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THE UNIVERSE - Seven Requirements to Sustain Life

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Author Topic: THE UNIVERSE - Seven Requirements to Sustain Life  (Read 327 times)
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« on: December 15, 2007, 02:15:12 pm »

Requirement 4: Epsilon Constant ≈ Gravitational Fine Structure
Concerning the universe, if the epsilon constant (factor pertaining to gravitational forces) deviated only slightly in one direction in relation to gravitational fine structure, all stars would be red dwarfs. (Dwarf stars—generally, white dwarfs—are the remaining cores of stars that have essentially completed their life cycles. After the remaining nuclear fuel is expended, these cores eventually become dark cinders.)

If the epsilon constant deviated in the other direction, all stars would intensify into blue giants—huge stars with energy levels of enormous intensity. As an example, of two stars in the neighborhood of our sun, Rigel, a blue giant, is over five times hotter than Betelgeuse, a red supergiant in the later stages of its life cycle that will eventually collapse into a white dwarf.

Although the definition of these two forces is beyond the scope of this article, a summary of these definitions will serve to show how intricate these ranges truly are.  The epsilon constant is defined as the fine structure constant to the twelfth power, multiplied by the electron/proton mass ratio to the fourth power. The value of the epsilon constant in the universe is expressed as 2.0e-39 (0.00000000000000000000000 0000000000000002). This is an extremely delicate force that has to be maintained without even the slightest deviation—else the universe could not exist in a stable condition. The value of the gravitational fine structure force is 5.9e-39. This force, relative to the epsilon constant, is equally critical for the stability of the universe. On a calibrated instrument one kilometer long, the tolerance of the range of this force could be no wider than one millimeter.

The pressures needed for life to exist on earth would become enormously complicated if our sun were a blue giant. The intensity of the radiation would be such that the earth would have to be removed far beyond Pluto’s current location in relation to the sun. Such an orbit would impose a host of unbalanced conditions hostile for biological life to continue. For example, in such an orbit, a year would exceed a decade!

On the other hand, if our sun were a red dwarf, the earth would have to be much closer to it than Mercury is currently located. Many of the same problems that have made Mercury hostile for life would exist on Earth—only much worse. At such a close distance, a red dwarf’s gravitational forces would virtually prevent the earth from rotating. The side facing it would overheat, while the dark side would lose most of its heat, resulting in a temperature differential that would quickly dissipate the gases in the atmosphere.

Scientists agree that neither a blue giant nor a red dwarf can support life on an orbiting planet. Yet, the exact balance of the epsilon constant relative to the gravitational fine structure force is required for biological life to exist. The slightest deviation in one direction or the other would cause all the stars in the universe to quickly develop into either blue giants or red dwarfs.

What are the chances that an un-designed, random universe would somehow “find” this thin, hairline range of tolerance and never deviate from such an intricate balance?

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