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History of Sicily

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Bianca
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« Reply #45 on: March 02, 2008, 01:21:12 pm »



FIG. 13
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« Reply #46 on: March 02, 2008, 01:22:59 pm »



FIG. 14




http://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis_sicily.htm
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« Reply #47 on: March 02, 2008, 01:43:25 pm »

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« Reply #48 on: March 02, 2008, 01:50:28 pm »

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« Reply #49 on: March 02, 2008, 01:58:15 pm »



CATANIA

ERUPTION OF 1669
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« Reply #50 on: March 02, 2008, 02:18:51 pm »

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« Reply #51 on: March 02, 2008, 02:20:33 pm »

cicero
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     New Atlantis hypothesis: Atlantis = Sicily
« on: Today at 12:45:03 pm » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
After more than 8 years of reluctantly studying the Atlantis topic I realized now to my own surprise that my research left the status of a "good idea" and indeed reached the status of a scientific hypothesis.

I publish the hypothesis, that the island of Sicily is identical with Atlantis.

An English webpage is established providing you with the PDF paper containing the full argumentation, and providing you with links, maps and pictures.
http://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis_sicily.htm
Please read the PDF paper! The pictures alone won't do! Thank you.

With best regards
Thorwald C. Franke
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« Reply #52 on: March 04, 2008, 04:59:04 pm »

                                     







                                                                 Rocchicella, Paliké





Sicily, Italy



                                                             •     The Hestiaterion   




The hestiaterion (a dining facility; lower right in the photo above) is the best preserved structure of a monumental complex which dates to the middle of the fifth century BCE.  It can be attributed to the local Sikel leader Ducetius who at that time founded a federation of Sikel cities that resisted the expanding power of Greek Syracuse and which made its capital at the Sanctuary of the Palikoi at Rocchicella in the territory of Mineo, Sicily.








                                                                     





In addition to the hestiaterion ('H' on the plan; the photo at the right is oriented like the plan) the monumental layout of the sanctuary included at least two stoas (buildings with a series of rooms and a shared colonnade) set on a series of terraces descending from the grotto towards the Naphtia lake.   

A large platform ('P' on the plan) created a terrace on which a forward exension of the hestiaterion was built during the Hellenistic period. 
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« Reply #53 on: March 04, 2008, 05:00:13 pm »













                                              Hestiaterion building description
 

 


In its original form, the hestiaterion consisted of four lateral rooms each with a square plan (roughly five meters along each side) and three smaller rooms (roughly three meters along each side) arranged around a central space which was open to form a monumental entrance along the southern side.  In the larger rooms the banqueters reclined on dining couches (klinai) the way one would at a Greek symposion.  The dimensions of these rooms permitted the placement of seven couches per room.  The smaller rooms were, instead, most likely service quarters.   
 
 


Rendering from the Learning Sites virtual reality reconstruction of the hestiaterion. View (northwest) of the exterior front and side.




Rendering from the Learning Sites virtual reality reconstruction of the hestiaterion. View (southwest) of the rear and side.




Rendering from the Learning Sites virtual reality reconstruction of the hestiaterion. View of the main central space, showing dining rooms along the far side.




Rendering from the Learning Sites virtual reality reconstruction of the hestiaterion. View into one of the dining rooms..
 


 


                                                  Hestiaterion digital reconstruction
 



The computer model created by Learning Sites was developed under the direction of the buildings' principal investigator, Dr. Brian McConnell, and is based on a detailed analysis of the remains discovered in the excavations undertaken by the Superintendency for Cultural and Environmental Resources of Catania, Sicily.  The virtual reality reconstruction includes a wooden hip roof structure with terracotta roof-tiles.  Careful study of the entrance step into the wide central area suggests that there were four columns and a frieze of triglyphs and metopes along the architrave. 


http://www.learningsites.com/Palike/hestiaterion_home.html
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« Reply #54 on: March 04, 2008, 05:13:17 pm »








                   ARCHAEOLOGICAL VOLCANIC GLASS FROM THE SITE OF ROCCHICELLA (SICILY, ITALY)*





M. R. IOVINO 1 1Servizio Archeologico, Soprintendenza ai BBCCAA, Via L. Sturzo 80, Catania, Italy,

L. MANISCALCO 1 1Servizio Archeologico, Soprintendenza ai BBCCAA, Via L. Sturzo 80, Catania, Italy, G.

PAPPALARDO 2,3† 2LANDIS, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy 3Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy †Corresponding author: email pappalardo@lns.infn.it, L.

PAPPALARDO 2,4 2LANDIS, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy 4IBAM, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via A. Sangiuliano 62, 95100 Catania, Italy,

D. PUGLISI 3 3Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy,

F. RIZZO 2,3 2LANDIS, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy 3Dipartimento
di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy and

F. P. ROMANO 2,4 2LANDIS, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy 4IBAM,
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via A. Sangiuliano 62, 95100 Catania,

Italy1Servizio Archeologico, Soprintendenza ai BBCCAA, Via L. Sturzo 80, Catania, Italy

2LANDIS, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy

3Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy

4IBAM, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via A. Sangiuliano 62, 95100 Catania, Italy
†Corresponding author: email pappalardo@lns.infn.it





KEYWORDS: ROCCHICELLA, SICILY, OBSIDIAN, PALAGONITIC BASALTIC GLASS, PROVENANCE, NON-DESTRUCTIVE



XRFAbstract

The site of Rocchicella, near Catania, in eastern Sicily, has yielded important archaeological evidence from prehistoric times to the Middle Ages.

Extensive archaeological investigations of cultural layers dating from the Palaeo-Mesolithic to the Copper Age
have recently been undertaken, and volcanic glass, mainly obsidian, has been collected in the course of exca-
vation. To determine the provenance of this volcanic glass, a non-destructive elemental analysis was carried
out to measure the concentration of characteristic trace elements.

The analysis was carried out using a new XRF spectrometer equipped with a beam stability controller and a quantitative method developed at the LANDIS laboratory of the INFN–CNR Institutes of Catania.

In addition to the obsidian, it was demonstrated for the first time that a local vitreous material similar to obsidian, but displaying a completely different composition, was used during all the investigated periods. This material was identified as a basaltic glass, characterized by a superficial product of devitrification called palagonite.

Analysis of the obsidians has led to the identification of the island of Lipari as the provenance source.

High- and low-power microscopic use-wear analysis on obsidian and basaltic glass artefacts indicated that soft wood and plant matter might have been processed at the site.


http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2007.00352.x
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« Reply #55 on: March 04, 2008, 05:30:12 pm »







"PALIKE': twin sons of Zeus and the muse Thalia or, according to another tradition, of
Hephaestus and Etna, born in the waters of Lake Naftia, near Palagonia........"




(Naftía Lake) with remarkable gas emissions (bubbling gas into a lake as well as adjacent areas
of diffuse soil degassing) is located further southwest of Mt. Etna in an area of extinct Quaternary
volcanism on the northwest margin of Hyblean Mts. In all of these areas the origin of the highest
CO2 emissions is clearly magmatic, and degassing to the atmosphere occurs mostly through tec-
tonic structures, probably at a regional scale. The magmatic source that feeds anomalous de-
gassing in the above areas is likely to be the same that feeds volcanic activity at Mt. Etna.


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VCS-4NRT3B6-8&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=
1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=bf05ba3c88370605564408fbbff8eea6
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« Reply #56 on: March 04, 2008, 05:39:41 pm »









Legend of Sicily



Legend relates how Alpheus, god of the river Alpheus in the Peloponnese, was wandering
across the greek region of Arcadia, when he came across Arethusa, one of Artemis water
nymphs.

The river god fell in love with the nymph, but as he tried to seize her, she changed into a
stream, slipping from him into the Ionian Sea, only remerge as a spring in Siracusa.
Alpheus pursued Arethusa to Sicily, where his waters mingled with those of the nymph.

This myth, diffused among the Greek population of Sicily, was taken to symbolise the trans-
ference of the Greek civilisation from the motherland to Sicily.
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« Reply #57 on: March 04, 2008, 05:43:31 pm »









The Greek Gods in Sicily
 


ACIS: god of the river of the same name and lover of Galatea (see ACIREALE).

ALEOLUS: son of Poseidon, god of the winds and lord of Aeolian Islands.

ALPHEUS:god of the river of the same name in the Peloponnese. He fell in love with the water nymph Arethusa and followed her to Sicily (see SIRACUSA).

APHRODITE: (Venus): goddess of love and wife oh Hephaestus, much worshipped in Erice.

CHARYBDIS: a monster who inhabited the Sicilian shore of the Straits of Messina. Three times a day the monster swallowed huge amounts of water, creating dangerous whirlpools, including one which trapped Ulysses' ship.

COCALUS: Sicilian king who offered refuge to Dedalus; the latter was pursued by Minos after helping Theseus to escape from Minos' labyrinth.

DEMETER (Ceres): goddess of the harvest, who fought with Hephaestus for control of Sicily.

ERYX: son of Aphrodite and Butes (or Poseidon). He challenged Heracles and was killed by him.


ETNA: a Sicilian nymph who intervened in the dispute between Demeter and Hephaestus over the possession of Sicily. One legend recounts that the Palici were born byher union with Hephaestus.


GALATEA: a nymph who was loved by the monster Polyphemus and was in love wihth Acis (see ACIREALE).

GIANTS: son of Gaia (the Earth) and Uranus, enemies of the Olympic gods, and particualarly of Zeus and Athena.

HADES (Pluto): brother of Zeus; lord of the kingdom of the dead. He abducted Demeter's daughter, Proserpina, on the banks of Lake Pergusa.

HELIOS: god of the sun. He owned a herd of cattle in Sicily, some of which were eaten by Ulysses' companions, thus incurring the wrath of the god.

HEPHAESTUS: god of fire and lord of the volcanoes, in which he worked with his helpers, the Cyclops.

HERACLES: a hero during his earthly life and a god after his death. One of his 12 Labours, that of the cattle of Geryon, took place in Sicily.


PALICI: twin sons of Zeus and the muse Thalia or, according to another tradition, of Hephaestus and Etna, born in the waters of Lake Naftia, near Palagonia.


PERSEPHONE(Proserpina): goddess of the Underworld and wife of Hades.

TYPHON: a giant who fought with Zeus and Athena. He escaped by crossing the Sicilian sea, but was then crushed when Zeus hurled the island of Sicily on top of him.



http://www.hikenow.net/Map-of-Sicily.html
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« Reply #58 on: March 07, 2008, 04:23:28 pm »









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     Re: ERYTHEIA/GADES/CADIZ
« Reply #60 on: March 04, 2008, 08:03:42 pm » Quote Modify 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                              Strabo

 
                                                           Geography


                                                   p55 Book VI, Chapter 2




"...... Now it was not at all necessary to fill out the whole of this circuit, but it was necessary, he thought, to
build up in a better way only the part that was settled — the part adjacent to the Island of Ortygia which had
a sufficient circuit to make a notable city. Ortygia is connected with the mainland, near which it lies, by a bridge, and has the fountain of Arethusa, which sends forth a river that empties immediately into the sea........"



"......Aetna dominates more especially the seaboard in the region of the Strait and the territory of Catana, but
also that in the region of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Liparaean Islands. Now although by night a brilliant light
shines from the summit, by day it is covered with smoke and haze.



9 Over against Aetna rise the Nebrodes Mountains,135 which, though lower than Aetna, exceed it considerably in breadth. The whole island is hollow down beneath the ground, and full of streams and of fire, as is the case with the Tyrrhenian Sea, as far as the Cumaean country, as I have said before.136 275At all events, the island has at many places springs of hot waters which spout up, of which those of Selinus and those of Himera are brackish, whereas those of Aegesta are potable. Near Acragas are lakes which, though they have the taste of sea-water, are different in nature; for even people who cannot swim do not sink, but float on the surface like wood. The territory of the [Palici] has craters137 p93that spout up water in a dome-like jet and receive it back again into the same recess.

The cavern near Mataurus138 contains an immense gallery through which a river flows invisible for a considerable distance, and then emerges to the surface, as is the case with the Orontes in Syria,139 which sinks into the chasm (called Charybdis) between Apameia and Antiocheia and rises again forty stadia away......"


http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/6B*.html   
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« Reply #59 on: March 07, 2008, 04:26:28 pm »










                                                               H O M E R :




 Here is what Homer says (Odyssey, Book ):




"There is an isle, OGYGIA, that lies far off in the sea; there dwells the daughter of Atlas, crafty Calypso, of the braided tresses, an awful goddess, nor is any either of gods or mortals conversant with her.

Howbeit, some god brought me to her hearth, wretched man that I am, all alone, for that Zeus with white bolt crushed my swift ship and cleft it in the midst of the wine-dark deep.

There all the rest of my good company was lost, but I clung with fast embrace about the keel of the curved ship, and so was I borne for nine whole days.

And on the tenth dark night the gods brought me nigh the isle Ogygia, where Calypso of the braided tresses dwells, an awful goddess."

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