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News: THE SEARCH FOR ATLANTIS IN CUBA
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ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)

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« Reply #60 on: December 22, 2007, 05:59:59 pm »








dhill757

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                                                          Azores





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Azores (or Açores in Portuguese) are an archipelago of Portuguese islands situated in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, about 1,500 km from Lisbon and about 3,900 km from the east coast of North America.

The nine Azorean Islands are extends for more than 600 km, and are guided in the northwest - Southeastern direction. The vast extension of the islands defines an immense exclusive economical zone (EEZ) of 1,1 million squared kilometers. The point more western point of this area, places it 2100 miles of the North American continent.

Even if Portugal is a unitary nation, the Azorean Islands are granted with a autonomous region. Sometimes visitors confuse the islands to be a Portuguese dependency or a country, which is seen has offensive by the locals.
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Municipalities
4 Geography
5 Demographics





                                                           History






Old map of Azores Islands

In 1427, one of the captains sailing for Henry the Navigator discovered the Azores, possibly Gonçalo Velho, but this is not certain.

Beginning in 1868, Portugal issued its stamps overprinted with "AÇORES" for use in the islands. Between 1892 and 1906, it also issued separate stamps for the three administrative districts of the time.

Angra consisted of Terceira, São Jorge, and Graciosa, with the capital at Angra do Heroismo on Terceira.

Horta consisted of Pico, Faial, Flores, and Corvo, with the capital at Horta on Faial.

Ponta Delgada consisted of São Miguel and Santa Maria, with the capital at Ponta Delgada on São Miguel.

From 1938 to 1978, the archipelago was divided into three districts, quite equivalent (except in area) to those in the Portuguese mainland. The division was quite arbitrary, and didn’t follow the natural island groups, rather reflecting the location of each district capital on the three main cities (neither of each on the western group).

In 1978 the Azores became an Autonomous Region and the Azorean districts (Angra, Horta, Ponta Delgada) were suppressed.

Politics

Flag of Azores

The Azores is a Portuguese Autonomous Region since 1976, the executive section of the autonomy is located in Ponta Delgada, the legislative in Horta and the judicial in Angra do heroísmo. The President of the Azorean Autonomous Region is Carlos Cesar.

Municipalities

The Azores are divided in 19 municipalities (concelhos), each municipality is further divided into parishes(freguesias). The Azores has a total of 156 parishes.

There are also 5 cities: Ponta Delgada and Ribeira Grande in São Miguel Island; Angra do Heroísmo and Praia da Vitória in Terceira, and Horta in Faial.

Santa Maria

* Vila do Porto


São Miguel

* Lagoa, Nordeste, Ponta Delgada, Povoação, Ribeira Grande and Vila Franca do Campo


Terceira

* Angra do Heroísmo and Vila da Praia da Vitória


Graciosa

* Santa Cruz da Graciosa


São Jorge

* Calheta and Velas


Pico

* Lajes do Pico, Madalena and São Roque do Pico


Faial

* Horta


Flores

* Lajes das Flores and Santa Cruz das Flores


Corvo

* Corvo

Geography



Azorean islands by size
island size
(km2) as of 2003



São Miguel Island 744,60

Pico Island 444,80

Terceira Island 400,30

São Jorge Island 243,70

Faial Island 173,10

Flores Island 141,00

Santa Maria Island 96,90

Graciosa Island 60,70

Corvo Island 17,10



The archipelago is spread out in the area of the parallel that passes through Lisbon (39º, 43'/39º, 55' North Latitude), giving it a moderate climate, with mild annual oscillation. The Azores lie in the Palearctic ecozone, forming a unique biome among the world's Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, with many endemic species of plants. The nine islands have a total area of 2,355 km2. Their individual areas vary between 747 km2 (São Miguel) and 17 km2 (Corvo). Three islands (São Miguel, Pico and Terceira) are bigger in size when compared to Malta (compose by three different islands). São Miguel Island alone, being twice has big.



The nine islands are divided into three groups:



* The Eastern Group of São Miguel, Santa Maria and Formigas Islets

* The Central Group of Terceira, Graciosa, São Jorge, Pico and Faial

* The Western Group of Flores and Corvo.


The volcanic origin of all the islands is revealed by their volcanic cones and craters. Pico, a volcano that stands 2,351 metres high on the island of the same name, has the highest altitude in the Azores.

The Azores had a population of 238,767 in 31 December 2002 and a population density of 106 persons/km2.

Demographics


Azorean islands by population
island population
(2002) main



city/town Muncicipalities



São Miguel Island 130,154 Ponta Delgada 6

Terceira Island 54,996 Angra do Heroísmo 2

Pico Island 14,579 Madalena 3

Faial Island 14,934 Horta 1

São Jorge Island 9,522 Velas 2

Santa Maria Island 5,490 Vila do Porto 1

Graciosa Island 4,708 Santa Cruz da Graciosa 1

Flores Island 3,949 Santa Cruz das Flores 2

Corvo Island 435 Vila do Corvo 1


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azores"
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« Reply #61 on: December 22, 2007, 06:01:28 pm »








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                                                         Madeira Islands





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Madeira, a group of Portuguese islands in the north Atlantic Ocean, lies between the paralels of 32º 22' 20'' and 33º 7' 50'' and in a longitude between the 16º 16' 30 W and 17º 16' 39'' W. Madeira Islands consists of two inhabited islands named Madeira and Porto Santo, three uninhabited small islands named collectively the Desertas, and another two uninhabited islands named the Selvagens, Selvagem. Discovered and settled by the Portuguese in 1418, Madeira is a Portuguese autonomous region.
Contents [showhide]
1 Islands and main Islets
2 Geography and climate
3 Culture and people
4 History
5 Postage stamps
6 Transportation
7 External link

Islands and main Islets

* Madeira Island
* Porto Santo Island
* Deserta Grande Island
* Selvagem Grande Island
* Bugio Island
* Selvagem Pequena Island
* Savage's Fora Islet
* Deserta's Chão Islet

Geography and climate

Funchal, the main city of Madeira Island, is on the south coast of the principal island, in 32° 37' 45 N lat. 16° 55' 20 W long. Madeira Islands has 6 cities: Funchal, Porto Santo, Machico, Câmara de Lobos, Santa Cruz and Santana.

The Madeira archipelago lies about 360 miles from the coast of Africa, 535 miles from Lisbon, 240 from Tenerife, and 480 from Santa Maria, the nearest of the Azores.

Madeira is the largest island of the group with 741 km 2, has a length of 30 geographical miles (57 km), an extreme breadth of 13 miles (22 km), and a coastline of 80 or 90 miles. Its longer axis lies east and west, in which direction it is traversed by a mountain chain, the backbone of the island, having a mean altitude of 4000 feet, up to which many deep ravines penetrate from both coasts.

On the south there is very little left of the indigenous forest which once clothed the whole island and gave it the name it bears (Madeira means "wood" in Portuguese), but on the north some of the valleys still contain native trees of fine growth. A long narrow and comparatively low rocky promontory forms the eastern extremity of the island, and here there is to be seen a tract of calcareous sand, known as the Fossil Bed, containg land shells and numerous bodies resembling the roots of trees, probably produced by infiltration.

Its geographical position and its mountainous landscape, permits a very pleasing climate. Tempetures are about 22 degrees Celsius in the summer and circa 16 degrees Celcius during the winter. With Its mild humidity, the weather of the Island is classified has subtropical. Influenced by the Golf Stream, sea water temperature is 22 degrees Celcius during the summer and 16, in the winter. The islands are of vulcanic origin.

The archipelago has a valuable natural areas, recognized by UNESCO has Word Natural Patrimony.

Culture and people

The islands are noted as the source of Madeira wine. The islands are also known by the Portuguese shoes, flowers and sub-tropical fruits.

There are circa 250,000 inhabitants (1991) in the two main islands, only 4,800 live in Porto Santo Island. The population density is 337 inhabitants per square kilometre in Madeira and 112 in Porto Santo. Most of the early settlers were from the Portuguese regions of the Algarve and Minho. The islands have historical monuments, streets and plazas (praças) with many gardens and typical small towns, known has vilas.

History

It has been conjectured, but on insufficient evidence, that the Phoenecians discovered Madeira at a very early period. Pliny mentions certain Purple or Mauretanian Islands, the position of which with reference to the Fortunate Islands or Canaries might seem to indicate Madeira islands. There is a romantic story, of doubtful truth, to the effect that two lovers, Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet, fleeing from England to France in 1346, were driven off their course by a violent storm, and cast on the coast of Madeira at the place subsequently named Machico, in memory of one of them. On the evidence of a portulano dated 1351, preserved at Florence, Italy, it would appear that Madeira had been discovered long previous to that date by Portuguese vessels under Genoese captains. In 1419 two of the captains of Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven by a storm to the island called by them Porto Santo, or Holy Port, in gratitude for their rescue from shipwreck. The next year an expedition was sent to populate the island, and, Madeira being descried, they made for it, and took possession on behalf of the Portuguese crown.

The islands started to be settled circa 1432 or 1433. In September 23, 1433, the name ILHA DA MADEIRA (Madeira Island) appears in a map, by the first time, in a document.

In 1921, the Austro-Hungarian Emperor Charles I was deported to Madeira, after an unsuccessful coup d'état. He died there one year later.

Postage stamps

In 1868, Portugal issued postage stamps for Madeira, consisting of the current stamps of Portugal overprinted "MADEIRA". This continued until 1928, when a series for Madeira was issued; but this was the last to be produced until 1980 (stamps of Portugal having been valid in Madeira since 1898), when Portugal began issuing stamps inscribed "Portugal Madeira" that were valid in both Madeira and Portugal, similar to those issued for the Azores.

Transportation

The Islands has two airports, one being in Funchal, Madeira Island and the other in Porto Santo City in Porto Santo Island. Flights to the islands are mostly made from Lisbon, but there are direct flights from other European capitals. The European Union citizens of the Shengen area, can enter in the islands freely. While others need identification. The transportations between the two main islands is done by plane or by ferry-boat, that allow the transportation of vihacles. Visiting the interior of this islands, is today very easy, due to large development of this islands during Portugal's economical boom. There are modern roads, reaching all the interresting areas of the islands, there's also a good transportation network.


External link

* Pictures of Madeira (http://www.sophie.org.uk/Madeira/madeira.htm)
* Natural Park of Madeira (http://www.pnm.pt)


(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in

[This message has been edited by dhill757 (edited 09-08-2004).]
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« Reply #62 on: December 22, 2007, 06:03:33 pm »








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                                                            Canary Islands





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Canaries)
Comunidad Autónoma de
Canarias
(In Detail)

Capitals Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Area


 - total

 - % of Spain Ranked 13th


7 447 km2

1,5%
Population


 - Total (2003)
 - % of Spain

 - Density Ranked 8th


1 843 755
4,4%

247,58/km2
Demonym


 - English

 - Spanish


Canary Islander
canario/a

Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982
ISO 3166-2 ES-CN

Parliamentary
representation

 Congress seats
 Senate seats

 

14
2
President Adán Martín Menis (CC)
Gobierno de Canarias (http://www.gobcan.es)

The Canary Islands are an archipelago of seven islands of volcanic origin in the Atlantic Ocean, off the northwestern coast of Africa. The islands belong to Spain, and form an autonomous community of that country.
Contents [showhide]
1 Physical geography
2 Political geography
3 History
4 Economy


Physical geography

The islands and their capitals are:

* Gran Canaria (capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria);
* Tenerife (capital Santa Cruz de Tenerife);
* Lanzarote (capital Arrecife);
* La Palma (capital Santa Cruz de La Palma);
* La Gomera (capital San Sebastián de La Gomera);
* El Hierro (capital Valverde);
* Fuerteventura (capital Puerto del Rosario).


The nearest island is 108 km from the northwest African coast.

The islands form the Macaronesia ecoregion with the Azores, Cape Verde, Madeira, and the Savage Isles. The Teide volcano on Tenerife is the highest mountain in Spain. According to the position of the islands with respect to the trade winds, the climate can be mild and wet or very dry. Several native species are conserved, like the drago tree Dracaena draco and the Laurisilva forests.

Four of Spain's 13 national parks are located in the Canary Islands, more than any other autonomous community:

* Parque Nacional de la Caldera de Taburiente on La Palma,
* Parque Nacional Garajonay on La Gomera,
* Parque Nacional del Teide on Tenerife,
* Parque Nacional Timanfaya on Lanzarote.

Political geography

The Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands consists of two provinces, Las Palmas and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, whose capitals (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife) are co-capitals of the autonomous community. Each of the seven major islands is ruled by a assembly named cabildo insular.


History

The Canary Islands are supposed to have given birth to the Greek myth of the Garden of Hesperides.

The islands were named Canaria (Latin canis, dog) because of the descriptions of the large numbers of wild dogs roaming the islands, first reported by the Roman scholar Pliny. The bird canary was named after the islands. Being initially dominated by , Norman adventurers and Portugal, the islands were finally conquered by Castile towards the end of the 15th century, and the local (possibly Berber) people —called guanches— subsequently diminished in number until their extinction or mixing with the immigrants.

The Canary Islands were first discovered by ancient Greek and Roman seafarers, yet it was not until the early 1400's that anyone made a serious attempt to conquer the Canaries.

In 1402, the French explorer Jean de Béthencourt led an expedition to the islands, landing first on the north side of Lanzarote. From there, he conqured Fuerteventura and Hierro. Béthencourt received the title King of the Canary Islands but recognized King Henry III of Castile, who had provided aid during the conquest, as his overlord.

Béthencourt also established a base on the island of Gomera, but it would be many years before the island was truly conquered. The people of Gomera, as well as the Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and La Palma people, resisted the Spanish invaders for almost a century.

By 1495, the islands had fallen to Spanish rule. The town of Santa Cruz, on La Palma, became a stopping point for the Spanish conquerors, traders, and missionaries on their way to the New World.

The islands became very wealthy and soon attracted merchants and adventurers from all over Europe. Magnificent palaces and churches were built on La Palma during this busy, prosperous period. Of particular interest to visitors is the Church of El Salvador, one of the island's finest examples of the architecture of the 1500's.

In 1977, 583 people were killed in a major aviation accident known as the Tenerife disaster.


Economy

The economy is based on tourism and tropical agriculture (banana, tobacco) for exportation to Europe and the Americas. They receive about 10 million tourists per year. Ecologists are concerned that the resources, especially in the drier islands, are being overexploited.

The combination of high mountains, belonging to Europe, and clean sky has made the Roque de los Muchachos (in La Palma island) peak a leading placement for telescopes like the Grantecan.

The islands are outside European Union customs territory, though politically within the EU. The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code IC is reserved for representing them in customs affairs. Goods subject to Spanish customs and excise duties and VAT, such as tobacco or electronic goods, are therefore significantly cheaper in the Canaries. The islands do not have a separate Internet country code from the rest of Spain.

Canarian time is GMT, one hour less than that of mainland Spain and the same as that of London.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in

External links Pictures from the Canary Islands (http://home.worldonline.nl/~hharmsen/)

CANARY ISLANDS/LOUISIANA HISTORICAL INFORMATION: http://www.acadian-cajun.com/canary.htm
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canary_Islands" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaries
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« Reply #63 on: December 22, 2007, 06:05:17 pm »








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                                                           Cape Verde





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Cape Verde (Portuguese: Cabo Verde) is a republic located on an archipelago of the North Atlantic Ocean, off the western coast of Africa. The previously-uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading center for African slaves. Most Cape Verdeans descend from both groups.

"Cape Verde" is named for Cap-Vert, now in Senegal, the westernmost point of Africa.
República de Cabo Verde
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: Unity, Work, Progress
Official language Portuguese (official) and nine Portuguese creoles
Capital and Largest City Praia
President Pedro Pires
Prime Minister José Maria Neves
Area
 - Total
 - % water Ranked 146th
4,033 km2
Negligible
Population


 - Total (2001)

 - Density Ranked 164th


401,343

101/km2
GDP (PPP)


 - Total

 - GDP/head


600 millions $

1,400 $
Currency CV Escudo
Time zone UTC -1
Independence


 - Declared
(from Portugal)
July 5, 1975
National anthem Cântico da Liberdade
Internet TLD .CV
Calling Code 238
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Municipalities
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Language
8.1 Creole Links


9 Miscellaneous topics
10 External links and references
[edit]


History

Main article: History of Cape Verde

Cape Verde was uninhabited when the Portuguese arrived in 1456, and the islands were thus made part of the Portuguese empire. Due to its location off the coast of Africa, Cape Verde became an important port, and was a major center of the slave trade.

In 1975, the islands achieved independence, partially due to the efforts of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC). After independence, the PAIGC attempted to unite Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau into one nation, the PAIGC controlling both governments, but a coup in the latter nation in 1980 ended these plans. In Cape Verde itself the PAICV (affiliated with the PAIGC) ruled until elections were held in 1991 that resulted in a change of government. The PAICV won back power in 2001.
[edit]


Politics

Main article: Politics of Cape Verde

The government of Cape Verde is based on a Constitution that was established in 1980. Elections are held for both the Prime Minister and President, who both rule for 5-year terms. Members of the General Assembly are elected as well, and they appoint the Supreme Court along with the President and Prime Minister.

See also: President of Cape Verde


Municipalities

Main article: Municipalities of Cape Verde

Cape Verde is divided into 17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho): Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paúl, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, São Domingos, São Filipe, São Miguel, São Nicolau, São Vicente, Tarrafal
[edit]


Geography

Main article: Geography of Cape Verde

Cape Verde is an archipelago off the coast of Africa. The volcanic islands that compose the archipelago are small and mountainous. An active volcano exists on one of the islands, Fogo.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Cape Verde

Cape Verde is a small nation with that lacks resources and has experienced severe droughts as well as water shortages. Agriculture is somewhat stymied by lack of rain, and is restricted to only four islands for most of the year. Most of the nation's GDP is from the services industry.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Cape Verde

Most inhabitants of Cape Verde are descendants of the Portuguese who ruled the nation, and African slaves who were often transported from there. Interestingly, more citizens of Cape Verde live abroad than in the nation, and this reflects the poor economy of Cape Verde.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Cape Verde

The culture of Cape Verde reflects its African roots. It is well known for its diverse forms of music, that are reflective of the diverse origins of Cape Verde's residents. Indigenously, the term "Cabo" is used to refer to residents as well as the culture of Cape Verde.

See also: List of writers from Cape Verde

Language

* Official Language: Portuguese
* Mother Tongue: Creole (Crioulo, Criol, Krioulo, Caboverdiano)
* Cape Verde consists of 10 islands, each of the 9 inhabited islands has its own Creole. We can distinguish between two main groups:
* The Sotavento Creoles: Creole of Santiago (Badiu (http://www.priberam.pt/dcvpo/dcvpo.aspx)), Maio, Fogo und Brava (http://www.bcv.cv/_conteudo/dinheiro/nota/1999/2000.htm#).
* The Barlavento Creoles: Creole of São Vicente (Criol de Soncente (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beispiele_zum_kapverdianischen_Kreol_von_S%E3o_Vicente)), São Nicolau (http://www.terravista.pt/fernoronha/2651/crioulo.html), Sal, Boavista and Santo Antão (http://membres.lycos.fr/pontadosol/pontadosol/presentsite.htm)

Creole Links

* Sergio Frusoni (Creole of São Vicente) (http://www.unb.br/il/liv/public/frusoni.htm)
* Adriano Gominho (Creole of São Nicolau) (http://www.terravista.pt/fernoronha/2651/crioulo.html)
* "Morna aguada" from Eugenio Tavares (Creole of Brava) (http://www.bcv.cv/_conteudo/dinheiro/nota/1999/2000.htm#)
* Extracts from 'OS LUSIDAS' in the creole of Santo Antão (http://www.capeverdeancreoleinstitute.org/lusiadas_na_kriolu.htm)


* Perspective on Capeverdean Crioulo by Robert French (http://www.clubetabanka.com/cv/creole.asp)

Miscellaneous topics

* Communications in Cape Verde
* Transportation in Cape Verde
* Military of Cape Verde
* Foreign relations of Cape Verde
* Community of Portuguese Language Countries
* Public holidays in Cape Verde


External links and references

* Much of the material in these articles comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website.
* Embassy of Cape Verde in the United States (http://www.capeverdeusa.org/)
* International Searchengine for Cabo Verde (http://kapverden.nano-web.de/search/search.pl)
* Cape Verde Photogallery (http://kapverden.nano-web.de/gallery)

Edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in

Other areas: Canary Islands | Madeira Islands | Mayotte | Réunion | Saint Helena | Western Sahara


Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)
Angola | Brazil | Cape Verde | East Timor | Guinea-Bissau | Mozambique | Portugal | São Tomé and Príncipe

(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Portuguese former colonies

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Verde"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Verde
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« Reply #64 on: December 22, 2007, 06:06:43 pm »








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                                                             Bermuda





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Bermuda is a self-governing island Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, situated in the Atlantic Ocean.


Bermuda
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: Quo Fata Ferunt
(Latin: Whither the Fates carry [us])
Official language English
Political status Overseas territory of the UK
Capital Hamilton
Governor and
Commander-in-Chief Sir John Vereker
Premier Alex Scott
Area 58.8 km2
Population


-Total(2003 E)
 - Density

64,482
1 096/km2
Currency Bermuda dollar on par with US dollar
Time zone UTC -4
National anthem God Save the Queen
Internet TLD .BM
Calling Code 1 (Area code 441)

In the early 20th century, as modern transportation and communication systems developed, Bermuda became a popular destination for wealthy US, Canadian, and British tourists. In addition, the tariff enacted by the United States against its trading partners in 1930 cut off Bermuda's once-thriving agricultural export trade--primarily fresh vegetables to the US--spurring the overseas territory to develop its tourist industry, which is second behind international business in terms of economic importance to the island.

During World War II, Bermuda became important as a military base because of its location in the Atlantic Ocean. In 1941, the United States signed a lend-lease agreement with the United Kingdom giving the British surplus U.S. Navy destroyers in exchange for 99-year lease rights to establish naval and air bases in Bermuda. The bases consisted of 5.8 square kilometers (2.25 sq. mi.) of land largely reclaimed from the sea. The US Naval Air Station was on St. David's Island, while the US Naval Air Station Annex was at the western end of the island in the Great Sound.

Effective September 1, 1995, both bases were closed, as were British and Canadian bases on the island. Unresolved issues concerning the 1995 withdrawal of US forces-- primarily related to environmental factors--delayed the formal return of the base lands to the Government of Bermuda. The United States formally returned the base lands in 2002.

There are two incorporated municipalities in Bermuda; the City of Hamilton, and the Town of St George. There are also a number of localities which are sometimes termed villages, among them Flatts and Somerset.

* History of Bermuda
* Geography of Bermuda
* Demographics of Bermuda
* Politics of Bermuda
* Economy of Bermuda
* Communications in Bermuda
* Transportation in Bermuda
* Military of Bermuda
* Bermudian English
* Culture of Bermuda (see also: Music of Bermuda)


Famous Bermudians:

* Clive Best
* Heather Nova

External links

* Envirotalk.org (http://www.envirotalk.org/cgi-bin/iB/ikonboard.cgi) A discussion forum focusing on environmental issues in Bermuda and around the world.
* Bermuda 4U (http://www.bermuda4u.com) - A comprehensive and independent guide to Bermuda
* A Limey In Bermuda (http://www.limeyinbermuda.com) Life in Bermuda from the perspective of a British expat
* Bermuda Online (http://www.bermuda-online.org/) is a privately maintained site which contains much useful material
* Bermuda Online Links (http://www.bermuda-online.org/links.htm) A collection of useful Bermuda-related links
* Insiders Guide to Bermuda (http://www.insiders.com/bermuda/) A good visitor-oriented site


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bermuda"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bermuda
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« Reply #65 on: December 22, 2007, 06:08:24 pm »








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                                                              Caribbean





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from West Indies)



The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. These islands curve southward from the bottom tip of Florida to the Northwest of Venezuela in South America. There are at least 7000 islands, islets, reefs and cayes in the region. They are organized into twenty-five territories including sovereign states, overseas departments and dependencies.

The name "West Indies" originates from Christopher Columbus' idea that he had landed in India when he had in fact reached the Americas. The Caribbean consists of the Antilles and the Bahamas and is part of North America.

At one time there was a short-lived country called the Federation of the West Indies composed of the English-speaking Caribbean islands of the region.

Present-day territories of the Caribbean

* Anguilla (British dependency)
* Antigua and Barbuda

* Antigua
* Barbuda


* Aruba (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
* Bahamas

* Andros
* Cat Island
* Eleuthera
* Grand Bahama
* New Providence, with the capital Nassau.


* Barbados
* British Virgin Islands (British dependency, shares the Virgin Islands with the U.S. Virgin Islands.)
* Cayman Islands (British dependency)

* Cayman Brac
* Grand Cayman, with the capital George Town
* Little Cayman


* Cuba
* Dominica
* Grenada (shares the Grenadines group with Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)

* Petite Martinique
* Carriacou


* Guadeloupe (overseas department of France)

* Basse-Terre
* Grande-Terre
* Iles des Saintes

* Terre de Haut
* Terre de Bas


* Marie-Galante
* Iles de la Petite Terre
* La Désirade
* Saint-Barthélemy, also Saint Barts
* Saint-Martin (part of the island Saint Martin shared with the Netherlands Antilles; note the dash)


* Hispaniola

* Dominican Republic
* Haiti


* Haiti
* Jamaica
* Martinique (overseas department of France)
* Mexico is not a Caribbean country, but has some islands in the Caribbean sea:

* Cancún
* Isla Mujeres
* Isla Cozumel


* Montserrat (British dependency)
* Netherlands Antilles (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

* Bonaire
* Curaçao
* Saba
* Sint Eustatius
* Sint Maarten (part of the island Saint Martin shared with Guadeloupe)


* Puerto Rico (commonwealth associated with US)
* Saint Kitts and Nevis

* Saint Kitts
* Nevis


* Saint Lucia
* Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (shares the Grenadines group with Grenada)

* Bequia
* Canouan Island
* Mustique
* Palm Island
* Saint Vincent
* Union Island
* Young Island


* Suriname
* Trinidad and Tobago

* Tobago
* Trinidad


* Turks and Caicos Islands (British dependency)

* Grand Turk
* Providenciales


* U.S. Virgin Islands (territory of the USA, shares the Virgin Islands with the British Virgin Islands)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Indies
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« Reply #66 on: December 22, 2007, 06:09:52 pm »








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                                                          Tristan da Cunha




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Tristan da Cunha is a remote island in the south Atlantic Ocean, at latitude 37°S, longitude 12°W. It is a dependency of St. Helena (United Kingdom), from which it is 2,000 km distant. In 1961, a volcanic eruption on the island resulted in the bulk of the population (a few hundred people) being evacuated to Britain, though most have since returned. It is extremely difficult to access the island, due to both its remoteness and the fact that the island is surrounded by cliffs over 600 metres (2000 feet) high.

Residents of the island are known as Tristanians.
Contents [showhide]
1 Geography
2 Population
3 History of Tristan da Cunha
4 External links

Geography

The name 'Tristan da Cunha' is also used for the archipelago, which consists of

* Tristan da Cunha, proper
* Nightingale Islands
* Inaccessible Island
* the remote Gough Island (also called Diego Alvarez), 350 km away.
* Middle Island
* Stoltenhoff


The main island is quite mountainous; the only flat area contains the town of Edinburgh. The highest point, The Peak (2010 m), is covered by snow in winter.

Tristan da Cunha is a nesting place of Wandering Albatrosses.

Population

There are around 300 inhabitants, all carrying one of seven surnames, though surnames are not used in practice. They speak English and are Anglicans (there are two parishes). There are some health problems because of endogamy, including asthma and glaucoma, largely due to the inevitable marriages among distantly related couples, for example marriages between second degree cousins, that comes with having such a small gene pool. Almost all the inhabitants work for the local government. The islands are largely self-sufficient. A ship arrives every 3 or 4 months with supplies and news from the exterior.

There is no airport, and only a small fishing port.

There is no television, but TV sets are used to watch videotapes, though there is no video rental service. There are no newspapers.

There is one school, one hospital, one post office, one museum, one café, one pub and one swimming pool.

After the age of 16, those who wish to can continue studies in Britain.

As of 2003, there are no permissions for establishment of foreigners.

The archipelago's main source of foreign income is selling stamps to stamp collectors. For this reason, TA and TAA have an exceptional reservation under ISO 3166-1 on behalf of the UPU to represent Tristan da Cunha. Another source of income is the fishing of lobsters for export to Japan and the United States.

History of Tristan da Cunha

The archipelago was discovered in 1506 by a Portuguese mariner, Tristão da Cunha, who named the main island after himself. Ilha de Tristão da Cunha was later anglicised to Tristan da Cunha Island. He was unable to land.

The first survey of the archipelago was made by the French frigate L'Heure du Berger in 1767. Soundings were taken and a rough survey of the coastline was made. The presence of water at the large waterfall of Big Watron and in a lake on the north coast were noted, and the results of the survey were published by a Royal Navy hydrographer in 1781.

The first permanent settler was Jonathan Lambert, from Salem, Massachusetts who arrived at the islands in 1810. He declared the islands his property and named them the Islands of Refreshment. His rule was short lived, as he died in a boating accident in 1812. However, the great wealth he earned selling elephant seal oil to passing ships is supposedly still hidden somewhere on Tristan da Cunha.

In 1815 the British formally annexed the islands, mostly as a measure to ensure that the French couldn't use the islands as a base for a rescue operation to free Napoleon Bonaparte from his prison on St Helena.

To this day, Tristanians remain proud members of the British Commonwealth.

External links

* History (http://www.btinternet.com/~sa_sa/tristan_da_cunha/tristan_history.html)
* Visiting info (http://website.lineone.net/~sthelena/tristaninfo.htm) put together by the former British administrator
* Personal travelogue (http://www.cristytrembly.com/dacunha.html) of a visit to Tristan
* The Longboats (http://www.btinternet.com/~sa_sa/tristan_da_cunha/tristan_longboat.html) of Tristan
* Many photos (http://home.swipnet.se/~w-17282/tristan)
* Many links (http://www.geocities.com/britlink/tristan2.htm)
* General background (http://geowww.gcn.ou.edu/~bweaver/Ascension/tdc.htm), some photos, great bibliography
* an even more complete bibliography (http://www.sthelena.se/miles/List13_Tristan.htm)
* The Tristan Yahoo! Group (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/tristan-da-cunha)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tristan_da_Cunha
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« Reply #67 on: December 22, 2007, 06:11:22 pm »








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                                                               Svalbard




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Svalbard, a Norwegian dependency, lies in the Arctic Ocean north of mainland Europe. It consists of a group of islands ranging from 74° to 81° North, and 10° to 34° East; it forms the northernmost part of Norway.
Svalbard
(In Detail)
Motto: None
Official language Norwegian
Capital Longyearbyen
King Harald V
Governor Odd Olsen Ingerø
Area
 - Total Ranked 122th
62,049 km2
Population
 - Total (2002)
 - Density Ranked 230th
2,811
0.04/km2
Independence None (Norwegian dependency)
Currency Norwegian krone
Time zone UTC +1
National anthem Ja, vi elsker dette landet
Internet TLD .NO (.SJ allocated but not used (http://www.norid.no/domenenavnbaser/bv-sj.html))
Calling Code 47
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Geography
4 Economics
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 External links


History

Main article: History of Svalbard

Vikings and/or Russians may have discovered Svalbard as early as the 12th century. Traditional Norse accounts exist of a land known as Svalbard - literally "cold edge". But the Dutchman Willem Barents made the first indisputable discovery of Svalbard in 1596. The islands served as an international whaling base in the 17th and 18th centuries. They also provided the headquarters for many Arctic exploration expeditions. The archipelago was comprehensively geologically mapped by teams from Cambridge and other universities, led primarily by W. Brian Harland from the 1940s to 1980s.

Politics

Main article: Government of Svalbard

By the terms of the Svalbard Treaty of February 9, 1920, international diplomacy recognized Norwegian sovereignty and designated the area as demilitarized. Norway took over administration of Svalbard in 1925. However, under the terms of this unique treaty, citizens of various other countries have rights to exploit mineral deposits and other natural resources "on a footing of absolute equality". As a result, a permanent Russian settlement, more or less autonomous, grew up at Barentsburg. The Russians abandoned another settlement at Pyramiden in 2000. At one time, the Russian (or Soviet) population of Svalbard considerably exceeded the Norwegian population, although this no longer applies.

An appointed Norwegian governor, the sysselmann, based in the town of Longyearbyen, administers the territory.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Svalbard

Svalbard consists of a group of islands in the Arctic Ocean; ranging from 74° to 81° North, and 10° to 34° East, it forms the northernmost part of Norway. The islands cover an area of 62,050 km2. Three large islands dominate: Spitsbergen (39,000 km2), North East Land (14,600 km2) and Edge Island (5,000 km2).

Large parts of Svalbard feature glaciation. Indeed, the name 'Svalbard' means 'cold coast'. However, the North Atlantic Current moderates the Arctic climate, keeping the surrounding waters open and navigable most of the year. Svalbard lies north of the Arctic Circle. In Longyearbyen, the midnight sun lasts from April 20 to August 23, and perpetual darkness lasts from October 26 to February 15.

Svalbard also serves as the breeding ground of the barnacle goose and a variety of other birds; best seen from cruise ships. Four mammal species inhabit the archipelago: the Svalbard field mouse Microtus epiroticus, the Arctic fox, the Svalbard reindeer (a distinct sub-species), and polar bears. Since polar bears occur very commonly on Svalbard, all people need to take precautions when outside the settlements: this includes carrying a rifle. Nevertheless, the law protects polar bears, forbidding anyone to harm or disturb them.

Map

Settlements

* Barentsburg (HuhHuhHuh?) (Russian settlement)
* Bjørnøya
* Grumant (HuhHuh?) (Russian settlement, abandoned in 1961, revival of mining operations announced in 2003)
* Isfjord radio
* Longyearbyen
* Ny-Ålesund
* Pyramiden (HuhHuh??) (Russian settlement, abandoned in 2000)
* Smeerenburg (Dutch settlement, abandoned around 1660)
* Sveagruva


No roads link the settlements on the island; transportation mechanisms include boat, plane, helicopter, and snowmobile.

Economics

Main article: Economics of Svalbard

Economic activity centres on coal mining, supplemented by fishing and trapping. In the final decades of the 20th century, tourism, research, higher education, and some high-tech enterprises like satellite relay-stations have grown significantly. Norway claims an exclusive fishing zone of 200 nautical miles; Russia does not recognize this.

The Svalbard Undersea Cable System which started operation in January 2004 provides dual 1,440 km fiber optic lines from Svalbard to Harstad via Andøy, needed for communicating with polar orbiting satellite stations on Svalbard, some owned by NASA and NOAA.


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Svalbard

The population of Svalbard comprises approximately 2,400 (including a large proportion of Russian and Ukrainian citizens).

Culture

Main article: Culture of Svalbard

External links

* Governor of Svalbard (http://www.sysselmannen.svalbard.no/) - Official site


General information on Svalbard (http://go.to/spitsbergen)

* The Svalbard FAQ (http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html)
* The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 (http://odin.dep.no/jd/engelsk/publ/p10001858/012001-040007/index-ved001-b-f-a.html)
* CIA world factbook on Svalbard (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sv.html)


* includes images of Svalbard (http://www.spitsbergen.cjb.net)
* Svalbard - A Polar Experience (http://home.online.no/~okleven/)
* Svalbard, The land with gold coasts (http://www.willassen.no/guide/omraader/svalbard/index.en.html)
* The Svalbardsyk Homepage (http://dpwww.epfl.ch/instituts/ipt/berglund/svalbard.html)
* Svalbard Satellite Station website (http://www.svalsat.com/)
* Pulling out of Pyramiden (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/905956.stm)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svalbard"
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« Reply #68 on: December 22, 2007, 06:12:57 pm »








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                                                               Greenland





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Greenland (disambiguation).

Greenland (in Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaat, literal meaning: "Our Land" and in Danish: Grønland), located in the North Atlantic Ocean, is the world's largest island (Australia is a continent). About 84 percent of its surface is covered by ice.

Greenland was one of the Norwegian Crown colonies until 1814, when it went to Denmark. Greenland became an integral part of the Kingdom of Denmark in 1953. It was granted home rule (hjemmestyre) by the Danish parliament in May 1, 1979. The law went into effect the following year. The Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II, remains as Greenland's Head of state.
Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenlandic)
Grønland (Danish)
(In Detail)
Motto: None
Official languages Kalaallisut, Danish
Capital Nuuk (Godthåb)
Monarch Margrethe II
Prime Minister Hans Enoksen
Area
 - Total
 - % ice Ranked 14th
2,166,086 km2
81.1%
Population
 - Total (2003)
 - Density Ranked 210th
56,385
0.2/km2
Independence None (Danish dependency. Self-governing since 1979.)
Currency Danish krone
Time zone UTC 0 to -4
National anthem 
Internet TLD .GL
Calling Code 299
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Geography
4 Economy
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 Miscellaneous topics
8 See Also
9 References
10 External links

History

Main article: History of Greenland

It is unknown when the native inhabitants of Greenland arrived, or why they decided to settle such a desolate place. Icelandic settlers found the land uninhabited when they arrived at the beginning of the second millennium. They established three settlements near the very south-western tip of the island, where they thrived for the next centuries.

The name Greenland comes from those Scandinavian settlers. In the Viking sagas, it is said that Eiríkur Rau<eth>i (Erik the Red) was exiled from Iceland for murder. He, along with his family and slaves, set out in longships to find the land that was rumoured to be to the north-west. After settling there, he named the land Greenland in order to attract more people to settle there. This proved successful, and the settlements seemed to be getting relatively well along with the new coming Inuit, and a Christian Bishop was sent. In 1386, Greenland became part of the Kalmar Union and later of the double monarchy of Denmark-Norway.

After almost five hundred years, the settlements simply vanished, probably due to famine during the 15th century in the Little Ice Age, when climatic conditions deteriorated. Bones from this late period were found to be in a condition consistent with malnutrition.

Denmark retained possession of the moribund colony at the Treaty of Kiel in 1815.


Politics

Main article: Politics of Greenland

Greenland's unicameral parliament is called Landsting. It has 31 seats and members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms. Two representatives are also elected to the Danish Parliament, the Folketing. The government has pledged to hold a referendum on full independence in 2005.

Administratively, the country is parted in three districts, which again include 18 municipalities. The districts are Avannaarsua (Northern Greenland), with one municipality, Tunu (East Greenland) with two and Kitaa (West Greenland) with 15. One military district, Pituffik, is not included among the municipalities.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Greenland

Map of Greenland

The extreme north of Greenland is not covered by an ice cap (indicated as pale blue in the map to the right), because the air there is too dry to produce snow, which is essential in the production and maintenance of an ice cap.

If the Greenland ice cap were to completely melt away, Greenland would most likely be an archipelago instead of an island-continent like Australia.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Greenland

Greenland suffered negative economic growth in the early 1990s, but since 1993 the economy has improved. The Greenland Home Rule Government (GHRG) has pursued a tight fiscal policy since the late 1980s which has helped create surpluses in the public budget and low inflation. Since 1990, Greenland has registered a foreign trade deficit following the closure of the last remaining lead and zinc mine in 1990. Greenland today is critically dependent on fishing and fish exports; the shrimp fishery is by far the largest income earner. Despite resumption of several interesting hydrocarbon and minerals exploration activities, it will take several years before production can materialize. Tourism is the only sector offering any near-term potential and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in Greenland's economy. About half the government revenues come from grants from the Danish Government, an important supplement of GDP.


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Greenland

Culture

Main article: Culture of Greenland

Miscellaneous topics

* Communications in Greenland
* Transportation in Greenland
* Military of Greenland
* Foreign relations of Greenland
* List of universities in Greenland

References

* CIA World Factbook 2000

External links

* Greenland Homerule (http://dk.nanoq.gl/) - Official site

* Greenland (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/gl.html) - CIA World Factbook



Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenland"
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« Reply #69 on: December 22, 2007, 06:14:42 pm »








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                                                           Iceland





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For alternative uses, see Iceland (disambiguation).

The Republic of Iceland is an island nation in the northern Atlantic Ocean, located between Greenland and Scotland, northwest of the Faroe Islands.
Ly´<eth>veldi<eth> Ísland
(In Detail)

(SVG Format (http://www.sodipodi.com/clipart/flags/iceland.svg))
(Full size)
National motto: none
Official language None. Icelandic de facto.
Capital Reykjavík
President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson
Prime Minister Daví<eth> Oddsson
Area
 - Total
 - % water Ranked 104th
103,125 km2
2.7%
Population
 - Total (December 31, 2003)
 - Density Ranked 169th
290,570
2.82/km2
Independence Sovereignty - December 1, 1918
Republic - June 17, 1944
Currency Króna (kr)
Time zone UTC
National anthem Lofsöngur
Internet TLD .IS
Calling Code 354
Table of contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Administrative division
3.1 Municipalities
3.2 Counties
3.3 District Courts
3.4 Constituencies

4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
7.1 See also

8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External links

History

Main article: History of Iceland

Iceland was first settled by Scandinavians, mainly Norwegians, and Celtic (Scottish and Irish) immigrants during the late 9th and 10th century. It boasts the world's longest running parliament, Al<thorn>ingi, which was established in 930.

Iceland remained independent for over 300 years, and was subsequently ruled by Norway and Denmark, formally as a Norwegian crown colony until 1814 when the united kingdoms of Denmark and Norway were separated by the treaty of Kiel, and Iceland was kept by Denmark as a dependency. Limited home rule was granted by the Danish government in 1874, and protectorate like independence and sovereignty over domestic matters followed in 1918, foreign relations and defense remained in the authority of the Danish and the Danish king remained the sovereign of the nation until 1944, when the current republic was founded.


Politics

Main article: Politics of Iceland

Iceland's ancient parliament, Al<thorn>ingi, has been in place since medieval times. It has 63 members, each of whom is elected by the population every four years. The head of government is the prime minister, who together with his cabinet takes care of the executive part of government. The cabinet is appointed by the president after general elections to Al<thorn>ingi, however this process is usually conducted by the leaders of the political parties, who decide what parties will form the cabinet and how the seats are distributed under the condition that it has a majority support in Al<thorn>ingi. Only when the party leaders are unable to reach a conclusion by themselves in reasonable time does the president exercises this power and appoints the cabinet himself, this has only happened once in the history of the republic. The governments of Iceland have always been coalitions with two or more parties involved since a single political party has never received a majority of seats in Al<thorn>ingi. The president of Iceland is a largely ceremonial office that serves as a diplomat, figurehead and head of state. The extent of the political powers possessed by the office are disputed by legal scholars in Iceland, several provisions of the constitution appear to give the president some important powers but other provisions and traditions seem to suggest otherwise.

The president is elected every four years (last 2004), the cabinet is elected every four years (last 2003) and town council elections are held every four years too (last 2002).

Related topics:

* List of political parties in Iceland
* Prime minister of Iceland
* President of Iceland


Administrative division


Municipalities

Main article: Municipalities of Iceland

There are 104 municipalities in Iceland that govern most local matters like schools, transportation and zoning.

Counties

Main article: Counties of Iceland

The 23 counties are mostly a historic division. Today Iceland is split up between 26 Magistrates that are the highest authority over the local police (except in Reykjavík where there is a special office of police commissioner) and carry out administrative functions such as declaring bankruptcy and marrying people outside of the church.

District Courts

Iceland is split up into eight district court jurisdictions. According to a United Nations document on Iceland:


The Law on the Separation of Judicial and Executive Powers at the District Level No. 92/1989 laid the foundation for a changed judicial system. The law established eight district courts, one in each electoral area of the country. These courts have jurisdiction in civil as well as criminal cases, issue bankruptcy decisions and resolve disputes which arise during magistrates' major proceedings. Judicial authorities also resolve all disputes concerning the extent of administrative powers. After 1 July 1992 district court judges perform only judicial functions. The judicial authority previously wielded by magistrates outside Reykjavik has now been transferred to the new district courts.


List of District Courts

1. Reykjavík District Court
2. Reykjanes District Court
3. West District Court
4. Westfjords District Court
5. Northwest District Court
6. Northeast District Court
7. East District Court
8. South District Court


Constituencies

Main article: Constituencies of Iceland

Until 2003, the constituencies for the parliament elections were the same as the district court jurisdictions but by an amendment to the constitution they were changed so that today there are only 6 constituencies. The change was made in order to balance the weight of different districts of the country since a vote cast in the sparsely populated areas around the country would count much more than a vote cast in the Reykjavík city area, the imbalance between districts has been reduced by the new system but it still exists.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Iceland & List of settlements in Iceland

Iceland is located on a geological hot spot on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It has many active volcanoes, notably the Hekla, and around 10% of the island is glaciated. Iceland has many geysers (itself an Icelandic word) and the widespread availability of geothermal power means residents of most towns have hot water and home heat for a low price. (See also: Volcanoes of Iceland) Electricity is generally very cheap because of the many rivers and waterfalls which are also used for the generation of electrical power. (See also: Rivers of Iceland, Waterfalls of Iceland, Lakes of Iceland)

The island itself has many fjords along the coastline, where also most cities are situated, because the island's interior, the Highlands of Iceland are an uninhabitable desert. The main towns are the capital Reykjavík, Keflavík, where the national airport is situated, and Akureyri. The island of Grímsey, on the Arctic Circle contains the northernmost habitation of Iceland.(See also: Fjords of Iceland)

Unlike neighbouring Greenland, Iceland is considered to be a part of Europe, not of America. The island is the world's 18th largest island.

The island has four national parks: Jökulsárgljúfur National Park, Skaftafell National Park, Snæfellsnes National Park and <THORN>ingvellir.


Economy

Main article: Economy of Iceland

The economy depends heavily on the fishing industry, which provides over 60% of export earnings and employs 8% of the work force. In the absence of other natural resources (except for abundant hydro-electric and geothermal power), Iceland's economy is vulnerable to changing world fish prices. The economy remains sensitive to declining fish stocks as well as to drops in world prices for its main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon.

The only natural resource conversion is the manufacture of cement. Most buildings are concrete with expensive imported wood used only sparingly and where necessary.

The center-right government plans to continue its policies of reducing the budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing, containing inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying the economy, and privatizing state-owned industries. The government remains opposed to EU membership, primarily because of Icelanders' concern about losing control over their fishing resources.

Iceland's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade, and new developments in software production, biotechnology, and financial services are taking place. The tourism sector is also expanding, with the recent trends in ecotourism and whale-watching. Growth has slowed between 2000 and 2002, but is expected to pick up in 2003.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Iceland

The isolated location of Iceland has resulted in limited immigration and limited genetic inflow in its human population over hundreds of years. The resulting genetic similarity is being exploited today for genetic studies.

The language spoken is Icelandic, a Scandinavian language, and the religion is predominantly Lutheran.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Iceland

Some famous Icelanders include pop singer Björk; avant-garde rock band Sigur Rós; and novelist Halldór Laxness, winner of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1955.
[edit]


See also

* Music of Iceland
* List of Icelandic authors
* Artists of Iceland

* List of Icelanders
* Communications in Iceland
* Geothermal power in Iceland
* Transportation in Iceland
* Military of Iceland
* Foreign relations of Iceland
* Stamps and postal history of Iceland
* Naming conventions of Iceland
* List of universities in Iceland
* Icelandic nationalism
* Reporters without borders worldwide press freedom index 2002: rank 1 out of 139 countries (4 way tie)


External links

* Picture gallery from www.islandsmyndir.is (http://www.islandsmyndir.is)
* Official gateway to Iceland and the Icelandic Foreign Service. (http://www.iceland.org/)
* Information about Al<thorn>ingi (Parliament) (http://www.althingi.is/vefur/upplens.html)
* The Trade Council of Iceland (http://www.icetrade.is/english/default.htm)
* Physics Department of Icelandic Meteological Office (includes earthquake list_ (http://hraun.vedur.is/ja/englishweb/index.html) (in English and Icelandic)
* Travel information from the Public Roads Administration (http://www.vegagerdin.is/vefur2.nsf/pages/english.html) (in English and Icelandic)
* Volcanoes in Iceland (http://volcano.und.edu/)
* Air quality in Iceland (http://english.ust.is/of-interest/airquality/)
* University of Iceland (Reykjavik) (http://www2.hi.is/page/hi_is_english_frontpage)
* Reykjavik University (http://www.ru.is/template7.asp?PageID=507)
* Íslenska - Magazine for Icelandic language and culture (http://www.islenska.de
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« Reply #70 on: December 22, 2007, 06:15:57 pm »







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                                                              Rockall





From Wikipedia

Location of Rockall

Rockall is a small, rocky island in the North Atlantic but is probably better known as one of the British Sea Areas. Its status is disputed, being claimed by the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Denmark and Iceland. By itself, the island does not have much importance, but the seas around it are considered very valuable. Therefore, it is also an important question whether Rockall is considered habitable. If so, its owner can claim 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone; if not, the claim can go no further than Rockall's territorial waters.

The origin of the name is debatable but it has been suggested that it derives from the Gaelic "Sgeir (http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/mb33.html#sgeir) Rocail (http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/mb31.html#rocail)" which is often translated as "Roaring Rock" although "rocail" is more usually translated as "tearing" or "ripping" (see link).

The rock is the summit of an extinct volcano and is located at 57°35'48"N 13°41'19"W, about 480 km (300 miles) west of Manish Point, North Uist in Scotland. The rock is about 83 feet (25 metres) wide at its base and rises sheer to a height of approximately 22 metres (72 feet). It is regularly washed over by large storm waves, particularly in winter. There is a small ledge of 3.5 metres by 1.3 metres (11 feet by 4 feet), known as Hall's Ledge, 4 metres (13 feet) from the summit. The rock's only permanent inhabitants are periwinkles and other marine molluscs. Small numbers of seabirds, mainly Fulmars, Gannets, Kittiwakes, and Guillemots, use the rock for resting in summer, and Gannets and Guillemots occasionally breed successfully if the summer is calm with no storm waves washing over the rock.

The earliest recorded human landing on the island was in 1810; the next was not until 1888. On 18 September 1955 the island was officially annexed by Britain when Lieutenant Commander Desmond Scott RN from HMS Vidal was deposited on the island by a Royal Navy helicopter. He cemented in a brass plaque and hoisted the Union Jack to stake the British claim. On 10 February 1972 the Isle of Rockall Act received Royal Assent to make the island part of Inverness-shire, fully incorporating it into the United Kingdom. A navigational beacon was later installed on the island and Britain declared that no ship would be allowed within a 50-mile radius of the rock. In 1985 former SAS member and survival expert Tom Mclean lived on the island for 40 days to affirm Britain's right to the island.

Greenpeace occupied the islet for a short time in 1997, calling it Waveland, to protest against oil exploration. The project continued until 1999, when the company sponsoring it collapsed and the experiment ended.

Rockall is also close to the Darwin Mounds, deep-water coral mounds about 185 km (115 miles) north-west of Cape Wrath.


Reference

* Birds breeding on Rockall. British Birds 86: 16-17, 320-321 (1993).

External links

* Greenpeace press release (http://www.greenpeace.org/majordomo/index-press-releases/1997/msg00182.html)
* "Official" Waveland site (http://www.waveland.org/)
* The Rockall Times (http://www.therockalltimes.co.uk/) Surreal news site with a Rockall theme


------------------------------------------------------------------------

* An Irish/Celtic band, "The House Band", has an album called Rockall, named after the place.
* Rockall is also the name of the land where Anthony Swithin's series "The Perilous Quest for Lyonesse" takes place.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockall"


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« Reply #71 on: December 23, 2007, 01:13:55 pm »









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                                                          Fernando de Noronha





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, midway from South America to Africa, around 220 miles (354 km) away from the Brazilian coast. It is a dependency of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco.
[edit]


Geography

The main islands of this archipelago are the visible parts of a range of submerged mountains . Consisting of 21 islands, islets and rocks of volcanic origin, the main island has an area of 7.1 square miles (18 km2), being 6.2 miles (10 km) long and 2.2 miles (3.5 km) at its maximum width. The base of this enormous volcanic formation is 2480 feet (756 m) below the surface. The main island, from which the group gets its name, makes up 91% of the total area; the islands of Rata, Sela Gineta, Cabeluda and São Jose, together with the islets of Leão and Viúva make up the rest.

The climate is tropical, with two well defined seasons: the rainy season from January to August, and the dry season for the rest of the year. The land vegetation of the islands is made up mostly of vines and bushes.

As occurs on other isolated ecosystems, the fauna of the Archipelago is as unique as it is exuberant. Among the common species on the islands, one can spot sea tortoises, dolphins, albatrosses, among many others.
[edit]


History

Many controversies mark the archipelago's discovery. It's original name, Ilha da Quaresma (Lent Island), it is known to have been sighted by expeditions from the years 1501, 1502 and 1503. The Viscount of Santarém, however, attributed the discovery to Gaspar de Lemos, captain of the supply ship of Pedro Alvares Cabral's fleet, sent back to Portugal with news of the discovery of Brazil. Modern historians, however, attribut the discovery of the archipelago to the 1501-1502 expedition led by Fernão de Loronha.

The first to actually describe the island was Amerigo Vespucci, who travelled with a Portuguese expedition to Brazil in the year 1503. In 1534, the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago was invaded by the English, and from 1556 until 1612, it was held by the French. In 1628, it was invaded by the Dutch, who were displaced two years later by a Spanish-Portuguese military expedition led by Rui Calaza Borges. The Dutch occupied the island once again in 1635, making it a hospital for its troops which occupied Northeastern Brazil. The island became known as Pavonia, in honor of Michiel de Pauw, one of the directors of the Dutch West Indies Company. It would remain under Dutch control for nearly twenty years, when it was reconquered by Portugal.

Finding it uninhabited and completely abandoned in 1736, the French East Indies Company took the island and renamed it Isle Dauphine. It was retaken one year later. The first major military outposts were set-up on the archipelago on the following years. Around 1770, the first permanent settlement, Vila dos Remédios, was founded.

As Brazil became independent, very little changed for Fernando de Noronha.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the English arrived to provide technical cooperation in telegraphy (The South American Company). Later the French came with the French Cable and the Italians with Intalcable. In 1942, during World War II, the archipelago was made a Federal Territory, and political and ordinary prisoners were sent to the local prison. In 1988 approximately 70% of the archipelago was declared a national park, with the goal of preserving the land and sea environment.

Nowadays, Fernando de Noronha's economy depends on tourism, restricted by the limitations of its delicate ecosystem. In addition to the historical interest noted above, the archipelago has been the subject of the attention of various scientists dedicated to the study of its flora, fauna, geology, etc.

Source: http://www.fernandodenoronha.com.br/
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_de_Noronha
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« Reply #72 on: December 23, 2007, 01:15:24 pm »








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                                                          Ascension Island





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ascension Island is an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, a dependency of Saint Helena. The capital is Georgetown.

The United States maintains missile tracking sites on the island. The island served as a refueling station for the British fleet during the Falklands War.

It is famous as a nesting site for Atlantic sea turtles.

It is home to Wideawake Field, built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers during World War II, as a refueling and staging station for aircraft flying between the Americas and Africa. Wideawake is also used by the RAF as a bridge to the Falkland Islands.

In 1982 when Argentine forces invaded the Falklands, Ascension Island proved essential to British forces in their efforts to retake the islands from Argentina. Wideawake airfield became the busiest airport in the world as the RAF flew in supplies to aid the Task Force. A squadron of RAF Harriers was based on the island to repel any possible Argentine attack. The British bombers flew a series of long-range bombing attacks from Ascension Island, against the Falkland Islands (operation Black Buck).

There is no native population in Ascension Island.

It is likely the island was named after the day of its discovery.

External link

* Ascension Island Government (http://www.ascension-island.gov.ac/)


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascension_Island"
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« Reply #73 on: December 23, 2007, 01:16:44 pm »








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                                                               Saint Helena




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Saint Helena (Britain))
For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation).


Saint Helena is an island in the Atlantic Ocean 2,800 km off the west coast of Africa belonging to the United Kingdom. It is also the name of this island together with Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha Island.

290
Saint Helena
coat of arms
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: ?
Official language English
Political status Overseas territory of the UK
Capital Jamestown
Governor and
Commander-in-Chief David Hollamby
Area 410 km2
Population


 - Total (2003 E)
 - Density

7,367
18/km2
Currency Saint Helenian pound (SHP)
Time zone UTC +0
National anthem God Save the Queen, My St. Helena Island (unofficial)
Internet TLD .sh
Calling Code


The island served as a strategic island for ships on their way to the Indian Ocean before the Suez Canal was built.

St. Helena has a small population that remains loyal to Britain. However, the island's dimunitive size and geopolitical insignificance has led many Islanders to accuse the British government of ignoring the island. The island's economy was a one crop economy for many years, but is now very weak, and is almost entirely sustained solely on aid from London.

Napoleon Bonaparte ended his life in exile on St. Helena, and the St. Helena tourist industry is heavily based around the promotion of this particular aspect of the island's history. Prominent Anglo-Boer War prisoners, including General Piet Cronje were detained on St. Helena

* History of Saint Helena
* Geography of Saint Helena
* Demographics of Saint Helena
* Politics of Saint Helena
* Economy of Saint Helena
* Communications on Saint Helena
* Transportation on Saint Helena
* Military of Saint Helena

External links

* Saint Helena - The Official Government Website (http://www.sainthelena.gov.sh)
* Saint Helena (http://www.sthelena.se) -- St. Helena Foundation

(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in
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« Reply #74 on: December 23, 2007, 01:18:28 pm »








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                                                              Falkland Islands




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Falkland Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom in the South Atlantic consisting of two main islands known as East Falkland and West Falkland and a number of smaller islands. Sovereignty of the islands is also claimed by Argentina where the islands are known as Malvinas. The capital Port Stanley is on East Falkland.
The Falkland Islands
(In Detail) (In Detail)
Motto: Desire the right
Official language English
Capital Port Stanley
Governor Howard Pearce
Chief Executive Chris Simpkins
Area
 - Total
 - % water not ranked
12,173 km2
-
Population
 - Total (2003 E)
 - Density not ranked
2,967
0.24/km2
Currency Falkland pound (FKP; fixed to GBP)
Time zone UTC -4 (DST -3)
National anthem God Save the Queen
Internet TLD .FK
Calling Code 500
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Geography
4 Economy
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 Miscellaneous topics
8 See also
9 External links

History

Main article: History of the Falkland Islands

Several claims have been made that numerous navigators have sighted the Falkland Islands for the first time but the Dutch sailor Sebald van Weert has been credited with the first sighting in 1600, though the British and Spanish maintain their own respective explorers discovered the islands earlier. They remained practically unsettled until the 19th century. Argentina set up a penal colony in the islands in 1820, and in 1829 named Luis Vernet as the islands' governor, in order to colonise them. The United Kingdom took the islands in 1833, but Argentina maintained its claim. Various tensions led to an Argentine invasion in 1982. The island was later retaken by the UK. See: Falklands War.

Politics

Main article: Politics of the Falkland Islands

Executive authority comes from the Queen and is exercised by the governor on her behalf. Defence is the responsibility of the UK. There is a constitution, which was put into force in 1985. Under the constitution, eight Legislative Councillors, five from Stanley and three from Camp, are elected every four years.

The Executive Council, which advises the governor, consists of the Chief Executive, Financial Secretary and three Legislative Councillors, which are elected by the other Legislative Councillors. The Legislative Council consists of Chief Executive, Financial Secretary and the eight Legislative Councillors. The Governor is ex officio the presiding officer or speaker of the Council.

The loss of the war against Britain over control of the islands led to the collapse of the Argentine military dictatorship in 1983. Disputes over control of the islands still continue. In 2001, British Prime Minister Tony Blair was the first to visit Argentina since the war. On the 22nd anniversary of the war, Argentina’s President Néstor Kirchner gave a speech insisting that the islands would once again be part of Argentina. Kirchner, since becoming president in 2003, has made the islands a top priority. In June 2003 the issue was brought before a United Nations committee, and attempts have been made to open talks with Britain to resolve the issue of the islands. Falkland Islanders themselves continue to view themselves as British, despite Argentine claims.

Map of the Falkland Islands[edit]


Geography

Main article: Geography of the Falkland Islands

The islands are 300 miles (483 km) from the South American mainland.There are two main islands, East Falkland (Soledad) and West Falkland (Gran Malvina) and 200 small islands. The total land area is 12,173 sq km.

Economy

Main article: Economy of the Falkland Islands

The largest industries are fishing and agriculture. The islands have oil reserves that are believed to be quite substantial, but yet to be exploited

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of the Falkland Islands

The population is 2,967 (July 2003 estimated).


Culture

Main article: Culture of the Falkland Islands


Miscellaneous topics

* Communications in the Falkland Islands
* Transportation in the Falkland Islands
* Military of the Falkland Islands
* Stamps and postal history of the Falkland Islands


* Battle of the Falkland Islands - naval engagement of the First World War
* Falklands War - conflict between Argentina and United Kingdom
* Major Samuel Stransham


External links

* Falkland Islands Government (http://www.falklands.gov.fk/)
* Penguin News (weekly newspaper) (http://www.penguin-news.com/)
* Falkland Islands News Network (http://www.falklandnews.com/)
* Falkland Islands Portal (http://www.falklandislands.com/)
* Falkland Islands Tourism (http://www.tourism.org.fk/)
* Jason Islands Banknotes (http://www.numismondo.com/pm/jas/)
* Falkland Islands detailed map (http://www.falklands.gov.fk/coastal-shipping/falkland-islands-map.jpg)
* Falkland Islands Information Portal (http://www.falklands.info/)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands"
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