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ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)

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« Reply #75 on: December 23, 2007, 01:19:47 pm »








dhill757

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                                         South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from South Georgia Island)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. They are administered from the Falkland Islands by UK civil commissioner Donald A. Lamont, representing Queen Elizabeth II. Defense is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Since 1982, the territory celebrates Liberation Day on June 14. A constitution was adopted October 3, 1985. The legal system is based on English Common Law.

During World War II (Autumn 1943 - Autumn 1944) the island housed a small (14 people) Norwegian military garrison to protect the island from Japanese invasion.

The research station at King Edward Point, near the former Norwegian whaling station of Grytviken, became a small military garrison after the Falklands War. This returned to civilian use in 2001 and is operated by the British Antarctic Survey. The British Antarctic Survey also has a biological station on Bird Island, off the northwest end of South Georgia. The South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited.

NASA satellite image of South Georgia island covered with snow.

South Georgia lies in the South Atlantic Ocean, about 1390 km south by east of the Falkland Islands, in 54-55°S, 36-38°W. It has a land area of 4066 km2 (1600 sq. mi). It is mountainous, with 11 peaks over 2,000 m high, their slopes furrowed with deep gorges filled with glaciers. Geologically, it consists of gneiss and argillaceous schists, with no trace of fossils, showing that the island is, like the Falkland Islands, a surviving fragment of some greater land-mass now vanished, most probably indicating a former extension of the Andean system. At Royal Bay, on the south-east side, was stationed the German expedition sent out to observe the transit of Venus in 1882. The island would be well suited for cattle or sheep farming but for its damp, foggy climate.

The climate in the islands is variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow. Most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes. Mount Paget on South Georgia is 2,934 m high. The islands have prevailing weather conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship; they are also subject to active volcanism. The north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in the 20th century, live on South Georgia.

Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK. The territory has revenues of less than $300,000 against expenditures of nearly $500,000. The territory uses data code SX, and has the Internet country code (top-level domain) GS.

The 11 smaller islands forming the South Sandwich archipelago are, from north to south:

* Zavodovski
* Leskov (the smallest)
* Visokoi
* Candlemas
* Vindication
* Saunders
* Montagu (the largest)
* Bristol
* Bellingshausen
* Cook
* Thule

See also

* Sub-antarctic islands


External links

* King Edward Point research station (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Living_and_Working/Stations/King_Edward_Point/index.html)
* Bird Island research station (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Living_and_Working/Stations/Bird_Island/)
* CIA World Factbook entry (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sx.html)
* South Georgia official website (http://www.sgisland.org/pages/sghome.htm)

Overseas territories of the United Kingdom
Anguilla | Bermuda | British Antarctic Territory | British Indian Ocean Territory | British Virgin Islands | Cayman Islands | Falkland Islands | Gibraltar | Montserrat | Pitcairn Islands | Saint Helena | South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands | Turks and Caicos Islands
Sovereign Base Areas


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands"
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« Reply #76 on: December 23, 2007, 01:21:26 pm »








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                                                            Gulf Stream





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Gulf Stream is a powerful warm, swift Atlantic ocean current that flows along the coast of the Eastern United States and makes Ireland, Great Britain, and the Scandinavian countries warmer than they would be otherwise. It originates in the Gulf of Mexico and runs past the east coast of the United States towards Newfoundland. Its extension toward Europe is called the North Atlantic drift. The Gulf Stream is one of the strongest ocean currents known. It transports 1.4 Petawatts of power.

The term "Gulf Stream" is sometimes used about the sum of what is described above and the North Atlantic drift.

As it travels north, some of the warm water transported by the Gulf Stream evaporates. This increases the salinity of the water in the stream, and in the North Atlantic Ocean the water is so cold and heavy with salt that it begins to sink. It then becomes a part of the North Atlantic Deep Water, a southgoing stream.

The effect of the Gulf Stream is sufficient to cause certain parts of the west of Britain and Ireland to be an average of several degrees warmer than most other parts of those countries. Indeed, in Cornwall, and particularly the Isles of Scilly, its effects are such that plants associated with much warmer climes, such as palm trees are able to survive the rigours of northern winters. Logan Botanic Garden in Scotland benefits strongly from the Gulf Stream, allowing their specimens of Gunnera Manicata to grow to over 3 metres tall.

With the recent phenomenon of global warming, some scientists have expressed concern about the sink mechanism outlined above. Specifically, fresh water resulting from the melting of the Arctic polar cap could dilute the Gulf Stream and make it light enough not to sink. The result would be a huge climate change in northern Europe, with unknown consequences. Some fossil remnants hint at the possibility that a similar event has already happened several times in the past, but fossil evidence is questioned. After an initial rejection, the scientific community is evaluating this theory more seriously, as data about historic climate show sudden changes between cold and warm periods.


References

* Corona Magazine Issue 124: Science (http://www.corona-magazine.de/archiv/corona124.html#wissenschaft) (German, Transported amount of power)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Stream"
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« Reply #77 on: December 23, 2007, 01:23:45 pm »








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                                                     Tropical cyclone





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Hurricane)
This article is about the weather phenomenon. For other uses see Hurricane (disambiguation) or Typhoon (disambiguation).


Hurricane Anita approaching landfall on the coast of Mexico, September 1977

In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (informally, a typhoon or hurricane) is a type of low-pressure system which generally forms in the tropics.

Structurally, a tropical cyclone is a large, rotating area of clouds, wind, and thunderstorm activity. The primary energy source of a tropical cyclone is the release of heat of condensation from water condensing at high altitudes. Because of this, a tropical cyclone can be thought of as a giant vertical heat engine.

This use of condensation as a driving force is the primary difference setting tropical cyclones apart from other meteorological phenomena, such as mid-latitude cyclones, which draw energy mostly from pre-existing temperature gradients in the atmosphere. To drive its heat engine, a tropical cyclone must stay over warm water, which provides the atmospheric moisture needed. The evaporation of this moisture is driven by the high winds and reduced atmospheric pressure present in the storm, resulting in a sustaining cycle.

The release of heat in the upper levels of the storm causes a temperature inversion of fifteen to twenty degrees Celsius above the ambient temperature in the lower troposphere. Because of this, tropical cyclones are referred to as "warm core" storms. Note, however, that the term "warm core" applies to the upper atmosphere - the area under a hurricane at the earth's surface is normally a few degrees cooler than normal due to clouds and precipitation.



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                                               Classification and terminology





Tropical cyclones are classified into three main groups: tropical depressions, tropical storms, and a third group whose name depends on the region.

A tropical depression is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 metres per second (33 knots or 38 mi/h or 62 km/h).

Eye of Typhoon Odessa, Pacific Ocean, August 1985

A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 and 33 metres per second (34-63 knots or 39-73 mi/h or 62-117 km/h ).

The term used to describe tropical cyclones with maximum sustained winds exceeding 33 metres per second, varies depending on region, as follows:

* hurricane in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, and the South Pacific Ocean east of 160°E
* typhoon in the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the dateline
* severe tropical cyclone in the Southwest Pacific Ocean west of 160°E or Southeast Indian Ocean east of 90°E
* severe cyclonic storm in the North Indian Ocean
* tropical cyclone in the Southwest Indian Ocean


(This terminology is defined in WMO/TC-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31, World Meteorological Organization; Geneva, Switzerland; available online from http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/ch1_3.htm).

In the UK and Europe some severe north-east Atlantic cyclonic depressions are referred to as "hurricanes," even although they rarely originate in the tropics. These European windstorms can generate hurricane-force windspeeds but are not given individual names.

In other places in the world, hurricanes have been called Willy-Willies (singular Willy-Willy) in Australia, Baguio in the Philippines, Chubasco in Mexico, and Taino in Haiti.

Hurricanes are categorized on a 1-to-5 scale according to the strength of their winds using the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. A Category 1 storm has the lowest wind speeds, while a Category 5 hurricane has the strongest. These are relative terms, because lower category storms can sometimes inflict greater damage than higher category storms, depending on where they strike and the particular hazards they bring. In fact, tropical storms can also produce significant damage and loss of life, mainly due to flooding.

National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 or above as Major Hurricanes. Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons with wind speeds of at least 150 mph (241 km/hr) as Super Typhoons.

The definition of sustained winds recommended by the WMO is that of a ten-minute average, and that definition is adopted by most countries. However, a few countries use different definitions: the United States, for example, defines sustained winds based on a 1-minute average wind measured at about 10 metres (33 ft) above the surface.

The ingredients for a tropical cyclone include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds aloft. If the right conditions persist long enough, they can combine to produce the violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains, and floods associated with this phenomenon.

There is also a polar counterpart to the tropical cyclone, called an arctic cyclone.

Location

Almost all tropical cyclones form within 30 degrees of the equator and 87% form within 20 degrees of it. Since the Coriolis effect initiates tropical cyclone rotation, such cyclones almost never form within about 10 degrees of the equator (where the Coriolis effect is weakest). However it is possible for tropical cyclones to form within this boundary if another source of initial rotation is provided. These conditions are extremely rare and such storms are believed to form at a rate of less than one a century.

Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity known as the Inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ).

Worldwide, an average of 80 tropical cyclones form each year.
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« Reply #78 on: December 23, 2007, 01:28:30 pm »








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                                               UNDERWATER RUINS IN THE ATLANTIC






quote:
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A word of caution: there is a pretty robust Atlantis community out there who circulate their own stories of submerged cities and issue their own press releases. Those releases can be picked up as fact and are endlessly repeated. It's nice to have objective sources when possible.
In some cases, structures found near current land masses could have been submerged due to purely local floods, but even in those cases, the problem remains; who built them? Certainly not the “primitive” peoples that the current time line claims were living in these locales.

For instance, in the Americas a short time ago men were not thought to have been here before 5,000 years ago. To date, scientists fight to try not to have the date pushed out beyond 15,000 years. Those people were not thought to have been responsible for these advanced structures.

On the other hand, the presumed megalithic structures off the coast of Cuba are 2,500 feet (1/2 mile) below the ocean. Other megalithic structures are being located miles from current shorelines. Here are a couple of shorts about even more anomalous finds deep in the ocean.

“In 1966, an oceanographic research expedition led by Dr. Robert J. Menzies of Duke University aboard the vessel Anton Brunn photographed what appeared to be carved rock columns under 6,000 feet of ocean in the Milne-Edward Deep, a depression that reaches a depth of 19,000 feet.

A cautious Dr. Menzies admitted that the discovery of what may be the ruins of an ancient city could be “one of the most exciting discoveries of this century, insofar as ruins go.

Some of the columns are half buried in mud while others stand upright. Many of them appear to have a kind of writing on them.””


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http://www.s8int.com/water6.html]http://www.s8int.com/water6.html
...Source: Atlantis Rising by Brad Steiger

[This message has been edited by dhill757 (edited 09-09-2004).]
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« Reply #79 on: December 23, 2007, 01:29:49 pm »








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"In 1973 a U.S. deep sea submersible craft photographed Roman Columns that seemed part of a temple structure at the bottom of one of the deepest parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Click and drag photo to on the right to resize.Photo: Roman, Greek and Egyptian-style Columns 6000 Feet Under The Sea!
Rather than ending up in some scientific journal or being debated on a university campus, the photo was published in an obscure book about the supposed lost continent of Atlantis.

While the photo may have certainly served the purpose of the book’s author, would it not have served history and archeology even more if published and debated in those circles?"..Source Unexplained:News
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« Reply #80 on: December 23, 2007, 01:31:10 pm »








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                                                  RESEARCHES BY THE SOVIETS





Ancient remains in the Atlantic, in 1979

Announcement of the discovery of the sunken Amber mountain, in 1984

The discovery of a smooth marble plate in 1985.

  During the end of March in 1979, some Soviet researchers announced the success of their research in the Atlantic Ocean by saying “Plato showed us the way to the lost Atlantis”. The soviet boat of underwater researches, named “Vityaz”, anchored to the river Tagus of Portugal. Dr. Andrey Aksenov, assistant manager of the Institute of Oceanography of Soviet Academy, called reporters on the boat and announced a discovery:

"In the sea area, 900 km from the Portugal coasts, there have been found, on a sunken mountain, a plateau in strange formations. After a close examination with our scientific instruments, we discovered that in this area there are remains, probably of a sunken city. We spotted almost clearly half-demolished walls and giant stairs, even if they were covered with seaweed and other sea plants. We took many photos, by which eight of them show the huge symmetrical escalation, and they will be sent to Moscow for special elaboration...."

The Soviets of “Vityaz” told to Mr Vaskonselo, manager of the National Fishing Institute of Portugal, that they are certain they have discovered a sunken part of the lost Atlantis. Dr. Aksenov also mentioned that this discovery is only the beginning of a whole research which will be centered to this place of the Atlantic. Besides, this is the place that Plato defined the existence and disappearance of Atlantis.

The research boat “Vityaz” continued its mission by scanning the bottom of the Atlantic, westward of Madera. In this area, under the surface of the sea, it is extended the mountain Amber. It is a strange mountain in the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean and due to its shape attracts all those Atlantologists, who study Atlantis by Plato scripts.

In 1984 the Soviets of “Vityaz” finished their long researches and gave the information that the mountain Amber, found beneath water, has once been a large island above the surface of the sea.

Unfortunately, they did not announce the details and evidence on which they had been based...

In September 1985, there has been announced by the soviet and foreign tabloids that the Russians pulled out of 4500 meters in the Atlantic, a strange piece of marble. The research was carried out by the oceanographers of the soviet boat “Academic Boris Petrov”.

This discovery has troubled a lot the research group of the boat.

From the very early studies on this object, it has been found out that it was a smooth plate of marble colored from both sides in white-yellowish. Its shape proves that it had been smoothed by a man. They estimated that this object exists in the ocean for many thousand years. Leon Hitrov, scientist of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and chief of the mission pointed out:

“This finding is of great importance. I will personally take on its analysis in the Laboratory of Analytic Chemistry and Geochemistry of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. This scientific test will show if the plate was a part of a structure of an unknown civilization or if according to all evidence, it comes from the legendary and powerful nation of the Atlantians”.

Unfortunately, the Soviet Academy of Sciences, from all we know, has not announced something officially. There are rumors that the “secret” researches continue in the Atlantic Ocean, not only by Russians but by Americans.


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http://www.atlantida.gr/engSovietResearch.htm#research
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« Reply #81 on: December 23, 2007, 01:32:46 pm »








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Here are some of the reports of underwater ruins gathered throughout the years of all the various ruins reported to be at the bottom of the Atlantic. Of course, many are of a dubious nature. I'll list them all now, get into what we actually know of them later:



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                                     City on the Bottom of the Atlantic Ocean off Spain


                                              Dr. Maxine Asher's Expedition in 1973





UPI Report

Pyramid explored by Dr. Ray Brown on the sea floor off the Bahamas in 1970. Brown was accompanied by 4 divers who also found roads, domes, rectangular buildings, unidentified metallic instruments, and a statue holding a "mysterious" crystal containing miniature pyramids. The metal devices and crystals were taken to Florida for analysis at a university there. What was discovered was that the crystal amplified energy that passed through it.

It is made in a method unknown to the scientists who analyzed it. It was found in a mysteriously lit up chamber inside the underwater pyramid with some kind of ray gun like instrument pointed at it. Kirlian photographs, which record impressions beyond our limited range of vision, showed an eye inside the crystal not visible to the naked eye.

What technology could build a long blacktop paved road for hundreds of miles that was still in good condition over 10,000 years later! This road was found underwater off the East Coast by the deep diving submarine Aluminaut and contained magnesium oxide.

In 1977, a mysterious discovery was made on the floor of the Atlantic concerning an unknown technology. A 650-foot pyramid was mysteriously lit up, with sparkling white water surrounding it that turned deep green, a shocking contrast to the dark black waters at that depth. The discovery was photographed by Arl Marahall's expedition off Cay Sal.

Dr. William Bell's 1958 photos taken on the bottom of the Atlantic showed a six-foot spire protruding from a couple of circular gear-like bases with peculiar light emanations from the bottom of the shaft. Were these the remnants of the Eternal Flame spoken of by the ancients, powered by an inter-dimensional cosmic energy taken out of the atmosphere by a form of crystal conductor at the apex of pyramids or towers?

Pyramids larger than any building in the world made in our modern times have been found on the bottom the Atlantic Ocean and in China, and one in Egypt that our own technology has failed to match.

These Pyramids have cement that our scientists admit is superior to what we use today. The writings of the ancients describe pyramids as Time Capsules containing the history and technology of the Empire of the Sun and latter day Atlantis.

A huge pyramid, in 10,000 feet of Atlantic water, was reported to have been found with a pulsating crystal on top of it, by Tony Benik's expedition. The group also found an opaque crystal tablet there, and reported that when a light was beamed through it, mysterious inscriptions became visible.

More underwater pyramids were found off Central America, Yucatan, and Louisiana, where domes were found in the Straits of Florida. A marble Greek style building was found between Florida and Cuba. And what about the column that radiated energy Dr. Zink found in the Bahamas and Zink also brought up other artifacts from his dives over Atlantis, and he was interviewed by Mind International agent Steve Forsberg.

One of the most amazing finds on the bottom of the Atlantic was reported by Captain Reyes Miraga's crew on the salvage ship Talia from Spain. They video-taped miles of pillared temples, buildings, and statues and wide curving boulevards, with smaller avenues branching out from the center like spokes in a wheel, with majestic temples and pyramids. Much of this city, as well as the city found off Spain by Dr. Maxine Asher's expedition and later by Professor Akayonove's expedition (all photographed), show a startling similarity to Plato's description of Atlantis!

An urn brought to the surface by Dr. Asher's expedition.

More than 30 separate ruins have been found on the bottom of the Atlantic since 1956, and in ancient libraries, several old maps showing Atlantis and its island chain have been found. The islands are known as Aryan, Og. Poseid, and Antigua and the nation was Atlan. Garden City, or Poseid, was reportedly the capital of a continent stretching from off of North Africa and Europe to off Florida with a tropical climate on the western and southern shores, and a cool climate on the north and east.

Ruins of roads and buildings found off Bimini Island in the 1960's by the photographed and published expeditions of Dr. Mansan Valentine. Steven Forsberg, co-founder of the Lahaina Times newspaper dove into these ruins in 1982 to witness them first hand. Similar ruins were also photographed off Cay Sal in the Bahamas. The ruins are of the same construction as the oldest city ever found on land, according; to archaeologists, in Tiajuanaco, Bolivia, where a calendar was uncovered that shows the exact position of the stars and planets 27,000 years ago. This is more than 20,000 years BEFORE the oldest civilizations in school history books!

Similar underwater ruins found off Morocco and photographed 50 to 60 feet underwater.

Dr. David Zink found in 1957, off the Bahamas coast, a stylized marble head, building block cast in a mold and a construction piece drilled by a bit, as well as a stone column that he reported radiated energy. Forsberg of M.I.N.D. interviewed Dr. Zink and obtained the photographs.

A ruined harbor like complex discovered on the sea floor off Bimini Captain John Alexander.

The deep sea diving submarine Aluminaut discovered a well preserved paved road on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean make of blacktop magnesium oxide, running along the sea floor from Florida to South Carolina.

Temple pillars, buildings, statues, wide curving boulevards with smaller avenues branching out like spokes in a wheel, majestic temples and pyramids videotaped by Captain Reyes Miraga on the Spanish named salvage ship "Talia".

A huge 11 room pyramid found 10,000 feet under water in the mid Atlantic Ocean with a huge crystal top, as reported by Tony Benlk.

Several acres of white marble-like ruins found on tile ocean floor off Cuba reported by Lieceser Hemingway.

Mysterious dome structures reportedly seen in clear water by several pilots in the Straits of Florida.

Soviet expeditions to the Atlantic Ampere Seamount resulted in photographs of ruins destroyed by lava (like the Aztecs and Mayans wrote Atlan was destroyed by). This discovery was in the New York Times May 21, 1978. The photos were developed by the Academy's Petrovsky Marakuyev and reported by the deputy Director of the Soviet Academy of Science's Institute of Oceanography, Professor Aksyonove, who also reported ruins found off Cadiz, Spain in the same area as Dr., Maxine Asher's previous discovery.

1981 expedition of P. Cappellano discovered mysterious ruins with strange symbols on them on the sea floor off the Canary Islands.

1977 report of a huge pyramid found off Cay Sal in the Bahamas, photographed by Ari Marshall's expedition, about 150 feet underwater. The pyramid was about 650 feet high. Mysteriously, the surrounding water was lit by sparkling white water flowing out of the openings in the pyramid and surrounded by green water, instead of the black water everywhere else at that depth.

The foundations of a 100 by 75 foot structure photographed on the sea bottom off Andros Island.

A sunken city about 400 miles off Portugal found by Soviet expeditions led by Boris Asturua, with buildings made of extremely strong concrete and plastics. He said "the remains of streets suggests the use of monorails for transportation". He added that he brought up a statue.

Pillars found on the Atlantic floor in 1969 by Robert Fero and Michael Grumley, a chunk of which was carved from rock NOT found anywhere in that part of the world. 20. A road off the Bahamas explored by Dr. Manson Valentine.

Dimitri Rebikoff, using his underwater platform and a special collecting lens, reported ruins found encircling an underwater freshwater spring.

Marble Acropolis underwater across five acres of fluted columns raised on pillars.

Twenty researchers, including archaeologists, a marine biologist, geologist, and cartographer dove onto ruins on the sea floor off Bimini in 1975 and brought back artifacts from which they concluded that the walls and roads were made of materials not found in that part of the world.


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« Reply #82 on: December 23, 2007, 01:34:41 pm »








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Here is what Dr. Maxine Asher says about her discoveries:



The truth is that four cities lie underwater from Cadiz to Gibraltar, and these cities are submerged at least 120 feet and resting on the continental shelf. Using the yardarm of 10 feet for every 1000 years of recorded history, we can observe highly developed sunken cities, the remains of which are at least 9000 years old or older (see Internet Website www.atlantisresearch.com). If these remains are not Atlantis, then such evidence still requires that we acknowledge civilization's beginnings at least 5000 years before the earliest Egyptian cities.
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« Reply #83 on: December 23, 2007, 01:35:59 pm »








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To which the Russian scientist Alexander Gorodnitsky, Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, professor from the Russian Institute of Oceanology also adds in a 2003 interview:



"I think that the lost continent is situated somewhere between Gibraltar and the Azores. In 1984 and 1986 our expedition was working on the slopes of Mount Ampere, when we found very strange constructions at the depth of only 100 meters - they looked like rooms and walls. I submerged to see that myself, made some sketches. Other geologists drew alters or walls - that was what they had seen, we could not take any photographs at that time. At first it seemed to me that those rooms and walls had been created by the nature, but the rooms were equal in size. The human psychology is organized very specifically: if someone had said that professor Gorodnitsky found the lost continent, no one would have believed such a message.
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« Reply #84 on: December 23, 2007, 01:37:11 pm »








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A small piece of volcanic agglomerate was dredged from 400 fathoms on the north slope. About a ton of flat pteropod limestone cobbles was dredged from the summit area. One of the cobbles gave an apparent radiocarbon age of 12,000 years ±900 (J.L. Kulp). The state of lithification of the limestone suggests that it may have been lithified under subaerial [i.e. above water, on land surface] conditions and that the sea mount may have been an island within the past 12,000 years. (Heezen, Bruce C., et al, "Flat-Topped Atlantis, Cruiser, And Great Meteor Sea Mounts" in Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 65:1261, 1954 (Protogonos issue 9))

In later studies, evidence was found for the remnants of a "sunken block of continent" in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. An articlein New Scientist 1975 summarizes the result. (Anonymous, New Scientist,66:540, 1975)

(from Unknown Earth: A Handbook of Geological Enigmas by William R. Corliss.)


http://www.atlantissource.com/home/forgotten_article.htm
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« Reply #85 on: December 23, 2007, 01:38:26 pm »









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it is interesting to note that the famous Piri Reis map shows a large island in this location, and the geology of recent core samples, taken from the ocean floor in this area, is of continental rather than oceanic type rock:
Geological structure of the Strakhov fracture zone (equatorial segment of the Mid-Atlantic ridge)

G. B. Udintsev, A. F. Beresnev, V. M. Golod, A. V. Kol'tsova, N. A. Kurentsova, and M. V. Zakharov

Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

G. V. Agapova

Institute of Geology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

L. P. Volokitina

P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

V. G. Udintsev

Shmidt Institute of Earth Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow



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Quote from Dr. Asher's website:

quote:
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The underwater film footage which appears on the website was taken from 1993 to1995 by Spanish diver Francisco Salazar Casero. More film from the same underwater area has been taken and will be placed on the website in 2003.  In addition to this footage, Dr. Asher owns underwater film from the Bahamas believed to be Atlantis, videos of television shows she has made on Atlantis, other film taken over time in Spain,5000 color slides connected to Atlantis, 15 computer disks filled with scientific reports about Atlantis and countless other visuals.  This film repository will contribute greatly to the enormous success of any feature film on Atlantis, since it lends credibility to the Atlantis' story. 


The ruins presented here are 120 feet down, lying on the continental shelf off the coast of Spain and are believed to be vestiges of the city of Atlantis. The dating is approximately 9,000 B.
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« Reply #87 on: December 23, 2007, 01:42:47 pm »








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Fernando de Noronha
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, midway from South America to Africa, around 220 miles (354 km) away from the Brazilian coast. It is a dependency of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco.
[edit]


Geography

The main islands of this archipelago are the visible parts of a range of submerged mountains . Consisting of 21 islands, islets and rocks of volcanic origin, the main island has an area of 7.1 square miles (18 km2), being 6.2 miles (10 km) long and 2.2 miles (3.5 km) at its maximum width. The base of this enormous volcanic formation is 2480 feet (756 m) below the surface. The main island, from which the group gets its name, makes up 91% of the total area; the islands of Rata, Sela Gineta, Cabeluda and São Jose, together with the islets of Leão and Viúva make up the rest.

The climate is tropical, with two well defined seasons: the rainy season from January to August, and the dry season for the rest of the year. The land vegetation of the islands is made up mostly of vines and bushes.

As occurs on other isolated ecosystems, the fauna of the Archipelago is as unique as it is exuberant. Among the common species on the islands, one can spot sea tortoises, dolphins, albatrosses, among many others.
[edit]


History

Many controversies mark the archipelago's discovery. It's original name, Ilha da Quaresma (Lent Island), it is known to have been sighted by expeditions from the years 1501, 1502 and 1503. The Viscount of Santarém, however, attributed the discovery to Gaspar de Lemos, captain of the supply ship of Pedro Alvares Cabral's fleet, sent back to Portugal with news of the discovery of Brazil. Modern historians, however, attribut the discovery of the archipelago to the 1501-1502 expedition led by Fernão de Loronha.

The first to actually describe the island was Amerigo Vespucci, who travelled with a Portuguese expedition to Brazil in the year 1503. In 1534, the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago was invaded by the English, and from 1556 until 1612, it was held by the French. In 1628, it was invaded by the Dutch, who were displaced two years later by a Spanish-Portuguese military expedition led by Rui Calaza Borges. The Dutch occupied the island once again in 1635, making it a hospital for its troops which occupied Northeastern Brazil. The island became known as Pavonia, in honor of Michiel de Pauw, one of the directors of the Dutch West Indies Company. It would remain under Dutch control for nearly twenty years, when it was reconquered by Portugal.

Finding it uninhabited and completely abandoned in 1736, the French East Indies Company took the island and renamed it Isle Dauphine. It was retaken one year later. The first major military outposts were set-up on the archipelago on the following years. Around 1770, the first permanent settlement, Vila dos Remédios, was founded.

As Brazil became independent, very little changed for Fernando de Noronha.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the English arrived to provide technical cooperation in telegraphy (The South American Company). Later the French came with the French Cable and the Italians with Intalcable. In 1942, during World War II, the archipelago was made a Federal Territory, and political and ordinary prisoners were sent to the local prison. In 1988 approximately 70% of the archipelago was declared a national park, with the goal of preserving the land and sea environment.

Nowadays, Fernando de Noronha's economy depends on tourism, restricted by the limitations of its delicate ecosystem. In addition to the historical interest noted above, the archipelago has been the subject of the attention of various scientists dedicated to the study of its flora, fauna, geology, etc.

Source: http://www.fernandodenoronha.com.br/
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_de_Noronha"



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Ascension Island
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ascension Island is an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, a dependency of Saint Helena. The capital is Georgetown.

The United States maintains missile tracking sites on the island. The island served as a refueling station for the British fleet during the Falklands War.

It is famous as a nesting site for Atlantic sea turtles.

It is home to Wideawake Field, built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers during World War II, as a refueling and staging station for aircraft flying between the Americas and Africa. Wideawake is also used by the RAF as a bridge to the Falkland Islands.

In 1982 when Argentine forces invaded the Falklands, Ascension Island proved essential to British forces in their efforts to retake the islands from Argentina. Wideawake airfield became the busiest airport in the world as the RAF flew in supplies to aid the Task Force. A squadron of RAF Harriers was based on the island to repel any possible Argentine attack. The British bombers flew a series of long-range bombing attacks from Ascension Island, against the Falkland Islands (operation Black Buck).

There is no native population in Ascension Island.

It is likely the island was named after the day of its discovery.

External link

* Ascension Island Government (http://www.ascension-island.gov.ac/)


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascension_Island"





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Saint Helena
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Saint Helena (Britain))
For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation).


Saint Helena is an island in the Atlantic Ocean 2,800 km off the west coast of Africa belonging to the United Kingdom. It is also the name of this island together with Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha Island.

290
Saint Helena
coat of arms
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: ?
Official language English
Political status Overseas territory of the UK
Capital Jamestown
Governor and
Commander-in-Chief David Hollamby
Area 410 km2
Population


 - Total (2003 E)
 - Density

7,367
18/km2
Currency Saint Helenian pound (SHP)
Time zone UTC +0
National anthem God Save the Queen, My St. Helena Island (unofficial)
Internet TLD .sh
Calling Code


The island served as a strategic island for ships on their way to the Indian Ocean before the Suez Canal was built.

St. Helena has a small population that remains loyal to Britain. However, the island's dimunitive size and geopolitical insignificance has led many Islanders to accuse the British government of ignoring the island. The island's economy was a one crop economy for many years, but is now very weak, and is almost entirely sustained solely on aid from London.

Napoleon Bonaparte ended his life in exile on St. Helena, and the St. Helena tourist industry is heavily based around the promotion of this particular aspect of the island's history. Prominent Anglo-Boer War prisoners, including General Piet Cronje were detained on St. Helena

* History of Saint Helena
* Geography of Saint Helena
* Demographics of Saint Helena
* Politics of Saint Helena
* Economy of Saint Helena
* Communications on Saint Helena
* Transportation on Saint Helena
* Military of Saint Helena

External links

* Saint Helena - The Official Government Website (http://www.sainthelena.gov.sh)
* Saint Helena (http://www.sthelena.se) -- St. Helena Foundation

(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in



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Falkland Islands
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Falkland Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom in the South Atlantic consisting of two main islands known as East Falkland and West Falkland and a number of smaller islands. Sovereignty of the islands is also claimed by Argentina where the islands are known as Malvinas. The capital Port Stanley is on East Falkland.
The Falkland Islands
(In Detail) (In Detail)
Motto: Desire the right
Official language English
Capital Port Stanley
Governor Howard Pearce
Chief Executive Chris Simpkins
Area
 - Total
 - % water not ranked
12,173 km2
-
Population
 - Total (2003 E)
 - Density not ranked
2,967
0.24/km2
Currency Falkland pound (FKP; fixed to GBP)
Time zone UTC -4 (DST -3)
National anthem God Save the Queen
Internet TLD .FK
Calling Code 500
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Geography
4 Economy
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 Miscellaneous topics
8 See also
9 External links

History

Main article: History of the Falkland Islands

Several claims have been made that numerous navigators have sighted the Falkland Islands for the first time but the Dutch sailor Sebald van Weert has been credited with the first sighting in 1600, though the British and Spanish maintain their own respective explorers discovered the islands earlier. They remained practically unsettled until the 19th century. Argentina set up a penal colony in the islands in 1820, and in 1829 named Luis Vernet as the islands' governor, in order to colonise them. The United Kingdom took the islands in 1833, but Argentina maintained its claim. Various tensions led to an Argentine invasion in 1982. The island was later retaken by the UK. See: Falklands War.

Politics

Main article: Politics of the Falkland Islands

Executive authority comes from the Queen and is exercised by the governor on her behalf. Defence is the responsibility of the UK. There is a constitution, which was put into force in 1985. Under the constitution, eight Legislative Councillors, five from Stanley and three from Camp, are elected every four years.

The Executive Council, which advises the governor, consists of the Chief Executive, Financial Secretary and three Legislative Councillors, which are elected by the other Legislative Councillors. The Legislative Council consists of Chief Executive, Financial Secretary and the eight Legislative Councillors. The Governor is ex officio the presiding officer or speaker of the Council.

The loss of the war against Britain over control of the islands led to the collapse of the Argentine military dictatorship in 1983. Disputes over control of the islands still continue. In 2001, British Prime Minister Tony Blair was the first to visit Argentina since the war. On the 22nd anniversary of the war, Argentina’s President Néstor Kirchner gave a speech insisting that the islands would once again be part of Argentina. Kirchner, since becoming president in 2003, has made the islands a top priority. In June 2003 the issue was brought before a United Nations committee, and attempts have been made to open talks with Britain to resolve the issue of the islands. Falkland Islanders themselves continue to view themselves as British, despite Argentine claims.

Map of the Falkland Islands[edit]


Geography

Main article: Geography of the Falkland Islands

The islands are 300 miles (483 km) from the South American mainland.There are two main islands, East Falkland (Soledad) and West Falkland (Gran Malvina) and 200 small islands. The total land area is 12,173 sq km.

Economy

Main article: Economy of the Falkland Islands

The largest industries are fishing and agriculture. The islands have oil reserves that are believed to be quite substantial, but yet to be exploited

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of the Falkland Islands

The population is 2,967 (July 2003 estimated).


Culture

Main article: Culture of the Falkland Islands


Miscellaneous topics

* Communications in the Falkland Islands
* Transportation in the Falkland Islands
* Military of the Falkland Islands
* Stamps and postal history of the Falkland Islands


* Battle of the Falkland Islands - naval engagement of the First World War
* Falklands War - conflict between Argentina and United Kingdom
* Major Samuel Stransham


External links

* Falkland Islands Government (http://www.falklands.gov.fk/)
* Penguin News (weekly newspaper) (http://www.penguin-news.com/)
* Falkland Islands News Network (http://www.falklandnews.com/)
* Falkland Islands Portal (http://www.falklandislands.com/)
* Falkland Islands Tourism (http://www.tourism.org.fk/)
* Jason Islands Banknotes (http://www.numismondo.com/pm/jas/)
* Falkland Islands detailed map (http://www.falklands.gov.fk/coastal-shipping/falkland-islands-map.jpg)
* Falkland Islands Information Portal (http://www.falklands.info/)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands"



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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from South Georgia Island)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. They are administered from the Falkland Islands by UK civil commissioner Donald A. Lamont, representing Queen Elizabeth II. Defense is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Since 1982, the territory celebrates Liberation Day on June 14. A constitution was adopted October 3, 1985. The legal system is based on English Common Law.

During World War II (Autumn 1943 - Autumn 1944) the island housed a small (14 people) Norwegian military garrison to protect the island from Japanese invasion.

The research station at King Edward Point, near the former Norwegian whaling station of Grytviken, became a small military garrison after the Falklands War. This returned to civilian use in 2001 and is operated by the British Antarctic Survey. The British Antarctic Survey also has a biological station on Bird Island, off the northwest end of South Georgia. The South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited.

NASA satellite image of South Georgia island covered with snow.

South Georgia lies in the South Atlantic Ocean, about 1390 km south by east of the Falkland Islands, in 54-55°S, 36-38°W. It has a land area of 4066 km2 (1600 sq. mi). It is mountainous, with 11 peaks over 2,000 m high, their slopes furrowed with deep gorges filled with glaciers. Geologically, it consists of gneiss and argillaceous schists, with no trace of fossils, showing that the island is, like the Falkland Islands, a surviving fragment of some greater land-mass now vanished, most probably indicating a former extension of the Andean system. At Royal Bay, on the south-east side, was stationed the German expedition sent out to observe the transit of Venus in 1882. The island would be well suited for cattle or sheep farming but for its damp, foggy climate.

The climate in the islands is variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow. Most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes. Mount Paget on South Georgia is 2,934 m high. The islands have prevailing weather conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship; they are also subject to active volcanism. The north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in the 20th century, live on South Georgia.

Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK. The territory has revenues of less than $300,000 against expenditures of nearly $500,000. The territory uses data code SX, and has the Internet country code (top-level domain) GS.

The 11 smaller islands forming the South Sandwich archipelago are, from north to south:

* Zavodovski
* Leskov (the smallest)
* Visokoi
* Candlemas
* Vindication
* Saunders
* Montagu (the largest)
* Bristol
* Bellingshausen
* Cook
* Thule

See also

* Sub-antarctic islands


External links

* King Edward Point research station (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Living_and_Working/Stations/King_Edward_Point/index.html)
* Bird Island research station (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Living_and_Working/Stations/Bird_Island/)
* CIA World Factbook entry (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sx.html)
* South Georgia official website (http://www.sgisland.org/pages/sghome.htm)

Overseas territories of the United Kingdom
Anguilla | Bermuda | British Antarctic Territory | British Indian Ocean Territory | British Virgin Islands | Cayman Islands | Falkland Islands | Gibraltar | Montserrat | Pitcairn Islands | Saint Helena | South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands | Turks and Caicos Islands
Sovereign Base Areas


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands"





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Gulf Stream
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Gulf Stream is a powerful warm, swift Atlantic ocean current that flows along the coast of the Eastern United States and makes Ireland, Great Britain, and the Scandinavian countries warmer than they would be otherwise. It originates in the Gulf of Mexico and runs past the east coast of the United States towards Newfoundland. Its extension toward Europe is called the North Atlantic drift. The Gulf Stream is one of the strongest ocean currents known. It transports 1.4 Petawatts of power.

The term "Gulf Stream" is sometimes used about the sum of what is described above and the North Atlantic drift.

As it travels north, some of the warm water transported by the Gulf Stream evaporates. This increases the salinity of the water in the stream, and in the North Atlantic Ocean the water is so cold and heavy with salt that it begins to sink. It then becomes a part of the North Atlantic Deep Water, a southgoing stream.

The effect of the Gulf Stream is sufficient to cause certain parts of the west of Britain and Ireland to be an average of several degrees warmer than most other parts of those countries. Indeed, in Cornwall, and particularly the Isles of Scilly, its effects are such that plants associated with much warmer climes, such as palm trees are able to survive the rigours of northern winters. Logan Botanic Garden in Scotland benefits strongly from the Gulf Stream, allowing their specimens of Gunnera Manicata to grow to over 3 metres tall.

With the recent phenomenon of global warming, some scientists have expressed concern about the sink mechanism outlined above. Specifically, fresh water resulting from the melting of the Arctic polar cap could dilute the Gulf Stream and make it light enough not to sink. The result would be a huge climate change in northern Europe, with unknown consequences. Some fossil remnants hint at the possibility that a similar event has already happened several times in the past, but fossil evidence is questioned. After an initial rejection, the scientific community is evaluating this theory more seriously, as data about historic climate show sudden changes between cold and warm periods.


References

* Corona Magazine Issue 124: Science (http://www.corona-magazine.de/archiv/corona124.html#wissenschaft) (German, Transported amount of power)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Stream"


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Tropical cyclone
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Hurricane)
This article is about the weather phenomenon. For other uses see Hurricane (disambiguation) or Typhoon (disambiguation).


Hurricane Anita approaching landfall on the coast of Mexico, September 1977

In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (informally, a typhoon or hurricane) is a type of low-pressure system which generally forms in the tropics.

Structurally, a tropical cyclone is a large, rotating area of clouds, wind, and thunderstorm activity. The primary energy source of a tropical cyclone is the release of heat of condensation from water condensing at high altitudes. Because of this, a tropical cyclone can be thought of as a giant vertical heat engine.

This use of condensation as a driving force is the primary difference setting tropical cyclones apart from other meteorological phenomena, such as mid-latitude cyclones, which draw energy mostly from pre-existing temperature gradients in the atmosphere. To drive its heat engine, a tropical cyclone must stay over warm water, which provides the atmospheric moisture needed. The evaporation of this moisture is driven by the high winds and reduced atmospheric pressure present in the storm, resulting in a sustaining cycle.

The release of heat in the upper levels of the storm causes a temperature inversion of fifteen to twenty degrees Celsius above the ambient temperature in the lower troposphere. Because of this, tropical cyclones are referred to as "warm core" storms. Note, however, that the term "warm core" applies to the upper atmosphere - the area under a hurricane at the earth's surface is normally a few degrees cooler than normal due to clouds and precipitation.



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Classification and terminology
Tropical cyclones are classified into three main groups: tropical depressions, tropical storms, and a third group whose name depends on the region.

A tropical depression is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 metres per second (33 knots or 38 mi/h or 62 km/h).

Eye of Typhoon Odessa, Pacific Ocean, August 1985

A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 and 33 metres per second (34-63 knots or 39-73 mi/h or 62-117 km/h ).

The term used to describe tropical cyclones with maximum sustained winds exceeding 33 metres per second, varies depending on region, as follows:

* hurricane in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, and the South Pacific Ocean east of 160°E
* typhoon in the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the dateline
* severe tropical cyclone in the Southwest Pacific Ocean west of 160°E or Southeast Indian Ocean east of 90°E
* severe cyclonic storm in the North Indian Ocean
* tropical cyclone in the Southwest Indian Ocean


(This terminology is defined in WMO/TC-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31, World Meteorological Organization; Geneva, Switzerland; available online from http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/ch1_3.htm).

In the UK and Europe some severe north-east Atlantic cyclonic depressions are referred to as "hurricanes," even although they rarely originate in the tropics. These European windstorms can generate hurricane-force windspeeds but are not given individual names.

In other places in the world, hurricanes have been called Willy-Willies (singular Willy-Willy) in Australia, Baguio in the Philippines, Chubasco in Mexico, and Taino in Haiti.

Hurricanes are categorized on a 1-to-5 scale according to the strength of their winds using the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. A Category 1 storm has the lowest wind speeds, while a Category 5 hurricane has the strongest. These are relative terms, because lower category storms can sometimes inflict greater damage than higher category storms, depending on where they strike and the particular hazards they bring. In fact, tropical storms can also produce significant damage and loss of life, mainly due to flooding.

National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 or above as Major Hurricanes. Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons with wind speeds of at least 150 mph (241 km/hr) as Super Typhoons.

The definition of sustained winds recommended by the WMO is that of a ten-minute average, and that definition is adopted by most countries. However, a few countries use different definitions: the United States, for example, defines sustained winds based on a 1-minute average wind measured at about 10 metres (33 ft) above the surface.

The ingredients for a tropical cyclone include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds aloft. If the right conditions persist long enough, they can combine to produce the violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains, and floods associated with this phenomenon.

There is also a polar counterpart to the tropical cyclone, called an arctic cyclone.

Location

Almost all tropical cyclones form within 30 degrees of the equator and 87% form within 20 degrees of it. Since the Coriolis effect initiates tropical cyclone rotation, such cyclones almost never form within about 10 degrees of the equator (where the Coriolis effect is weakest). However it is possible for tropical cyclones to form within this boundary if another source of initial rotation is provided. These conditions are extremely rare and such storms are believed to form at a rate of less than one a century.

Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity known as the Inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ).

Worldwide, an average of 80 tropical cyclones form each year.



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Timing
Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer when water temperatures are warmest. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns.

In the north Atlantic, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking in early September. The northeast Pacific has a broader period of activity, but in a similar timeframe to the Atlantic. The northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and a peak in early September. In the north Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November.

In the southern hemisphere, tropical cyclone activity begins in late October, and ends in May. Southern hemisphere activity peaks in mid-February to early March.

Structure

A strong tropical cyclone consists of the following components.

* Surface low: All tropical cyclones rotate around an area of low atmospheric pressure near the earth's surface. The pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest that occur on Earth's surface at sea level.
* Central Dense Overcast (CDO): The Central Dense Overcast is a dense shield of rain bands and thunderstorm activity surrounding the central low. Tropical cyclones with symmetrical CDO tend to be strong and well developed.
* Eye: A strong tropical cyclone will harbor an area of sinking air at the center of circulation. Weather in the eye is normally calm and free of clouds (however, the sea may be extremely violent). Eyes are home to the coldest temperatures of the storm at the surface, and the warmest temperatures at the upper levels. The eye is normally circular in shape, and may range in size from 8 km to 200 km in diameter. In weaker cyclones, the CDO covers the circulation center, resulting in no visible eye.
* Eyewall: The eyewall is a circular band of intense convection and winds immediately surrounding the eye. It is home to the most severe conditions in a tropical cyclone. Intense cyclones show eye-wall replacement cycles, in which outer eye walls form to replace inner ones. The mechanisms which make this occur are still not fully understood.
* Outflow: the upper levels of a tropical cyclone feature winds headed away from the center of the storm with an anticyclonic rotation. Winds at the surface are strongly cyclonic, weaken with height, and eventually reverse themselves - a characteristic unique to tropical cyclones.

Formation and development

The formation of tropical cyclone is still the topic of extensive research, and is still not fully understood. Five factors are necessary to make tropical cyclone formation possible:

1. Sea surface temperatures above 26.5 degrees Celsius to at least a depth of 50 meters. Warm waters are the energy source for tropical cyclones. When these storms move over land or cooler areas of water they weaken rapidly.
2. Upper level conditions must be conducive to thunderstorm formation. Temperatures in the atmosphere must decrease quickly with height, and the mid-troposphere must be relatively moist.
3. A source of convergence. This is most frequently provided by tropical waves - non rotating areas of thunderstorms which move through the world's tropical oceans.
4. A distance of more than 10 degrees from the Equator. The Coriolis Effect initiates and helps maintain the rotation of a tropical cyclone. The absence of this effect at and near the equator prohibits development.
5. Lack of vertical wind shear (change in wind velocity over height). High levels of wind shear can break apart the vertical structure of a tropical cyclone, prohibiting development.


Tropical cyclones can occasionally form despite not meeting these conditions. A combination of a pre-existing disturbance, upper level divergence, and a monsoon related cold spell lead to the creation of Typhoon Vamei at only 1.5 degrees north of the equator in 2001. It is estimated that the factors leading to the formation of this typhoon repeat themselves only once every 400 years.

When a tropical cyclone of the Atlantic reaches higher latitudes and takes an eastward course, it may develop into a frontal cyclone. Such tropical-derived cyclones of higher latitudes are often violent and may occasionally remain at hurricane-force wind speeds when they reach Europe as an European windstorm.

Effects

The aftermath of Hurricane Andrew, the costliest tropical cyclone in American history.

A mature tropical cyclone can release heat at a rate upwards of 2x1019 watts. This two hundred times the total rate of human electrical production, and is equivalent to detonating a 10 megaton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes. Tropical cyclones on the open sea cause large waves, heavy rain, and high winds, disrupting international shipping and sometimes sinking ships. However, the most devastating effects of a tropical cyclone occur when they cross coastlines, making landfall. A tropical cyclone moving over land can do direct damage in 4 ways.

* High winds - Hurricane strength winds can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, etc. High winds also turn loose debris into flying projectiles, making the outdoor environment even more dangerous.
* Storm surge - Tropical cyclones cause an increase in sea level which can flood coastal communities.
* Heavy rain - The thunderstorm activity in a tropical cyclone causes intense rainfall. Rivers and streams flood, roads become impassable, and landslides can occur.
* Tornado activity - The broad rotation of a hurricane often spawns tornadoes. While these tornadoes are normally not as strong as their non-tropical counterparts, they can still cause tremendous damage.


Often, the secondary effects of a tropical cyclone are equally damaging. They include:

* Disease - The wet environment in the aftermath of a tropical cyclone, combined with the destruction of sanitation facilities and a warm tropical climate can induce epidemics of disease which claim lives long after the storm passes.
* Power outages - Tropical cyclones often knock out power to tens of thousands of people, prohibiting vital communication and hampering rescue efforts.
* Transportation difficulties - Tropical cyclones often destroy key bridges, overpasses, and roads, complicating efforts to transport food, clean water, and medicine to the areas that need it.

Hurricanes in the Atlantic

Each year, an average of ten tropical storms develop over the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico. Many of these remain over the ocean. On average, six of these storms become hurricanes each year. In an average 3-year period, roughly five hurricanes strike the United States coastline, killing approximately 50 to 100 people anywhere from Texas to Maine. Of these, two are typically "major" or "intense" hurricanes (winds greater than 175 km/h or 110 mi/h). Hurricane season officially runs from June 1st through November 30th.

Hurricanes also strike Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean island nations, often doing intense damage: they are deadlier when over warmer water, and the United States is better able to evacuate people from threatened areas than many other nations.

In October 1998, Hurricane Mitch caused severe flooding and mudslides in Honduras, killing at least 10,000 people and changing the landscape enough that entirely new maps of the nation were needed.

In August, 1992, Hurricane Andrew became the most destructive hurricane in the history of the United States of America.

The first recorded South Atlantic hurricane

On March 26, 2004, Cyclone Catarina became the first-ever hurricane observed in the south Atlantic Ocean. Previous South Atlantic cyclones in 1991 and 2004 reached only tropical storm strength. Hurricanes may have formed there prior to 1960 but were not observed until weather satellites began monitoring the

Notable cyclones

On Christmas Day 1974, Tropical cyclone Tracy hit Darwin, Australia. It was the most devastating natural disaster to have ever hit an Australian city. Around 90% of the homes in Darwin were destroyed. Fifty people died in Darwin, and sixteen at sea. Authorities managed to evacuate most of Darwin. Although cyclone Tracy was quite small, it was very severe, with winds of up to 217 kilometres per hour. The damage was estimated to be close to $A 400 million, which (at current exchange rates) is approximately equal to $US 280 million.

A 100-mph tropical cyclone hit the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on November 13, 1970, which killed an estimated 500,000 people (this is regarded as the 20th century's worst cyclone disaster).

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, which made landfall at Galveston, Texas as an estimated category 4 storm, killed 6,000-12,000 people. It remains the United States' deadliest natural disaster.


Naming of tropical cyclones

Tropical cyclones with winds exceeding 33 metres per second are given names. These names are taken from lists which vary from region to region. The lists are decided upon either by national meteorological organizations, or by committees of the World Meteorological Organization.

To help in their identification, in the early 1950's the practice of naming tropical storms and hurricanes was initiated by the United States National Hurricane Center and are now maintained by the WMO. In keeping with the common English language practice of referring to inanimate objects such as boats, trains, etc., using the female pronoun "she", names used were exclusively female. The first storm of the year was assigned a name beginning with the letter "A", the second with the letter "B", etc. However, since tropical storms and hurricanes are primarily destructive, some considered this practice sexist. The National Weather Service responded to these concerns in 1979 with the introduction of male names to the nomenclature. Currently, female and male names during a given season are assigned alternately, still in alphabetic order. The "gender" of the first storm of the season also alternates year to year. The lists of names is prepared in advance, and reused periodically, except that the names of particularly destructive storms are "retired".

Other sets of names are used in the Eastern North Pacific, Central North Pacific, and the Western North Pacific, maintained by the WMO Typhoon Committee. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology maintains three lists of names, one for each of the Western, Northern and Eastern Australian regions. There are also Fiji region and Papua New Guinea region names. The Seychelles Meteorological Service maintains a list for the Southwest Indian Ocean.

See also

* arctic cyclone
* Beaufort scale
* list of Atlantic hurricane seasons.
* list of notable tropical cyclones
* lists of tropical cyclone names

External links

An excellent hurricane FAQ (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/tcfaqHED.html)

* Global climatology of tropical cyclones (http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/ch1_3.htm)
* List of available tropical cyclone names (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/B2.html)
* List of retired tropical cyclone names (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/B3.html)
* Naming hurricanes (http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/HAW2/english/basics/naming.shtml)
* Unisys historical and contemporary hurricane track data (http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/) e.g. Atlantic 1968 (http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1968/index.html)
* Worldwide tropical cyclone tracks, 1979-1988 (http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/figures_ch1/figure1.9.htm)
* Worldwide tropical cyclone basins (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/6RSMCs.jpg)
* 1995 Mediterranean "Hurricane" (http://www.mindspring.com/~jbeven/intr0008.htm)
* Tropical cyclone peak activity rates for different basins (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/G1.html)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane



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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 10:58 PM                       
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UNDERWATER RUINS IN THE ATLANTIC

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A word of caution: their is a pretty robust Atlantis community out there who circulate there own stories of submerged cities and issue there own press releases. Those releases can be picked up as fact and are endlessly repeated. It's nice to have objective sources when possible.
In some cases, structures found near current land masses could have been submerged due to purely local floods, but even in those cases, the problem remains; who built them? Certainly not the “primitive” peoples that the current time line claims were living in these locales.

For instance, in the Americas a short time ago men were not thought to have been here before 5,000 years ago. To date, scientists fight to try not to have the date pushed out beyond 15,000 years. Those people were not thought to have been responsible for these advanced structures.

On the other hand, the presumed megalithic structures off the coast of Cuba are 2,500 feet (1/2 mile) below the ocean. Other megalithic structures are being located miles from current shorelines. Here are a couple of shorts about even more anomalous finds deep in the ocean.

“In 1966, an oceanographic research expedition led by Dr. Robert J. Menzies of Duke University aboard the vessel Anton Brunn photographed what appeared to be carved rock columns under 6,000 feet of ocean in the Milne-Edward Deep, a depression that reaches a depth of 19,000 feet.

A cautious Dr. Menzies admitted that the discovery of what may be the ruins of an ancient city could be “one of the most exciting discoveries of this century, insofar as ruins go.

Some of the columns are half buried in mud while others stand upright. Many of them appear to have a kind of writing on them.””


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http://www.s8int.com/water6.html]http://www.s8int.com/water6.html
...Source: Atlantis Rising by Brad Steiger

[This message has been edited by dhill757 (edited 09-09-2004).]


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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 11:05 PM                       
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"In 1973 a U.S. deep sea submersible craft photographed Roman Columns that seemed part of a temple structure at the bottom of one of the deepest parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Click and drag photo to on the right to resize.Photo: Roman, Greek and Egyptian-style Columns 6000 Feet Under The Sea!
Rather than ending up in some scientific journal or being debated on a university campus, the photo was published in an obscure book about the supposed lost continent of Atlantis.
While the photo may have certainly served the purpose of the book’s author, would it not have served history and archeology even more if published and debated in those circles?"..Source Unexplained:News


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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 11:22 PM                       
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RESEARCHES BY THE SOVIETS
Ancient remains in the Atlantic, in 1979

Announcement of the discovery of the sunken Amber mountain, in 1984

The discovery of a smooth marble plate in 1985.

  During the end of March in 1979, some Soviet researchers announced the success of their research in the Atlantic Ocean by saying “Plato showed us the way to the lost Atlantis”. The soviet boat of underwater researches, named “Vityaz”, anchored to the river Tagus of Portugal. Dr. Andrey Aksenov, assistant manager of the Institute of Oceanography of Soviet Academy, called reporters on the boat and announced a discovery:

"In the sea area, 900 km from the Portugal coasts, there have been found, on a sunken mountain, a plateau in strange formations. After a close examination with our scientific instruments, we discovered that in this area there are remains, probably of a sunken city. We spotted almost clearly half-demolished walls and giant stairs, even if they were covered with seaweed and other sea plants. We took many photos, by which eight of them show the huge symmetrical escalation, and they will be sent to Moscow for special elaboration...."

The Soviets of “Vityaz” told to Mr Vaskonselo, manager of the National Fishing Institute of Portugal, that they are certain they have discovered a sunken part of the lost Atlantis. Dr. Aksenov also mentioned that this discovery is only the beginning of a whole research which will be centered to this place of the Atlantic. Besides, this is the place that Plato defined the existence and disappearance of Atlantis.

The research boat “Vityaz” continued its mission by scanning the bottom of the Atlantic, westward of Madera. In this area, under the surface of the sea, it is extended the mountain Amber. It is a strange mountain in the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean and due to its shape attracts all those Atlantologists, who study Atlantis by Plato scripts.

In 1984 the Soviets of “Vityaz” finished their long researches and gave the information that the mountain Amber, found beneath water, has once been a large island above the surface of the sea.

Unfortunately, they did not announce the details and evidence on which they had been based...

In September 1985, there has been announced by the soviet and foreign tabloids that the Russians pulled out of 4500 meters in the Atlantic, a strange piece of marble. The research was carried out by the oceanographers of the soviet boat “Academic Boris Petrov”.

This discovery has troubled a lot the research group of the boat.

From the very early studies on this object, it has been found out that it was a smooth plate of marble colored from both sides in white-yellowish. Its shape proves that it had been smoothed by a man. They estimated that this object exists in the ocean for many thousand years. Leon Hitrov, scientist of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and chief of the mission pointed out:

“This finding is of great importance. I will personally take on its analysis in the Laboratory of Analytic Chemistry and Geochemistry of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. This scientific test will show if the plate was a part of a structure of an unknown civilization or if according to all evidence, it comes from the legendary and powerful nation of the Atlantians”.

Unfortunately, the Soviet Academy of Sciences, from all we know, has not announced something officially. There are rumors that the “secret” researches continue in the Atlantic Ocean, not only by Russians but by Americans.


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http://www.atlantida.gr/engSovietResearch.htm#research


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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 11:30 PM                       
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Here are some of the reports of underwater ruins gathered throughout the years of all the various ruins reported to be at the bottom of the Atlantic. Of course, many are of a dubious nature. I'll list them all now, get into what we actually know of them later:



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City on the Bottom of the Atlantic Ocean off Spain

Dr. Maxine Asher's Expedition in 1973

UPI Report

Pyramid explored by Dr. Ray Brown on the sea floor off the Bahamas in 1970. Brown was accompanied by 4 divers who also found roads, domes, rectangular buildings, unidentified metallic instruments, and a statue holding a "mysterious" crystal containing miniature pyramids. The metal devices and crystals were taken to Florida for analysis at a university there. What was discovered was that the crystal amplified energy that passed through it.

It is made in a method unknown to the scientists who analyzed it. It was found in a mysteriously lit up chamber inside the underwater pyramid with some kind of ray gun like instrument pointed at it. Kirlian photographs, which record impressions beyond our limited range of vision, showed an eye inside the crystal not visible to the naked eye.

What technology could build a long blacktop paved road for hundreds of miles that was still in good condition over 10,000 years later! This road was found underwater off the East Coast by the deep diving submarine Aluminaut and contained magnesium oxide.

In 1977, a mysterious discovery was made on the floor of the Atlantic concerning an unknown technology. A 650-foot pyramid was mysteriously lit up, with sparkling white water surrounding it that turned deep green, a shocking contrast to the dark black waters at that depth. The discovery was photographed by Arl Marahall's expedition off Cay Sal.

Dr. William Bell's 1958 photos taken on the bottom of the Atlantic showed a six-foot spire protruding from a couple of circular gear-like bases with peculiar light emanations from the bottom of the shaft. Were these the remnants of the Eternal Flame spoken of by the ancients, powered by an inter-dimensional cosmic energy taken out of the atmosphere by a form of crystal conductor at the apex of pyramids or towers?

Pyramids larger than any building in the world made in our modern times have been found on the bottom the Atlantic Ocean and in China, and one in Egypt that our own technology has failed to match.

These Pyramids have cement that our scientists admit is superior to what we use today. The writings of the ancients describe pyramids as Time Capsules containing the history and technology of the Empire of the Sun and latter day Atlantis.

A huge pyramid, in 10,000 feet of Atlantic water, was reported to have been found with a pulsating crystal on top of it, by Tony Benik's expedition. The group also found an opaque crystal tablet there, and reported that when a light was beamed through it, mysterious inscriptions became visible.

More underwater pyramids were found off Central America, Yucatan, and Louisiana, where domes were found in the Straits of Florida. A marble Greek style building was found between Florida and Cuba. And what about the column that radiated energy Dr. Zink found in the Bahamas and Zink also brought up other artifacts from his dives over Atlantis, and he was interviewed by Mind International agent Steve Forsberg.

One of the most amazing finds on the bottom of the Atlantic was reported by Captain Reyes Miraga's crew on the salvage ship Talia from Spain. They video-taped miles of pillared temples, buildings, and statues and wide curving boulevards, with smaller avenues branching out from the center like spokes in a wheel, with majestic temples and pyramids. Much of this city, as well as the city found off Spain by Dr. Maxine Asher's expedition and later by Professor Akayonove's expedition (all photographed), show a startling similarity to Plato's description of Atlantis!

An urn brought to the surface by Dr. Asher's expedition.

More than 30 separate ruins have been found on the bottom of the Atlantic since 1956, and in ancient libraries, several old maps showing Atlantis and its island chain have been found. The islands are known as Aryan, Og. Poseid, and Antigua and the nation was Atlan. Garden City, or Poseid, was reportedly the capital of a continent stretching from off of North Africa and Europe to off Florida with a tropical climate on the western and southern shores, and a cool climate on the north and east.

Ruins of roads and buildings found off Bimini Island in the 1960's by the photographed and published expeditions of Dr. Mansan Valentine. Steven Forsberg, co-founder of the Lahaina Times newspaper dove into these ruins in 1982 to witness them first hand. Similar ruins were also photographed off Cay Sal in the Bahamas. The ruins are of the same construction as the oldest city ever found on land, according; to archaeologists, in Tiajuanaco, Bolivia, where a calendar was uncovered that shows the exact position of the stars and planets 27,000 years ago. This is more than 20,000 years BEFORE the oldest civilizations in school history books!

Similar underwater ruins found off Morocco and photographed 50 to 60 feet underwater.

Dr. David Zink found in 1957, off the Bahamas coast, a stylized marble head, building block cast in a mold and a construction piece drilled by a bit, as well as a stone column that he reported radiated energy. Forsberg of M.I.N.D. interviewed Dr. Zink and obtained the photographs.

A ruined harbor like complex discovered on the sea floor off Bimini Captain John Alexander.

The deep sea diving submarine Aluminaut discovered a well preserved paved road on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean make of blacktop magnesium oxide, running along the sea floor from Florida to South Carolina.

Temple pillars, buildings, statues, wide curving boulevards with smaller avenues branching out like spokes in a wheel, majestic temples and pyramids videotaped by Captain Reyes Miraga on the Spanish named salvage ship "Talia".

A huge 11 room pyramid found 10,000 feet under water in the mid Atlantic Ocean with a huge crystal top, as reported by Tony Benlk.

Several acres of white marble-like ruins found on tile ocean floor off Cuba reported by Lieceser Hemingway.

Mysterious dome structures reportedly seen in clear water by several pilots in the Straits of Florida.

Soviet expeditions to the Atlantic Ampere Seamount resulted in photographs of ruins destroyed by lava (like the Aztecs and Mayans wrote Atlan was destroyed by). This discovery was in the New York Times May 21, 1978. The photos were developed by the Academy's Petrovsky Marakuyev and reported by the deputy Director of the Soviet Academy of Science's Institute of Oceanography, Professor Aksyonove, who also reported ruins found off Cadiz, Spain in the same area as Dr., Maxine Asher's previous discovery.

1981 expedition of P. Cappellano discovered mysterious ruins with strange symbols on them on the sea floor off the Canary Islands.

1977 report of a huge pyramid found off Cay Sal in the Bahamas, photographed by Ari Marshall's expedition, about 150 feet underwater. The pyramid was about 650 feet high. Mysteriously, the surrounding water was lit by sparkling white water flowing out of the openings in the pyramid and surrounded by green water, instead of the black water everywhere else at that depth.

The foundations of a 100 by 75 foot structure photographed on the sea bottom off Andros Island.

A sunken city about 400 miles off Portugal found by Soviet expeditions led by Boris Asturua, with buildings made of extremely strong concrete and plastics. He said "the remains of streets suggests the use of monorails for transportation". He added that he brought up a statue.

Pillars found on the Atlantic floor in 1969 by Robert Fero and Michael Grumley, a chunk of which was carved from rock NOT found anywhere in that part of the world. 20. A road off the Bahamas explored by Dr. Manson Valentine.

Dimitri Rebikoff, using his underwater platform and a special collecting lens, reported ruins found encircling an underwater freshwater spring.

Marble Acropolis underwater across five acres of fluted columns raised on pillars.

Twenty researchers, including archaeologists, a marine biologist, geologist, and cartographer dove onto ruins on the sea floor off Bimini in 1975 and brought back artifacts from which they concluded that the walls and roads were made of materials not found in that part of the world.


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http://www.crystalinks.com/atlantisasher.html




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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 11:34 PM                       
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Here is what Dr. Maxine Asher says about her discoveries:
The truth is that four cities lie underwater from Cadiz to Gibraltar, and these cities are submerged at least 120 feet and resting on the continental shelf. Using the yardarm of 10 feet for every 1000 years of recorded history, we can observe highly developed sunken cities, the remains of which are at least 9000 years old or older (see Internet Website www.atlantisresearch.com). If these remains are not Atlantis, then such evidence still requires that we acknowledge civilization's beginnings at least 5000 years before the earliest Egyptian cities.


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   posted 09-09-2004 11:49 PM                       
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To which the Russian scientist Alexander Gorodnitsky, Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, professor from the Russian Institute of Oceanology also adds in a 2003 interview:
"I think that the lost continent is situated somewhere between Gibraltar and the Azores. In 1984 and 1986 our expedition was working on the slopes of Mount Ampere, when we found very strange constructions at the depth of only 100 meters - they looked like rooms and walls. I submerged to see that myself, made some sketches. Other geologists drew alters or walls - that was what they had seen, we could not take any photographs at that time. At first it seemed to me that those rooms and walls had been created by the nature, but the rooms were equal in size. The human psychology is organized very specifically: if someone had said that professor Gorodnitsky found the lost continent, no one would have believed such a message.


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A small piece of volcanic agglomerate was dredged from 400 fathoms on the north slope. About a ton of flat pteropod limestone cobbles was dredged from the summit area. One of the cobbles gave an apparent radiocarbon age of 12,000 years ±900 (J.L. Kulp). The state of lithification of the limestone suggests that it may have been lithified under subaerial [i.e. above water, on land surface] conditions and that the sea mount may have been an island within the past 12,000 years. (Heezen, Bruce C., et al, "Flat-Topped Atlantis, Cruiser, And Great Meteor Sea Mounts" in Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 65:1261, 1954 (Protogonos issue 9))
In later studies, evidence was found for the remnants of a "sunken block of continent" in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. An articlein New Scientist 1975 summarizes the result. (Anonymous, New Scientist,66:540, 1975)

(from Unknown Earth: A Handbook of Geological Enigmas by William R. Corliss.) http://www.atlantissource.com/home/forgotten_article.htm



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« Reply #88 on: December 23, 2007, 01:46:47 pm »








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                              QUOTE FROM CRITIAS, PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF ATLANTIS:





"The whole country was said by him to be very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended towards the sea; it was smooth and even, and of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand stadia, but across the centre inland it was two thousand stadia.This part of the island looked towards the south, and was sheltered from the north."


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I submit that Atlantis stretched from the Mid to the east Atlantic, with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge being the mountaintops that Plato spoke of and the large rectangular plain to the east, between the Azores and Gibralter, is now submerged underwater.
I haven't even got into the Mid-Atlantic Ridge yet, but there is geological evidence that that area was above water in the time period places Atlantis, even if no cities have been discovered there.

The old saying: There is no evidence of a sunken landmass in the Atlantic.

To which I give this information by the geologist Christopher O'Brien:

   


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With a knowledge of ancient river systems, the O'Briens were able to reconstruct a land profile which revealed an Azorean landmass 'about the size and shape of Spain', with high mountain ranges rising over 3655 metres above sea-level, as well as impressive rivers that run 'in curving valley systems'.
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There is the LAND MASS..!

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Furthermore, they have pointed out that:
 
In the southeast, a feature which we have called 'The Great Plain' covered an area in excess of 3500 square miles [9065 square kilometres], and was watered by a river comparable in size to the River Thames in England. It has, as we shall see, points in common with a great plain described by Plato in his Critias, as being a feature of the island of Atlantis.

The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the Azores once formed part of a much greater landmass which sank beneath the waves and is now situated 'many thousands of feet' below the current sea-level.


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As mentioned earliuer, mastodon and mammoth bones have been dredged up from the sea along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the "elephants" that Plato spoke of.

As for the ruins, both Asher and the Russians have suggested that there are ruins in the eastern Atlantic, stretching towards Gibraltar. Both the Russians and Asher have pictures (even if we still can't find the Russians...)

It would be unreasonable to suggest we'll find pristine underwater cities along the lines of Jules Verne. If it was destroyed in earthquakes and tsunsamis, then there might not be a lot left, especially after 12,000 years. The pictures I've seen of the ruins of the Ampere Seamounts are about what we might expect - dark and covered in lava and ocean silt.

Much has been made of Cadiz and other underwater cities near Spain, the coast of Morocco has similar ruins that no one speaks about. These might be Atlantis, but more likely were settlements.

The only way to reach Atlantis in the depths it might be located is in a submarine, one cannot dive there. Russian submarines have been there, and, more to the point, they keep coming back - 1974, 1979, 1984, throughout the 1990's. For all we know, American submarines have been there. too.

The list I've given of ruins doubtless has some red herrings on it, but if even one of those account is true, the pyramid in the middle of the Atlantic, for instance, it might rewrite history as we know it. Civilization began in the Mediterranean..? Not if we find evidence of it first in the Atlantic!~

The pieces are all there, in the middle of the ocean, waiting to be put together, as I've always maintained, as of this year, we are simply not digging deeply enough...
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