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THE UNIVERSE - Seven Requirements to Sustain Life


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Author Topic: THE UNIVERSE - Seven Requirements to Sustain Life  (Read 327 times)
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« on: December 15, 2007, 02:16:57 pm »

Requirement 6: The Cosmological Constant ≈ 0

The cosmological constant is somewhat related to the primordial escape velocity. The expanding universe is inhibited by the cumulative force of gravity from all the galaxies. This force is analogous to the propulsion of a rocket, which must overcome earth’s gravity, which would otherwise hold it back. The force of gravity that inhibits the expansion of the universe is such that this force decreases as distance increases. Imagine such a force with opposite characteristics, in that it increases with distance, causing the universe to expand more rapidly. This opposite force is called the cosmological constant.

The value of the cosmological constant is very close to zero. To express the actual value of this constant, it would be written as less than 0.000000000000000000000000000000001 per square meter. Suppose this cosmological constant were to increase to the level of 0.0001 per square meter. In this case, a distortion of spacetime would take place over any distance more than a few kilometers. Under these conditions, one who traveled more than a few kilometers would not be able to return to his place of origin.

If the value of the cosmological constant were decreased from 0.0001 to only 0.0000000001, then the distortion of spacetime would not take effect until one traveled about one-tenth of the distance to the sun. Even with this “slightly improved” level, planets would not be able to have suitable orbits around stars. It is not necessary to understand the concept of spacetime, but rather to appreciate the precision of the cosmological constant in order for the universe to exist as we know it.

Scientists indicate that there would exist only a very few stars if a different cosmological constant permitted a different rate of expansion to occur. The optimum rate of expansion that did occur allowed for the formation of the maximum range of stars in all the myriads of galaxies. As mentioned in the previous section, a faster rate of expansion would have prevented the formation of stars. A slower rate would have caused matter to form into black holes instead of galaxies. (Black holes are theorized to be the result of the runaway collapse of very massive stars. Not even light can escape the crushing gravity of tiny black holes—usually only about five miles in diameter.)

The correct level of the cosmological constant incorporated 32 zeros in this minute number that approaches the value of zero. If the extremely delicate force only had less than 30 zeros, then the expansion of the universe would have been explosive, allowing no stars to form. Had this number been decreased to more than 34 zeros, then the expansion would have been overcome by gravity, resulting in an inevitable collapse of the universe. This very sensitive and intricate force had to stabilize at an optimal value very close to zero in order for the universe to form.

The probability is virtually nil that such an optimum value could have been established by random chance!

Again, do not worry if you do not fully grasp these technical concepts. Our goal is to help you appreciate how this could never have happened apart from the careful planning of a Creator and Designer.

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