murdered. This sparks an outcry and, later this same year, a violent Crusade against the Cathar and the Waldenses in Southern France called by Pope Innocent III.
June 1209 Raymond VI of Toulouse agrees to the demands of Pope Innocent III that he act against the Cathars after finding that more than 10,000 Crusaders had gathered at Lyon to lay waste to Cathar areas in southern France.
July 22, 1209 The city of Beziers in southern France is sacked and its population of around 10,000 massacred by the Abbot of Citeaux during the Crusade against the Cathars. Caesar of Heisterbach, the papal representative, records Abbot Arnaud-Amaury saying "Caedite eos! Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius" (Latin for "Slay them all! God will know his own.")
August 01, 1209 Crusaders arrive at the French town of Carcassonne, controlled by Raymond-Roger de Trencavel and believed to be a Cathar stronghold.
August 07, 1209 During the Crusader siege of Carcassonne the city's access to water is cut off. Raymond-Roger de Trencavel attempts to negotiate but is taken prisoner while under a flag of truce.
August 15, 1209 The city of Carcassonne surrenders to the Crusaders. Unlike at Beziers the citizens are not killed but they are all forced to leave. Raymond-Roger de Trencavel is executed and Simon de Montfort, commander of the Crusader army, assumes control of the city and surrounding region for himself.
December 1209 Crusaders attack the castle of Cabaret, near the French town of Lastours. Pierre-Roger de Cabarat manages to hold out, however.
March 1210 Crusaders in southern France lay siege to Bram and, after capturing it, kill the Cathars living there.
July 22, 1210 Citizens of the fortified town of Minerve in southern France surrender to the Crusaders seeking out Cathars. Those who were willing to convert were allowed to do so but the 140 who refused were burned at the stake.
August 1210 Crusaders in southern France trying to root out the Cathar movement lay siege to the town of Termes.
December 1210 The town of Termes falls to the Crusaders after a siege that had lasted since August.
1211 Crusading Bishop Albert lays the cornerstone for Riga's Dome Cathedral. By this point much of modern-day Latvia had been converted to Christianity and German merchants are settling throughout the region.
March 1211 Crusaders return to the castle of Cabaret and this time Pierre-Roger de Cabarat surrenders.
May 1211 Crusaders capture the castle of Aimery de Montréal, hanging several knights and burning several hundred Cathars who had fought there.
June 1211 Crusaders attempt to besiege the city of Toulouse, but they are short of supplies and must withdraw.
September 1211 Raymond of Toulouse leads an attack Simon de Monfort at Castelnaudary. Monfort is able to escape, but Castelnaudary falls to the Cathars and Raymond goes on to liberate over thirty Cathar towns in the province of Toulouse before his counter-Crusade peters out at Lastours.
1212 The Children's Crusade is supposedly launched by the 12-year old French boy Stephen de Cloyes. More than 50,000 children are thought to have been sold into slavery, but many historians disbelieve that this Crusade ever occurred.
September 12, 1213 Battle of Muret: Peter II of Aragon, I of Catalonia comes to the aid of the Cathars in Toulouse and Languedoc who are being harassed by Crusaders. Peter is killed and his army flees.
1214 Raymond of Toulouse is forced to flee to England.
November 1214 Simon de Montfort entered Périgord captures the Cathar castles of Domme and Montfort.
1215 The Magna Carta is signed and English barons forced King John to agree to a statement of their rights.
1215 - 1221 The Fifth Crusade is launched as an attack on Egypt but it ultimately ends in failure.
December 14, 1215 The Fourth Lateran Council accepts the Constitution Ad Liberandum in order to help fund the Fifth Crusade.
April 1216 Raymond of Toulouse and his son, both Cathar heretics, return to southern France, raise a large force from the various Cathar towns that had been captured by the Crusaders, and begin to strike back.
1217 The Swordbrothers, a Christian army first organized in 1202, invades the region which today makes up Estonia for the purpose of wiping out local pagan beliefs.
September 1217 Raymond of Toulouse recaptures the city of Toulouse from the Crusaders.
December 1217 Armies of the Fifth Crusade attack Mount Tabor.
1218 Newgate Prison, London's infamous debtor prison, is completed.
1218 The Swordbrothers begin their conquest of Estonia.
1219 Pope Honorius III sends Cardinal Pelagius of Albano to the Holy Land to lead the Fifth Crusade.
June 03, 1219 The French town of Marmande falls to the Crusaders.
1220 During the Baltic Crusade, Conrad of Masovia drives the pagan Prussians out of Chelmno Land.
November 22, 1220 Pope Honorius III crowns Holy Roman Emperor Frederick in the expectation that Frederick would support the Church and participate in the Fifth Crusade.
1222 Raymond of Toulouse, defender of the Cathars against the Crusaders, dies and his son Raymond takes over for him.
1223 Pagans from the island of Saaremaa revolt against new Christian leaders, recapturing most of Estonia. They would lose it all again by the next year.
1224 Amaury de Montfort, leader of the Crusade against the Cathars, flees Carcassonne. The son of Raymond-Roger de Trencaval returns from exile and reclaims the area.
November 1225 Raymond, son of Raymond of Toulouse, is excommunicated.
June 1226 The Crusade against Cathars in southern France is renewed.
1227 Medieval theologian Thomas Aquinas is born. Aquinas codified Catholic theology in works like Summa Theologica, marking the high point of the medieval scholastic movement.
1228 - 1229 The Sixth Crusade is led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, King of Jerusalem through his marriage to Yolanda, daughter of John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem. Frederick had promised to participate in the Fifth Crusade but failed to do so, thus he was under a great deal of pressure to do something substantive this time around. This Crusade would end with a peace treaty granting Christians control of several important holy sites, including Jerusalem.
June 28, 1228 Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen officially (and finally) sets forth on a Crusade.
1229 The Teutonic Order launches a Crusade to conquer Prussia.
1229 - 1231 James I of Aragon launches a Crusade in Spain, conquering Valencia and the Balearic Islands.
1229 Death of Albert, the third Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexküll). Albert had been a major driving force behind the Baltic Crusade.
February 18, 1229 Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen signs a treaty with Sultan Malik Al-Kamil of Egypt and thus acquires controls of Jerusalem. Nazareth, and Bethlehem from Muslim forces. Al-Kamil had been impressed with Frederick's knowledge of Arabic language and culture, leading to a mutual exchange of ideas and respect which allowed the dramatic and unexpected peace treaty to be signed. In exchange, Frederick agrees to support Al-Kamil against his own nephew, al-Nasir. Frederick had been essentially forced to negotiate because at the time he had been excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX and most of the Crusaders in the region (for example, Patriarch Gerald of Lausanne, the Knights Hospitaller, and the Knights Templar) simply failed to obey his commands. Gregory refuses to accept the treaty as valid and doesn't support it.
March 18, 1229 Frederick II crowns himself king of Jerusalem in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Conrad IV of Germany had become titular King of Jerusalem the previous year with his father Frederick II as regent. Frederick's wife, Yolanda of Jerusalem and titular Queen of Jerusalem. had died the previous year, so Frederick took the crown for himself.
April 12, 1229 A peace treaty formally ends the Albigensian Crusade in southern France.
November 1229 The Inquisition is established in Toulouse to eliminate the last of the Cathars hiding in the Languedoc region.
1233 The Inquisition launches a ruthless campaign against the Cathars, burning any that they find and even digging up bodies to burn.
1234 The Teutonic Knights arrive in the Baltic region to assist in fending off invasions from pagan Prussians.
May 12, 1237 By decree of Pope Gregory IX, the crusading order "The Swordbrothers" is merged into the order,"The Teutonic Knights." Both orders had been heavily involved in Crusades against pagan Prussians; the Swordbrothers, however, had experienced numerous defeats (especially at the Battle of Saule in 1236) and their growing weakness necessitated that they join with the Teutonic Knights.
October 1240 Raymond-Roger de Trencavel is defeated at Carcassonne by Crusaders going after Cathars.
April 09, 1241 Battle of Wahlstatt (Polish: Legnickie Pole): A Crusade against the Mongols is proclaimed after the Teutonic Knights and Henry II the Pious, duke of Poland, are defeated by the Mongols. Mongol leader Batu Khan, son of Ghengis Khan, is only stopped from continuing into the heart of Europe by the news of his father's death, causing him to immediately return home.
March 16, 1244 Montsegur, the largest Cathar stronghold, falls after a nine month siege.
1252 The Teutonic Knights capture the Lithuanian city of Klaipeda from local pagans. Lithuania would be access to the Baltic Sea until the 20th century.
1253 Pagan leader Mindaugas of Lithuania agrees to convert to Christianity.
1255 The Teutonic Knights build their stronghold of Königsberg.
May 1255 The last Cathar stronghold - an isolated fort at Quéribus - is captured.
1260 Battle of Durbe: Lithuanians defeat the Livonian Teutonic Knights
1263 Mindaugas, first and only Christian king of Lithuania, is assassinated by his pagan cousin Treniota.
1284 The Teutonic Knights complete their conquest of Prussia, eliminating the local Prussian population as an independent ethnic group. The Prussians would be assimilated by the Germans, Poles, and Lithuanians while the Prussian name would be adopted by the Germans for themselves.
1309 The Teutonic Order moves its headquarters to Marienburg, Prussia.
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« Reply #184 on: December 31, 2007, 04:17:48 am »

Rachel Dearth

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Timeline of the Crusades: Fifth Crusade 1215 - 1221
1215 - 1221 The Fifth Crusade is launched as an attack on Egypt but it ultimately ends in failure.
April 1215 The Fifth Crusade is proclaimed by Pope Innocent III in the bull Quia maior. Innocent does not want European leaders to go off on the Crusade because in the past they had managed to mess things up by looking out for their own interests more than those of the church. Instead, Innocent hopes that individual Christians will answer his call and gather under his own command. Every crusader is promised an indulgence for their sins, even if they simply help fund the expedition and don't enter into any danger themselves.
December 14, 1215 The Fourth Lateran Council accepts the Constitution Ad Liberandum in order to help fund the Fifth Crusade.
1216 Italian Crusaders arrive at Acre.
1216 Frederick is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome by Pope Honorius III.
April 1216 Raymond of Toulouse and his son, both Cathar heretics, return to southern France, raise a large force from the various Cathar towns that had been captured by the Crusaders, and begin to strike back.
1217 The Swordbrothers, a Christian army first organized in 1202, invades the region which today makes up Estonia for the purpose of wiping out local pagan beliefs.
1217 Leopold VI of Austria and Andrew II of Hungary leave for Acre to mount a Crusade against the Muslims. In the Holy Land they are joined by John of Brienne, nominal king of Jerusalem. Hugh I of Cyprus, and Prince Bohemund IV of Antioch. Andrew II ends up leaving without accomplishing anything. German Emperor Frederick II wants to join, but he is barred by Pope Honorius III because he is already powerful enough to challenge the position of the papacy and Honorius doesn't want his power or popularity to grow.
1217 Birth of Baldwin II, last Latin Emperor of Constantinople.
April 09, 1217 Peter of Courtenay is crowned Latin Emperor of Constantinople at Rome by Pope Honorius III.
September 1217 Raymond of Toulouse recaptures the city of Toulouse from the Crusaders.
December 1217 Armies of the Fifth Crusade attack Mount Tabor.
1218 Newgate Prison, London's infamous debtor prison, is completed.
1218 Al-Adil, Saladin's brother, is succeeded as Sutan of Egypt by his son Malik Al-Kamil.
1218 The Swordbrothers begin their conquest of Estonia.
May 27, 1218 Crusaders under the command of John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem. lay siege to the city of Damietta with the aid of a Frisian fleet. Even after they are reinforced and their numbers reach 35,000, they are outnumbered by 70,000 Muslims. In an interesting twist, the Crusaders form an alliance with Kay Kaus I, Seljuk Sultan of Rum in Anatolia. Kaus attacks the Ayyubids in Syria so that the Crusaders won't have to fight on two fronts.
June 25, 1218 Death of Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester and leader of the Crusade against the Cathars in southern France. Montfort had been attacking the city of Toulouse in order to recapture it from Raymond.
August 25, 1218 Crusaders laying siege to Damietta take one of the towers outside the city.
1219 Mongol armies led by Genghis Khan invade Muslim territories, reaching Persia by 1221 and are only stopped in Syria in 1260.
1219 Pope Honorius III sends Cardinal Pelagius of Albano to the Holy Land to lead the Fifth Crusade.
June 03, 1219 The French town of Marmande falls to the Crusaders.
November 05, 1219 The Crusaders' siege of Damietta finally succeeds.
1220 Muslim lands in central Asia begin to be overrun by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. The first places captures are Bukhara and Samarkand.
1220 During the Baltic Crusade, Conrad of Masovia drives the pagan Prussians out of Chelmno Land.
November 22, 1220 Pope Honorius III crowns Holy Roman Emperor Frederick in the expectation that Frederick would support the Church and participate in the Fifth Crusade.
09, 1221 Crusaders are driven out of the city of Damietta by Malik Al-Kamil.
July 1221 Crusaders under the command of Cardinal Pelagius set out for Cairo.
August 30, 1221 Battle of al-Mansura: Crusaders under the command of Cardinal Pelagius, Papal Legate, are defeated in the Nile Delta and are forced to surrender. The Crusaders had been offered control of Jerusalem and other Christian sites in Palestine in exchange for the return of Damietta, but Cardinal Pelagius refuses and turns a potential victory into a stunning defeat that effectively ends the Fifth Crusade.

Timeline of the Crusades: Sixth Crusade 1222 - 1244
1222 Now in his seventies, John of Brienne travels to Europe in order to find a husband for his eleven-year-old daughter, Yolanda. The task is difficult because whoever marries her will rule the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. becoming not only responsible for what little remains of it but also for the recapture of the many cities controlled by Muslims - including Jerusalem itself. This is an honor that few desire, but Frederick II decides to accept, even though an actual marriage would not occur until she reached the legal age of 14.
1222 Death of Theodore I Lascaris, founder of the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea. He is succeeded by John III Ducas Vatatzes.
1223 Pagans from the island of Saaremaa revolt against new Christian leaders, recapturing most of Estonia. They would lose it all again by the next year.
July 14, 1223 Philip II Augustus of France dies. Philip had been one of the leaders of the Third Crusade and leaves an inheritance of 50,000 marks to the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1224 Amaury de Montfort, leader of the Crusade against the Cathars, flees Carcassonne. The son of Raymond-Roger de Trencaval returns from exile and reclaims the area.
October 1225 Yolanda, Queen of Jerusalem. arrives in Brindisi with her father, John of Brienne, for her marriage to Frederick II of Hohenstaufen.
November 1225 Raymond, son of Raymond of Toulouse, is excommunicated.
November 09, 1225 Frederick II of Hohenstaufen marries Yolanda (Isabella) of Jerusalem. daughter of John of Brienne, nominal king of Jerusalem. Many expected this marriage to turn the tide in Palestine against the Muslims. For years the local barons had been selling off their estates to the military monastic orders which did little to press the Christian cause against Islam.
June 1226 The Crusade against Cathars in southern France is renewed.
1227 Medieval theologian Thomas Aquinas is born. Aquinas codified Catholic theology in works like Summa Theologica, marking the high point of the medieval scholastic movement.
1227 Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen is excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX for having failed thus far to honor his promise to launch the Sixth Crusade
1228 - 1229 The Sixth Crusade is led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, King of Jerusalem through his marriage to Yolanda, daughter of John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem. Frederick had promised to participate in the Fifth Crusade but failed to do so, thus he was under a great deal of pressure to do something substantive this time around. This Crusade would end with a peace treaty granting Christians control of several important holy sites, including Jerusalem.
1228 Baldwin II is crowned emperor of the Latin Empire in Constantinople, with John of Brienne as regent.
April 25, 1228 While in Palermo, Yolanda, Queen of Jerusalem. gives birth to Conrad, son of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. The delivery is hard on the sixteen-year-old and she dies a few days later.
May 01, 1228 Death of Yolanda, Queen of Jerusalem. Yolanda was sixteen years old and had just given birth to Conrad, son of German emperor Frederick II. With her death, Jerusalem was now ruled by Frederick alone, a man with no blood ties to the first families that had captured Jerusalem and the Holy Lands. In effect, Jerusalem was now ruled by foreigners again.
June 28, 1228 Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen officially (and finally) sets forth on a Crusade.
July 21, 1228 Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen arrives in Cyprus to participate in the Sixth Crusade. An outbreak of fever among the Crusaders forces Frederick to return, but Pope Gregory IX doesn't accept this as a valid reason - besides, Gregory was looking for an excuse to punish Frederick because for years he had been infringing up on papal lands and power throughout Italy. Frederick is excommunicated and a Crusade is actually preached against him, with his lands around Naples occupied by the pope.
1229 The Teutonic Order launches a Crusade to conquer Prussia.
1229 - 1231 James I of Aragon launches a Crusade in Spain, conquering Valencia and the Balearic Islands.
1229 Death of Albert, the third Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexküll). Albert had been a major driving force behind the Baltic Crusade.
February 18, 1229 Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen signs a treaty with Sultan Malik Al-Kamil of Egypt and thus acquires controls of Jerusalem. Nazareth, and Bethlehem from Muslim forces. Al-Kamil had been impressed with Frederick's knowledge of Arabic language and culture, leading to a mutual exchange of ideas and respect which allowed the dramatic and unexpected peace treaty to be signed. In exchange, Frederick agrees to support Al-Kamil against his own nephew, al-Nasir. Frederick had been essentially forced to negotiate because at the time he had been excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX and most of the Crusaders in the region (for example, Patriarch Gerald of Lausanne, the Knights Hospitaller, and the Knights Templar) simply failed to obey his commands. Gregory refuses to accept the treaty as valid and doesn't support it.
March 18, 1229 Frederick II crowns himself king of Jerusalem in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Conrad IV of Germany had become titular King of Jerusalem the previous year with his father Frederick II as regent. Frederick's wife, Yolanda of Jerusalem and titular Queen of Jerusalem. had died the previous year, so Frederick took the crown for himself.
April 12, 1229 A peace treaty formally ends the Albigensian Crusade in southern France.
May 1229 Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen returns home and regains control of his lands around Naples from Pope Gregory IX.
August 1229 Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen arrives at a peace treaty with Pope Gregory IX.
November 1229 The Inquisition is established in Toulouse to eliminate the last of the Cathars hiding in the Languedoc region.
1230 Returning Crusaders bring leprosy to Europe.
1233 The Inquisition launches a ruthless campaign against the Cathars, burning any that they find and even digging up bodies to burn.
1234 The Teutonic Knights arrive in the Baltic region to assist in fending off invasions from pagan Prussians.
1236 The city of Cordova, controlled to the Moors, falls to the Christian kingdom of Castile.
1237 Death of John of Brienne, former regent of Jerusalem and Latin Emperor of Constantinople. His successor is Baldwin II.
1237 Batu Khan, son of Ghengis Khan, crosses the Volga river with an army of at least 150,000 horsemen. In short order he conquers all of the Russian principalities and defeats both the Hungarians and the Poles. Later he would be stopped from marching right into the heart of Europe only by the news of his father's death, causing him to immediately return home.
May 12, 1237 By decree of Pope Gregory IX, the crusading order "The Swordbrothers" is merged into the order,"The Teutonic Knights." Both orders had been heavily involved in Crusades against pagan Prussians; the Swordbrothers, however, had experienced numerous defeats (especially at the Battle of Saule in 1236) and their growing weakness necessitated that they join with the Teutonic Knights.
1238 Malik Al-Kamil, Sultan of Egypt and nephew of Saladin, dies.
February 18, 1239 The truce between Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and Sultan Malik Al-Kamil, signed to end the Sixth Crusade, officially ends.
1240 Mongols capture Moscow and destroy Kiev.
1240 The Sultan of Egypt agrees to turn over control of all lands west of the Jordan earlier captured by Saladin to the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
October 1240 Raymond-Roger de Trencavel is defeated at Carcassonne by Crusaders going after Cathars.
1241 The first person recorded to be hanged, drawn, and quartered in England is pirate William Marise.
April 09, 1241 Battle of Wahlstatt (Polish: Legnickie Pole): A Crusade against the Mongols is proclaimed after the Teutonic Knights and Henry II the Pious, duke of Poland, are defeated by the Mongols. Mongol leader Batu Khan, son of Ghengis Khan, is only stopped from continuing into the heart of Europe by the news of his father's death, causing him to immediately return home.
April 05, 1242 Battle on Lake Peipus (Chudskoye): Russian forces under Prince Alexander Nevsky utterly defeat an army of Teutonic Knights on the frozen Lake Peipus.
1243 The Sultan of Syria and Egypt offers to withdraw Muslims from the Temple Mount area in Jerusalem in order to get the Franks to support him.
March 16, 1244 Montsegur, the largest Cathar stronghold, falls after a nine month siege.
July 11, 1244 Khorezmian Turkish horsemen launch an attack on Jerusalem. Khwarezmia is at this time a state located around the Aral Salt Flats near the Caspian Sea.
August 23, 1244 http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blxtn_jerusalem.htm falls to the Khorzmian horsemen who had begun attacking the city the previous month. Large numbers of the city's inhabitants are slaughtered.
October 17, 1244 Battle of LaForbie: A large army of Crusaders is utterly destroyed by Muslims near Gaza. Egyptian forces are commanded by Baibars, a Mamluk soldier who would later lead a revolt against the Egyptian Sultan and take control of the region.

Timeline of the Crusades: Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Crusades 1245 - 1300
July 11, 1244 Khorezmian Turkish horsemen launch an attack on Jerusalem. Khwarezmia is at this time a state located around the Aral Salt Flats near the Caspian Sea.
August 23, 1244 http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blxtn_jerusalem.htm falls to the Khorzmian horsemen who had begun attacking the city the previous month. Large numbers of the city's inhabitants are slaughtered.
October 17, 1244 Battle of LaForbie: A large army of Crusaders is utterly destroyed by Muslims near Gaza. Egyptian forces are commanded by Baibars, a Mamluk soldier who would later lead a revolt against the Egyptian Sultan and take control of the region.
1245 King Louis IX of France (Saint Louis) declares his intent to launch a Crusade against the Muslims in the Middle East. By this point the Crusade against the Cathars in southern France is basically over and his relative Alphonse was in charge in Toulouse.
1247 Traditional date for the death of Robin Hood.
1247 Egypt captures Jerusalem from the Khorezmians.
1248 Muslim control of Spain is reduced to the Kingdom of Granada which survives for over two more centuries.
1248 - 1254 The Seventh Crusade is led by King Louis IX of France (Saint Louis). The Great Khan even sends representatives to Louis to let him know that he is willing to help in the conquest of the Holy Land and the restoration of Jerusalem to Christian control - in reality, though, the Mongols were negotiating with both sides and had no intention of helping anyone. In this, his first of two Crusades, Louis would end up capturing the Egyptian city of Damietta, but it was given up as ransom when he himself was captured during the battle for Cairo.
November 23, 1248 Ferdinand III of Castile captures Seville, Spain. Muslim control of Spain is reduced to the Kingdom of Granada which would survive for over two more centuries.
June 06, 1249 King Louis IX of France reaches and occupies the Egyptian city of Damietta. Louis focuses first and foremost on Egypt rather than sites in Syria because he hopes that this will provide a solid base from which to attack the rest of the Holy Land.
November 1249 King Louis IX of France begins to march his troops from Damietta to Cairo.
February 08, 1250 Battle of al-Mansurah: Crusaders led by King Louis IX of France move from Damietta to Cairo along the Nile River until they meet Emir Fakr-ed-din at the head of a army of 70,000 at Ashmoun Canal by the town of al-Mansurah. This is the same spot where the Fifth Crusade had met defeat. After a standoff of six weeks, a local Coptic Christian shows the Crusaders a way to cross the canal and in a surprise attack they route the Egyptians still in their encampment. Unfortunately, the French choose to follow the fleeing Egyptians to al-Mansurah despite the lack of reinforcements and they suffer heavy casualties in the process. Robert of Artois (brother of Louis IX) and William of Salisbury (leading an English force) are both killed along with most of the Knights Templar who had followed them.
April 06, 1250 Battle of Fariskur: King Louis IX is captured along with his army and ransomed in exchange for the surrender of Damietta - the only real achievement of the Crusade. Louis is lucky to be released at all because the difficulty with caring for the large numbers of prisoners led to the Egyptians executing many of them. This is the final battle in the Seventh Crusade.
May 1250 Turanshah, the last Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt in a dynasty founded by Saladin, is murdered and replaced by his Mamluk slave-general Aibek, founder the Mamluk Dynasty. King Louis IX would actually form an alliance with the Mamluks shortly after this. The word "Mamluk" literally means "one who is owned," or "slave," a reference to the fact that the Mamluks started out as slaves.
1251 The last of the Egyptian-based dynasties, the Mamluk dynasty, took over the caliphate until 1517 when Egypt fell under the control of the Ottoman Turkish Empire.
1251 The "Crusade of the Shepherds" is launched.
1251 The last of the Egyptian-based dynasties, the Mamluk dynasty, takes over the caliphate until 1517 when Egypt falls under the control of the Ottoman Turkish Empire.
1252 The Teutonic Knights capture the Lithuanian city of Klaipeda from local pagans. Lithuania would be access to the Baltic Sea until the 20th century.
1253 Pagan leader Mindaugas of Lithuania agrees to convert to Christianity.
1253 Friar William of Rubruck visits the court of the Great Mongol Khan Mongke, creating a detailed description of Mongol customs and beliefs before their conversion to Islam.
November 03, 1254 Death of John III Ducas Vatatzes, Byzantine emperor (Empire of Nicaea). He is succeeded by Theodore II Lascaris.
1255 The Teutonic Knights build their stronghold of Königsberg.
May 1255 The last Cathar stronghold - an isolated fort at Quéribus - is captured.
January 1256 Hulagu, son of the Great Khan, wipes out the Assassins of Persia.
1258 Birth of Osman, founder of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. His father was Etrogrul, commander of a tribe of Oghuz Turks near the Sea of Marmara.
February 10, 1258 The Abbasid period ends with the destruction of Baghdad by the Mongols. The Mongols had tried and failed to take Baghdad in 1245. Now, after a series of devastating floods, the city's defenses had been weakened, and Hülegü, grandson of Genghis Khan, leads the victorious invasion - one which kills an estimated 800,000 citizens of the city. Thus begins a long period of economic, political, and cultural decline in Iraq that is only overcome in the sixteenth century.
August 1258 Death of Theodore II Lascaris, Byzantine emperor (Empire of Nicaea). He is succeeded by John IV Lascaris, just eight years old. Michael Palaeologus is made regent and later he makes himself co-emperor as Michael VIII.
1259 The Great Khan dies.
1259 Battle of Pelagonia: Greek forces defeat the Latins of Achaea.
1260 Battle of Durbe: Lithuanians defeat the Livonian Teutonic Knights
September 03, 1260 Battle of Ain Jalut: The Mamluks of Egypt defeat the invading Mongols, thus preventing any further Mongol advance into Egypt and North Africa.
October 23, 1260 Baibars, a Mamluk leader, is named Sultan of Egypt.
July 25, 1261 Michael VIII Palaeologus (1224 - 1282) finally drives the Latin rulers out of Constantinople and reestablishes Eastern Orthodox rule after 50 years. To solidify his own position he has John IV Lascaris, last of the Lascaris line and his co-emperor, blinded and thus rendered ineligible to become emperor.
1263 Mindaugas, first and only Christian king of Lithuania, is assassinated by his pagan cousin Treniota.
1265 Dante Dante Alighieri is born.
1265 Baibars, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, captures Caesarea and Haifa.
February 26, 1266 The Battle of Benevento takes place.
1267 Kublai Kahn establishes the city of Beijing.
1267 King Louis IX of France, disturbed by the many gains of the Mamluks in Egypt, calls for a new Crusade.
1268 Baibars, Sultan of Egypt, captures the city of Jaffa.
May 18, 1268 The Mamluks of Egypt under the command of Sultan Baibars take the city of Antioch and kill most of its inhabitants. The physical destruction of the city is so extensive that it would never again play an important strategic or commercial role in the region, eventually being overtaken by the port city of Alexandretta (Iskenderun).
August 23, 1268 The Battle of Tagliacozzo occurs.
1269 The Almohad (al-Muwahhidun) Dynasty falls. Taking the name "the Unitarians," this was a group of Berber Muslims which had supplanted the Almoravid (al-Murabitun) Dynasty in 1147 and was inspired by the teachings of reformist Berber scholar Ibn Tumart.
June 30, 1270 King Louis IX of France (Saint Louis) leads the Eighth Crusade (his second Crusade) as an attack against Tunisia.
August 25, 1270 King Louis IX of France dies in Tunisia while on the Eighth Crusade, his second Crusade. He is reluctantly replaced by his brother Charles of Anjou, King of Sicily.
1271 Marco Polo sets off to visit the court of Kublai Khan (grandson of Genghis Khan).
1271 - 1272 King Edward I of England launches the Ninth Crusade against Mamluk sultan Baibers. Edward had travelled to Tunis to join Louis IX but arrived too late, so continued into the Holy Land on his own.
1271 Thomas Agni of Cosenza becomes the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
April 08, 1271 Mamluk sultan Baibars conquers the Krak des Chevaliers, headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller in Syria.
November 21, 1272 Edward returns home to England when he hears that his father Henry III has died.
October 1273 Death of Baldwin II, the last emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Baldwin's reign had effectively ended when Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptured Constantinople in 1261, but European leaders continued to recognize his claim. Once he dies, however, the Latin Empire of Constantinople also ceases to exist.
1274 Mongols, led by Kublai Khan, attempted to invade Japan.
May 07, 1274 In France the Second Council of Lyons opens.
May 18, 1274 The Second Council of Lyon issues its Crusade decree, Constitutiones Pro Zelo Fidei. At this same Council Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor, agreed to a unification of the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Churches.
July 01, 1277 Baibars, Sultan of Egypt, dies.
September 1277 With the arrival of the Vicar of Charles of Anjou in Acre, the Kingdom of Jerusalem is split.
1279 Syrian leader Qalawun succeeds Baibars as Sultan of Egypt.
1280 Eyeglasses are invented and later improved upon in the late medieval period.
1281 Qalawun, Sultan of Egypt, defeats a Mongol army near Homs.
1283 - 1302 A Crusade against Sicilians and Aragonese is launched.
1284 The Teutonic Knights complete their conquest of Prussia, eliminating the local Prussian population as an independent ethnic group. The Prussians would be assimilated by the Germans, Poles, and Lithuanians while the Prussian name would be adopted by the Germans for themselves.
1285 French forces launch a Crusade against Aragon.
June 04, 1286 The Kingdom of Jerusalem is reunited under the rule of King Henry II of Cyprus.
April 26, 1289 Mamluks from Egypt capture the city of Tripoli.
1290 Margaret, Maid of Norway, dies and leaves a struggle for the throne of Scotland - 13 people claim title of King.
1290 Qalawun, Sultan of Egypt, dies and is succeeded by his son, Al-Ashraf Khalil.
May 18, 1291 Acre, the last territory in Palestine taken by the first Crusaders, falls to invading Muslim forces. Around 60,000 Christians are believed to have perished. This is the end of a Christian military presence in the Near East and the task of spreading Christianity is left to friars who preach among the people.
July 1291 The Mamluks capture Beirut and Sidon.
August 1291 Crusaders are forced to evacuate their fortresses at Tortosa and Chateau Pelerin.
1292 Birth of John VI Cantacuzene, Byzantine Emperor who would allow Turkish military forces to first cross into Europe in order to get their aid against a rival for the Byzantine throne.
1295 Mongol leader Ghazan Khan converts to Islam, ending the line of Tantric Buddhist rulers.
1296 Edward I of England deposes John Balliol from the Scottish throne, taking control of Scotland.
1297 At the Battle of Cambuskenneth, Scottish patriot William Wallace defeats an English army.
1298 The longbow revolutionizes warfare at the Battle of Falkirk.
1299 The city of Venice signs a peace treaty with the Turks.
1299 - 1326 Reign of Othman, founder of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. He defeats the Seljuks.
1300 The last Muslims in Sicily are forcibly converted to Christianity. Although Sicily had been reconquered by the Normans in 1098, Muslims had been allowed to continue to practice their faith and even formed important elements of various Sicilian military forces.

http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blchron_xian_crusadesmap.htm

Timeline of the Crusades: Ottoman Empire on the Offensive, 1300 - 1600
1299 - 1326 Reign of Othman, founder of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. He defeats the Seljuks.
1300 The last Muslims in Sicily are forcibly converted to Christianity. Although Sicily had been reconquered by the Normans in 1098, Muslims had been allowed to continue to practice their faith and even formed important elements of various Sicilian military forces.
1302 Mamluk Turks destroy the garrison of the Order of the Temple on the island of Ruad (off the Syrian coast).
1303 Mongols are defeated near Damascus, thus ending the Mongol threat on Europe and the Middle East.
1305 First reported act of displaying a head on the London Bridge occurs: Sir William Wallace, Scottish patriot.
1309 The Teutonic Order moves its headquarters to Marienburg, Prussia.
1310 The Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers move their headquarters to Rhodes.
1310 First reported use of official torture in England occurs: against the Templars.
May 12, 1310 On charges of heresy, fifty-four Knights Templar are burned at the stake in France.
March 22, 1312 The Order of the Knights Templar is officially suppressed
1314 Battle at Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats the armies of Edward I and gains Scottish independence. Edward I dies in 1307 during a march north to defeat Bruce.
March 18, 1314 Thirty-Nine French Knights Templar are burned at the stake.
1315 Bad weather and crop failures result in famines across northwestern Europe. Unsanitary conditions and malnutrition increase the death rate. Even after the revival of agricultural conditions, weather disasters reappear. A mixture of war, famine and plague in the Late Middle Ages reduce the population by half.
1317 Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, lays siege to the Christian city of Bursa. It would not finally surrender until 1326, the year of Othman's death.
1319 Birth of Murad I, grandson of Osman I. Murad would be the terror of Christian Europe, sending large military forces against the Balkans and tripling the size of the Ottoman Empire.
1321 The Inquisition burns its last Cathar.
1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City).
1326 Death of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire. His son, Orkhan I, makes Bursa his capital and it is from here that the growth of the Ottoman Empire is generally marked. In addition to leading the first Muslim Turks into Europe, Orkhan creates the Janissaries (Yani Sharis, Turkish for "New Soldiers), teenaged boys captured from Christian villages and forcibly converted to Islam. A thousand would be "recruited" every year and sent to Constantinople for training. They are considered at the time to be the finest and fiercest fighting force available.
1327 With the disintegration of the Seljuk Empire, the Arab and Persian regions are fragmented into several military kingdoms until 1500. The Ottoman Turkish Empire establishes its capital at Bursa.
1328 England recognizes Scottish independence, with Robert Bruce as King.
1330 - 1523 Although not officially supported by the church hierarchy, the Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers continue intermittent Crusading from their base in Rhodes.
1331 The Ottoman Turks capture Nicaea and rename it Iznik.
1334 Crusader ships defeat a group of Turkish pirates operating in the Gulf of Edremit.
1336 The Hundred Years' War between France and England begins.
1337 Birth of Timur-i Lang (Tamerlane, Timur the Lame), brutal ruler of Samarkand who cuts a wide swath of destruction across Persia and the Middle East. Timur founds the Timurid Dynasty and becomes infamous for building pyramids out of the skulls of his slain enemies.
1340 Battle of Rio Saldo: Alfonso XI of Castile and Alfonso IV of Portugal defeat a much larger force of Muslims from Morocco.
1341 Death of Oz Beg, Mongol leader who converted his people to Islam.
1345 Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France, is completed.
1345 The Ottoman Turks are asked for help by John Cantacuzene against a rival for the Byzantine throne. John would become John VI and gives his sixteen-year-old daughter Theodora to Orkhan I as a wife. This is the first time Muslim Turks crossed the Dardanelles into Europe.
1347 The Black Death (bubonic plague) reaches Cyprus from eastern Asia.
c. 1350 The Renaissance begins in Italy.
1354 The Turks capture Gallipoli, creating the first permanent Turkish settlement in Europe.
1365 Led by Peter I of Cyprus, Crusaders sack the Egyptian city of Alexandria.
1366 Adrianople (Edirne) becomes the Turkish capital.
1368 The Ming Dynasty is established in China by a peasant's son who had become a monk but later led a 13-year long rebellion against corrupt and ineffectual Mongol rulers. Ming means "brightness."
09, 1371 Battle of Maritsa: A force consisting of Serbs and Hungarians is sent to counter the encroaching Ottoman Turks in the Balkans. They march on Adrianople but they only get as far as Cenomen, on the Maritsa River. During the night they are surprised by an Ottoman attack led by Murad I personally. Thousands are slain and more drown when they try to flee. This was the first major action take by the Janissaries against Christians.
1373 The Ottoman Turks force the Byzantine Empire, now under John V Palaeologus, into vassalage.
1375 The Mamluks capture Sis, ending Armenian independence.
1380 The last holdings of the Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor are captured by the Turks.
1380 Battle of Kulikovo Field: Dmitri Donskoy, Grand Prince of Moscow, defeats the Muslim Tartars and is able to stop paying tribute.
1382 The Turks capture Sofia.
1382 The Tartars ride north, capture Moscow, and reimpose the tribute on the Russians.
June 13, 1383 Death of John VI Cantacuzene, Byzantine emperor who allowed Turkish military forces to first cross into Europe because he needed their aid against a rival for the Byzantine throne.
1387 Poet Geoffrey Chaucer begins work on his masterpiece The Canterbury Tales.
1387 Birth of John Hunyadi, Hungarian national hero whose efforts against the Ottoman Turks would do much to prevent Turkish rule from being extended into Europe.
1389 Death of Orhan I, son of Osman I. Orhan's son, Murad I, takes over the Ottoman Empire. Murad becomes the terror of Christian Europe, sending large military forces against the Balkans and tripling the size of the Ottoman Empire.
June 15, 1389 Battle of Kosovo Polje: Murad I demands that Lazar Hrebeljanovic, prince of Serbia, step down and surrender or be killed when his lands are invaded. Hrebeljanovic chooses to fight and raises an army that consists of soldiers from all over the Balkans but is still only half the size of the Turkish force. The actual battle takes place on the "Field of Blackbirds" or Kosovo Polje, and Murad I is killed when Milosh Obilich, posing as a traitor, stabs Murad with a poisoned knife. The Christians are utterly defeated and even Hrebeljanovic is captured and killed. Thousands of Christian prisoners are executed and Serbia became a vassal state of the Ottomans, but this also represents their farthest reach into Europe. With Murad's death his son, Bajazet, has his own brother Yakub killed and becomes the Ottoman sultan. Killing brothers upon becoming sultan would become an Ottoman tradition for the next couple of centuries.
February 16, 1391 Death of John V Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor. He is succeeded by his son, Manuel II Palaeologus, who is at this time is a hostage at the court of the Ottoman emperor Beyazid I at Bursa. Manuel is able to escape and return to Constantinople.
1395 King Sigismund of Hungary sends emissaries to various European powers to request help to defend his borders against the Ottoman Turks. Bajazet, Ottoman sultan, had boasted that he would drive through Hungary, into Italy, and turn St. Peter's Cathedral into a stable for his horses.
1396 Ottoman Turks conquer Bulgaria.
April 30, 1396 Thousands of French knights and soldiers set out from the Burgundian capital Dijon to aid the Hungarians against the Ottoman Turks.
September 12, 1396 A combined force of French and Hungarian soldiers arrive at Nicopolis, Ottoman Turk city in Europe, and begin to lay siege.
September 25, 1396 Battle of Nicopolis: A Crusader army of around 60,000 men and made up of from the Hungarian army of Sigismund of Luxembourg along with French, German, Polish, Italian, and English forces enter Ottoman Turkish territory and lay siege to Nicopolis in Bulgaria. The Ottoman sultan, Bajazet, gathers together a massive army of his own (made up mostly of soldiers who had been besieging Constantinople) and relieves the besieged city, defeating the Crusaders. The Turkish victory is due largely to French inexperience and pride - although a French cavalry charge is successful at first, they are forced into a trap which leads to their own slaughter. Bulgaria becomes a vassal state and, like Serbia, would remain one until 1878.
1398 Dehli is conquered by Timur the Lame (Tamerlame), king of Samarkand. Timur's Turkish army devastates the sultanate of Dehli, exterminates the local Hindu population, and then leaves.
1400 The Northern provinces of Italy devise their own systems of government. The government of Venice becomes a merchant oligarchy; Milan is ruled by dynastic despotism; and Florence becomes a republic, ruled by the rich. The three cities expand and conquer most of Northern Italy.
1401 Baghdad and Damascus are conquered by Timur.
July 20, 1402 Battle of Ankara: The Ottoman sultan Bajazet, great-grandson of Osman I, is defeated and taken prisoner by Mongol warlord Timur at Ankara.
1403 With the death of Bajazet, his son Suleiman I becomes the Ottoman Sultan.
1405 Death of Timur-i Lang (Tamerlane, Timur the Lame), brutal ruler of Samarkand who had cut a wide swath of destruction across Persia and the Middle East. Timur founded the Timurid Dynasty and had become renowned for building pyramids out of the skulls of his slain enemies.
July 25, 1410 Battle of Tannenberg: Forces from Poland and Lithuania defeated the Teutonic Knights.
1413 Mahomet, son of Bajazet, becomes Ottoman sultan Mahomet I after defeating his three brothers in a civil war that had lasted over 10 years.
1415 The Portuguese capture the city of Ceuta on the north coast of Morocco, the first time that the Crusade against the Muslims was taken to the northwestern region of Africa.
July 06, 1415 Jan Hus was burned for heresy in Constance, Switzerland.
1420 Supporters of John Hus defeat German "crusaders." The lower-class Hussites are led by General John Zizka.
March 01, 1420 Pope Martin V called for crusade against followers of John Hus.
1421 Ottoman sultan Mahomet I dies and is succeeded by his son, Murad II.
July 21, 1425 Death of Manuel II Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor. Shortly before dying Manuel is forced by the Ottoman Turks to begin paying them a yearly tribute.
1426 Egyptian forces take control of Cyprus.
April 29, 1429 Joan of Arc led French forces to victory over the English army by raising the siege at Orleans.
March 30, 1432 Birth of Mehmed II, the Ottoman sultan who would succeed in capturing Constantinople.
1437 Hungarians under the leadership of John Hunyadi drive the Turks from Semendria.
1438 Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press and pioneers the technology of movable type, creating the first Bible printed with movable type in Mainz, Germany.
1442 John Hunyadi leads a Hungarian army to relieve the Turkish siege of Hermansdat.
July 1442 Hungarian national hero John Hunyadi defeats a large Turkish army, thus ensuring the liberation of Wallachia and Moldavia.
1443 Ladislaus III of Poland signs a ten-year peace treaty with the Ottoman empire. The truce would not last, however, because many Christian leaders see an opportunity to finally defeat a broken Turkish army. Had Ladislaus not made peace with the Turks at this time, Murad II might have been utterly defeated and Constantinople would not have fallen 10 years later.
1444 The sultan of Egypt launches an invasion of Rhodes, but he is unable to take the island from the Knights Hospitallers (now known as the Knights of Rhodes).
November 10, 1444 Battle of Varna: An army of at least 100,000 Turks under sultan Murad II defeats Polish and Hungarian Crusaders numbering around 30,000 under Ladislaus III of Poland and John Hunyadi.
June 05, 1446 John Hunyadi is elected governor of Hungary in the name of Ladislaus V
1448 Constantine XI Palaeologus, the last Byzantine Emperor, takes the throne.
October 07, 1448 Battle of Kosovo: John Hunyadi leads Hungarian forces but is defeated by the more numerous Turks.
February 03, 1451 Ottoman sultan Murad II dies and is succeeded by Mehmed II.
April 1452 Ottoman sultan Mehmed II has a fortress built in Ottoman territory just north of Constantinople. Finished in six months, it threatens to cut off the city's communications with Black Sea ports and becomes the launching point of the siege of Constantinople a year later.
1453 Bordeaux falls to French forces and the Hundred Years' War ends without a treaty.
April 02, 1453 Ottoman sultan Mehmed II arrives at Constantinople. Mahomet will be successful in his siege of the city largely because of the acquisition of over sixty artillery pieces, making the siege one of the first successful uses of gunpowder in this fashion. Use of this artillery is improved with the help of gunnery experts sent by Hungarian national hero John Hunyadi who is eager to end the heresy of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, even if it means helping the hated Turks.
April 04, 1453 Seige of Constantinople begins. By this time the authority of the Byzantine Empire had shrunk to little more than the city of Constantinople itself. Sultan Mehmed II breaches the walls after only 50 days. The walls protecting Constantinople had stood for more than a thousand years; when they fall, the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) also ended. After the Ottomans defeat the Byzantine Empire they continued expanding into the Balkans. The Ottoman Turkish Empire will move its capital from Bursa to Istanbul (Constantinople). After 1500, the Moguls (1526-1857 CE) and the Safavids (1520-1736 CE) follow the military example set by the Ottomans and created two new empires.
April 11, 1453 Ottoman guns cause the collapse of a tower at the gate of St. Romanus during the siege of Constantinople. This breach in the walls would become a central focus of the fighting.
May 29, 1453 Ottoman Turks under the command of Mehmed II break into Constantinople and capture the city. With this, the last remnant of the Roman Empire is destroyed. Constantine XI Palaeologus, the last Byzantine emperor, dies. By this point there isn't much to the empire - just the city of Constantinople and some land around it in the Greek province of Thrace. Both the culture and the language had long since become Greek rather than Roman. The Ottomans, however, consider themselves to be the legitimate successors of the Byzantine emperors and commonly use the title Sultan-i Rum, Sultan of Rome.
May 15, 1455 Pope Callistus III proclaims a crusade against the Turks in order to recapture the city of Constantinople. Despite pleas for help, few European leaders had sent any assistance to Constantinople when the siege began and even the papacy sent a mere 200 knights. Thus, this new call for a Crusade was too little, too late.
1456 Athens is captured by the Turks.
July 21, 1456 John Hunyadi" width="89" height="150" border="0" align="right"> Ottoman Turks attack Belgrade but are beaten back by Hungarians and Serbs under the command of John Hunyadi. Christians capture several hundred canon and massive amounts of military equipment, sending the Turks into full retreat.
August 11, 1456 Death of John Hunyadi, Hungarian national hero whose efforts against the Ottoman Turks had done much to prevent Turkish rule from being extended into Europe.
1458 Turkish soldiers sack the Acropolis in Athens, Greece.
August 18, 1458 Pius II is elected pope. Pius is an enthusiastic supporter of Crusades against the Turks.
1463 Bosnia is conquered by the Turks.
June 18, 1464 Pope Pius II launches a short crusade against the Turks in Italy, but he falls ill and dies before much can happen. This would mark the death of the "crusading mentality" which had been so important in Europe over the previous three centuries.
August 15, 1464 Pope Pius II dies. Pius had been an enthusiastic supporter of Crusades against the Turks
1465 Birth of Selim I, Ottoman sultan. Selim would become the first Ottoman caliph and would double the size of the Ottoman empire, mostly in Asia and Africa.
1467 Herzegovina is conquered by the Turks.
November 19, 1469 Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born. On this date Sikhs commemorate the birth of the founder of the Sikh faith and the first of the Ten Gurus.
1472 Sophia Palaeologus, niece of Constantine XI Palaeologus, the last Byzantine Emperor, marries Ivan II of Moscow.
February 19, 1473 Nicolaus Copernicus was born.
1477 The first book is printed in England.
April 1480 A Turkish attack against the Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers in Rhodes is unsuccessful - not because the Hospitallers are superior fighters but because the Janissaries go on strike. Mehmed II orders that they not loot any cities they capture so that he could have all the booty for himself. The Janissaries balk at this and simply refuse to fight.
August 1480 Mehmed II Conqueror sends a fleet commanded by Gedik Ahmed Pasha westward. It captures the Italian port city of Otranto. Further incursions into Italy ends with the death of Mehmed and fighting among his sons over the leadership of the Ottoman Empire. Had the Turks pressed forward, it is likely that they would have conquered most of Italy with little trouble, a feat accomplished by the French a few years later in 1494 and 1495. Had this occurred at this time, just as the Renaissance was getting off the ground, the history of the world would have been dramatically different.
May 03, 1481 Death of Mehmed II, the Ottoman sultan who had succeed in capturing Constantinople.
September 10, 1481 The Italian port city of Otranto is recaptured from the Turks.
1483 The Inca Empire is established in Peru.
1487 Spanish forces capture Malaga from the Moors.
1492 Christopher Columbus discovers the Americas in the name of Spain, launching an era of extensive European exploration and conquest.
1492 Bajazet II, Sultan of Turkey, invades Hungary and defeats the Hungarian army at the Save River.
January 02, 1492 Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, later benefactors of Christopher Columbus, end Muslim rule in Spain by conquering Granada, last Muslim stronghold. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, later benefactors of Christopher Columbus, end Muslim rule in Spain. With the help of Torquemada, Grand Inquisitor, they also force the conversion or expulsion of all Jews in Spain.
1493 Dalmatia and Croatia are invaded by the Turks.
November 06, 1494 Birth of Sulieman (Süleyman) "the Magnificent," sultan of the Ottoman Empire. During Sulieman's reign the Ottoman Empire would reach the height of its power and influence.
1499 Venice goes to war with the Turks and the Venetian fleet is defeated at Sapienza.
1499 Francisco Jime'nez forces the mass conversion of Moors in Spain despite the earlier agreement of Ferdinand and Isabella that Muslims would be allowed to keep their religion and their mosques.
1500 Moors in Granada revolt over the forced conversions but are suppressed by Ferdinand of Aragon.
May 26, 1512 Ottoman sultan Beyazid II dies and is succeeded by his son, Selim I. Selim would become the first Ottoman caliph and would double the size of the Ottoman empire, mostly in Asia and Africa.
1516 The Ottoman Turks overthrow the Mamluk Dynasty of Egypt and capture most of the country. The Mamluks do, however, remain in power under the command of the Ottomans. It is not until 1811 that Muhammad Ali, an Albanian soldier, undermines the power of the Mamluks completely.
May 1517 The Holy League is created. A union of several European powers, it is a Christian fighting force designed to combat the growing threat of Turkish expansion.
1518 Khayar al-Din, better known as Barbarossa, assumes command of the Muslim corsair fleet of the Barbary pirates. Barbarossa would become the most feared and most successful of all the Barbary pirate leaders.
September 22, 1520 Death of Selim I, Ottoman sultan. Selim became the first Ottoman caliph and doubled the size of the Ottoman empire, mostly in Asia and Africa.
February 1521 Suleiman the Magnificent leads a massive army out of Instanbul for the purpose of conquering Hungary from king Louis II.
July 1521 Ottoman Turks under Suleiman the Magnificent capture the Hungarian town of Sabac, killing the entire garrison.
August 01, 1521 Suleiman the Magnificent sends his Janissaries to assault Belgrade. Defenders manage to hold out in the citadel until the end of the month, but they were finally forced to surrender and all the Hungarians were killed - despite a promise that none would be harmed.
September 04, 1523 Suleiman the Magnificent leads the Ottoman Turks in an assault on the Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers in Rhodes who are able to hold out until the end of the year, despite numbering just 500 knights, about 100 fighting chaplains, a thousand mercenaries, and a thousand islanders. The Turkish force, in comparison, numbers some 20,000 troops and 40,000 sailors.
December 21, 1523 The Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers on Rhodes formally surrender to Suleiman the Magnificent and they are able to secure the right to evacuate to Malta, despite having killed tens of thousands of Turkish troops.
May 28, 1524 Birth of Selim II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire and favorite son of his father, Suleiman I. Selim had little interest in warfare and would end up spending much of his time with his harem.
January 01, 1525 The Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers set sail from Rhodes to Malta. the capital of Malta, Valletta, is named after one of the knights at this time, Jean Parisot de al Valette from Provencal. Valette would later become head of the Order.
August 29, 1526 Battle of Mohacs: Suleiman the Magnificent defeats Louis II of Hungary after just two hours of fighting, leading to the Ottoman annexation of much of Hungary.
1529 Turkish calvary arrive at the Bavarian town of Regensburg. This is the farthest West that Turkish forces ever reach.
May 10, 1529 Suleiman the Magnificent sets off with 250,000 soldiers and hundreds of canon to lay siege to Vienna, capital of Charles V's Holy Roman Empire.
September 23, 1529 The vanguard of the Turkish army arrives outside the gates of Vienna, defended by just 16,000 men.
October 16, 1529 Suleiman the Magnificent gives up on the siege of Vienna.
1530 The Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers move their base of operations to the island of Malta.
1535 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, lands in Tunisia and sacks Tunis.
1537 Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent has construction of the walls surrounding the Old City of Jerusalem begun.
1537 Imperial troops under Charles V sack Rome.
1541 Construction of the walls surrounding the Old City of Jerusalem is completed.
July 04, 1546 Birth of Murad III, sultan of the Ottoman Empire and eldest son of Selim II. Like his father Murad would not care much for political matters, preferring instead to spend time with his harem. He fathers 103 children.
1552 Russians capture the Tartar city of Kazan.
1556 Russians capture the Tartar city of Astrakhan, far south along the Volga river, giving them access to the Caspian Sea.
May 19, 1565 Suleiman the Magnificent attacks the Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers on Malta but is unsuccessful. Numbering just 700, the knights were aided by several European nations who saw Malta as the gateway to Europe. Tens of thousands of Turks landed at the bay of Marsasirocco.
May 24, 1565 Ottoman Turks assault the fort of St. Elmo on Malta.
June 23, 1565 The Maltese fort of St. Elmo falls to Turkish forces, but not until the defenders are able to inflict casualties that number in the thousands.
September 06, 1565 Reinforcement from Sicily finally arrive at Malta, demoralizing the Turkish troops and inciting them to abandon the siege of the remaining Christian forts.
1566 Sultan Selim II gives the Janissaries permission to marry.
May 26, 1566 Birth of Mehmed III, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
September 05, 1566 Death of Sulieman (Süleyman) "the Magnificent," sultan of the Ottoman Empire. During Sulieman's reign the Ottoman Empire reached the height of its power and influence.
September 06, 1566 Battle of Szigetvar: Despite having killed Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent the night before in a surprise raid, the Hungarians lose to Turkish forces.
December 25, 1568 A Morisco (Muslim convert to Christianity in Spain) uprising began when two hundred men wearing Turkish turbans entered the Moorish quarter of Madrid, killed a few guards, and looted some shops.
October 1569 Philip II of Austria orders his half-brother, Don Juan of Austria, to quell a Morisco (Muslim converts to Christianity) uprising in Alpujarras with a "war of fire and blood."
January 1570 Don Juan of Austria attacks the town of Galera. He had been instructed to kill every person inside, but he refused and let several hundred women and children go.
May 1570 Hernando al-Habaqui, commander of the garrison of Tijola, surrenders to Don Juan of Austria.
July 1570 On orders from Selim II, Ottoman sultan, Turkish forces commanded by Kara Mustafa land on Cyprus with the intent of reconquering it. Most of the island falls relatively quickly and thousands are massacred. Only Famagusta, ruled by governor Macantonia Bragadion from Venice, holds out for about a year.
September 1570 Luis de Requesens, vice-admiral for king Philip II of Austria, leads a campaign into Alpujarras that ends the Morisco uprising by devastating the entire countryside.
November 1570 A royal council in Spain decides to deal with the Moriscos by deporting them out of Grenada and scattering them all around Spain.
August 01, 1571 The Venetians under governor Macantonia Bragadion agree to surrender Famagusta on Cyprus to the Turkish invaders.
August 04, 1571 Famagusta's governor Macantonia Bragadion is taken captive by the Turks, contrary to the peace treaty already signed.
August 17, 1571 Macantonia Bragadion, his ears and nose already cut off, is flayed alive by the Turks as a signal to the people of Cyprus that a new order was upon them.
October 07, 1571 Battle of Lepanto (Aynabakhti): Muslim Turks commanded by Ali Pasha are defeated in the Gulf of Corinth by an alliance of European forces (The Holy League) under the command of Don Juan of Austria. This is the biggest naval battle in the world since the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. The Turks lose at least 200 ships, devastating their naval forces. The morale of European Christians is significantly raised while that of Turks and Muslims is lowered. At least 30,000 soldiers and sailors die in about three hours, more casualties than in any other naval battle in history. The battle does not, however, result in any major territorial or political shifts. The famous Spanish author Cervantes participates in the battle and is wounded in his right hand.
December 24, 1574 Death of Selim II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire and favorite son of his father, Suleiman I. Selim did nothing to expand the empire, preferring instead to spend his time with his harem.
1578 Battle of al-Aqsr al-Kabir: Moroccans defeat the Portuguese, ending the latter's military excursions into Africa
October 01, 1578 Don Juan of Austria dies in Belgium.
1585 The Ottoman Empire signs a peace treaty with Spain. This would hinder the Ottomans from answering the calls for help from Queen Elizabeth I of England. Elizabeth had hoped to get the Ottomans to send several dozen galleys to aid in the defense of England against the Spanish Armada.
April 18, 1590 Birth of Ahmed I, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
January 15, 1595 Death of Murad III, sultan of the Ottoman Empire and eldest son of Selim II. Murad didn't care much for political matters, preferring instead to spend time with his harem. He had fathered 103 children. One, Mehmed III, succeeds Murad and has his sixteen brothers strangled to death in order to avoid any fights over who would rule.
1600 The Austrians lay siege to the town of Canissa. Among the Austrians is an English volunteer by the name of John Smith. He would later go on to help in the colonization of Virginia and marry the Indian princess Pocahontas.
December 22, 1603 Death of Mehmed III, sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He is succeeded by his 14-year-old son, Ahmed I.

Timeline of the Crusades: Ottoman Empire on the Defensive, 1600 - 1800
January 15, 1595 Death of Murad III, sultan of the Ottoman Empire and eldest son of Selim II. Murad didn't care much for political matters, preferring instead to spend time with his harem. He had fathered 103 children. One, Mehmed III, succeeds Murad and has his sixteen brothers strangled to death in order to avoid any fights over who would rule.
1600 The Austrians lay siege to the town of Canissa. Among the Austrians is an English volunteer by the name of John Smith. He would later go on to help in the colonization of Virginia and marry the Indian princess Pocahontas.
December 22, 1603 Death of Mehmed III, sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He is succeeded by his 14-year-old son, Ahmed I.
November 03, 1604 Birth of Osman II, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
1609 Ahmed I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, orders the construction of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (in English commonly called the Blue Mosque) in Istanbul.
June 16, 1612 Birth of Murad IV, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire and brother of Osman II.
November 05, 1615 Birth of Ibrahim I, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
November 22, 1617 Death of Ahmed I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, apparently due to typhus. He is briefly succeed by his brother, Mustafa I, until he is deposed in favor of his young nephew and son of Ahmed I, Osman II.
1619 Ottoman sultan Osman II leads the Janissaries to defeat at the Battle of Chotin in Poland. Osman would blame the defeat on the Janissaries. Osman recognizes that the Janissaries, as a semi-autonomous force, pose a serious threat to him so he tries to have their power cut.
May 22, 1622 Death of Osman II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire - he is strangled by his own Janissaries because he had tried to limit their power. He is briefly succeed by Mustafa I, his uncle, whom he had been deposed several years earlier.
1623 Persian armies invade Iraq, capturing the capital of Baghdad.
1625 According to some estimates, there are around 20,000 Christian slaves in Algiers alone.
1627 Barbary Corsairs appear in Iceland and carry off hundreds of captives for the slave markets in North Africa. For Europeans, the Turkish and Muslim threat to their existence was very real and very frightening.
1638 Ottoman Turks recapture Baghdad, Iraq, and execute nearly the entire 30,000 man garrison.
1638 Murad IV abolishes the tribute of Christian children from the Balkans, requiring the Janissaries to find new recruits elsewhere.
1640 Death of Murad IV, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, due to cirrhosis of the liver. He is succeeded by his brother, Ibrahim I, despite Murad's last-minute order to have Ibrahim executed.
January 02, 1642 Birth of Mehmed IV, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
April 15, 1642 Birth of Suleiman II, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire and brother of Mehmed IV.
February 25, 1643 Birth of Ahmed II, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire and son of sultan Ibrahim I.
1645 Ottoman Turks attack the island of Crete, at the time ruled by Venice, and lay siege to the city of Candia. In response Venice sends a fleet to blockade Istanbul.
1646 Venetian forces capture Tenedos (today: Bozcaada), gateway to the Dardanelles.
August 1648 Death of Ibrahim I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, who is strangled by his own Janissaries. He is succeeded by his son, Mehmed IV, who is just 6 years old.
1656 Battle of the Dardanelles
1664 Battle of St. Gothard: Count Raimundo Montecuccoli smashes a much larger Ottoman army east of Budapest.
February 06, 1664 Birth of Mustafa II, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire and son of Mehmed IV.
1669 After more than 20 years, Ottoman Turks finally capture the city of Candia, ensuring that Crete becomes a part of the Ottoman Empire.
1672 The Ottoman Turks launch a war against Poland, defeating the armies under John Sobieski. The Ottoman Empire would annex Podolia and the Ukraine while Poland would be forced to pay an annual tribute.
December 30, 1673 Birth of Ahmed III, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire and son of Mehmed IV
1681 Combined Polish and Russian forces recapture territory lost to the Ottoman Turks.
March 31, 1683 An army of at least 250,000 troops, the last great Ottoman assault on Christian Europe, departs Edirne for Vienna, Austria.
July 14, 1683 Second siege of Vienna by the Ottoman Turks begins, this time ostensibly in support of a Hungarian uprising against Austrian rule. It would end so quickly and disastrously that large amounts of money and equipment is left behind in the rush to retreat.
September 05, 1683 Around sixty thousand Polish and German soldiers, mostly volunteers, gather together on the Kahlenberg mountain (northwest of Vienna) under the command of Polish leader John Sobieski (now King John III of Poland). Their intent is to help lift the siege against Vienna.
September 12, 1683 Polish and German forces attack the encamped Turks who had been besieging Vienna for the past two months. It is a complete rout and the Turks flee back to Istanbul in a panic.
1685 Battle of Gran: Charles of Lorraine defeats the Ottoman Turks.
1687 Ottoman sultan Mehmed IV is deposed and replaced with his younger brother, Suleiman II.
1688 Budapest is recaptured from the Turks by Prince Max Emmanuel of Bavaria.
1690 Turkish forces occupy Kosovo, forcing thousands of Serbs to flee to Hungary.
1691 Death of Suleiman II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He is succeed by his brother, Ahmed II.
1691 Battle of Slankamen: Austrians under Prince Louis of Baden crush the Ottoman Turks and are thus able to liberate large portions of Hungary.
1693 Death of Mehmed IV, deposed sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
1695 Death of Ahmed II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He is succeeded by Mustafa II.
August 02, 1696 Birth of Mahmud I, future sultan of the Ottoman Empire and son of Mustafa II.
1697 Battle of Zenta: In an effort to reconquer Hungary, Sultan Mustafa II personally leads the Ottoman Turks to a crushing defeat at the hands of Eugene of Savoy. This loss causes the Turks to sue for peace with European powers.
January 26, 1699 Peace Treaty of Carlowitz: Signed between the Hapsburgs of Austria and the Ottoman Turks, the Turks surrender Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia to the Hapsburgs, Morea in Greece to the Venetian Republic, and Moldavia to Poland. For most historians this marks the real beginning of the end for the Ottoman Empire. With this treaty, European fears of the Turks come to a close.
« Last Edit: December 31, 2007, 04:19:43 am by Ceneca » Report Spam   Logged
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« Reply #185 on: December 31, 2007, 04:20:18 am »

1700 Treaty of Constantinople: Ottoman Turks surrender Azov to the Russians.
1703 Due to the great losses under his rule, sultan Mustafa II is forced to abdicate and his brother, Ahmed III, replaces him.
1711 Ottoman Turks defeat Russian forces near the Pruth and in the ensuing peace treaty the regain control of Azov.
1715 Ottoman Turks attack Morea in Greece, recapturing it from Venice, a violation of the Peace Treaty of Carlowitz, leading to a new war with Austria.
1717 Austria captures Belgrade from the Ottoman Empire.
1718 Peace of Passarowitz: peace between the Ottomans and Austria is reached; this time the Turks are able to keep Morea but lose all of Hungary.
1730 Defeats in a war against Persia lead to a revolt of the Janissaries who depose Sultan Ahmed III and install Mahmud I in his place.
December 13, 1754 Death of Mahmud I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
1792 The Ottoman Turks are finally forced to acknowledge the Russian annexation of the Tartar Khanates.
1798 The Hospitallers on Malta are defeated by Napoleon. At the time known as the Knights of Malta, they disband entirely the following year.
July 01, 1798 General Napoleon Bonaparte sails to Egypt, then still an Ottoman province, which he conquers from the Mamluk military leaders quickly and easily. Even among the Ottoman leaders, however, there is little interest in why the French are there or why the eventually leave. The coming of the Europeans was regarded as something like a natural disaster - an event to be endured but not one that needs to be understood.
June 14, 1826 The Auspicious Incident: Janissaries revolt in Istanbul, but the populace and other government forces are against them. The Janissaries suffer massive casualties; those who survive face execution or banishment.
1945 The final cruzado or crusade tax is officially abolished in the Roman Catholic diocese of Pueblo, Colorado.

[ 12-31-2006, 03:59 AM: Message edited by: Rachel Dearth ]
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