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Atlantis in Antarctica

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Stacy Dohm
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« on: March 07, 2007, 10:14:26 pm »

I thought we might look at the Antarctica theory in a little more detail seeing as how there are a lot more questions on it now and I don't see that anyone really tackled in seriously here yet.

You have to admit that Antarctica is at least big enough to fit the bill for Atlantis. Also that it is kind of dramatic to imagine that there was once a great civilization down there trapped beneath two miles of ice. (Anyone ever see Alien v.s Predator? Starts out all about that theme)

I'd like to start out with a couple of long sought after satellite images that appeared in the documentary, "Search for Atlantis," which shows a circular object beneath the ice of Antarctica.  It is big enough and looks to be in the same shape as Plato's circular city.  Credit goes to Helios for finding them, who first posted them in the other forum:




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« Reply #1 on: March 07, 2007, 10:31:46 pm »

ANTARCTICA
Myths and Legends
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


The Piri Reis Map



Piri Reis was a famous 15th century Turkish naval admiral. His navigational map was discovered by historians in 1929 and it shows the Antarctica landmass the way it is beneath the ice. A copy of his map was given to the U.S. Hydrographic Institute who were amazed at it's accuracy, considering it had been drawn 300 years before Antarctica had been discovered. They even used it to correct some of their own maps. Piri Reis himself stated that his map was created from even earlier maps called portolans. What astounds scientists is how these maps were created in ancient times without the benefit of aerial or satellite survey facilities. See the history of maps. These questions have given rise to a number of theories about life on earth for the past 12,500 years.
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« Reply #2 on: March 07, 2007, 10:33:37 pm »




http://www.vb-tech.co.za/Antartica/myths1.htm
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« Reply #3 on: March 07, 2007, 10:36:41 pm »





The Einstein-Hapgood Papers
Charles Hapgood first came to public attention in the mid-1950s with his theory of earth crust displacement, a radical geological idea which attracted the curiosity and support of Albert Einstein. The Einstein-Hapgood correspondence is a forgotten page in the history of science. Rose and I obtained these letters (ten from Einstein to Hapgood) from Albert Einstein's Archives in the Fall of 1995. They show, for the first time, just how extensively Albert Einstein was involved in assisting Charles Hapgood in the development of the theory.  This correspondence is detailed in The Atlantis Blueprint.  Here is a brief summary:

In his second reply (24 November 1952) to Hapgood, Einstein wrote that the idea of earth crust displacement should not be ruled out "apriori" just because it didn't fit with what we wanted to believe about the earth's past. What was needed, Einstein claimed, was solid "geological and paleontological facts."

For six months, Hapgood gathered geological evidence to support the idea of an earth crust displacement. On the 3rd of May 1953 he forwarded thirty-eight pages of this evidence to Einstein. Central to his argument was Hapgood's evidence that Lesser Antarctica was ice-free at the same time that North America lay smothered in ice. Einstein responded (8 May 1953):

"I find your arguments very impressive and have the impression that your hypothesis is correct. One can hardly doubt that significant shifts of the crust have taken place repeatedly and within a short time."
He urged Hapgood to follow up on evidence of "earth fractures". A month later 
(11 June 1953) Hapgood sent Einstein forty-two pages of evidence on earth fractures and the evolution of the ice sheets.
Einstein wrote (17 December 1953) Hapgood urging him to address the "centrifugal momentum" problem. Hapgood responded with four pages on this problem and thirty-seven pages of "paleontological evidence" including the frozen mammoths of Arctic Siberia. Einstein was now convinced. On the 18th of May 1954, Einstein wrote a very favorable foreword for Hapgood's book EARTH'S SHIFTING CRUST: A KEY TO SOME BASIC PROBLEMS OF EARTH SCIENCE (published in 1958 by Pantheon Books, New York). The Foreword begins:

"I frequently receive communications from people who wish to consult me concerning their unpublished ideas. It goes without saying that these ideas are very seldom possessed of scientific validity. The very first communication, however, that I  received from Mr. Hapgood electrified me. His idea is original, of great simplicity, and  - if it continues to prove itself of great importance to everything that is related to the history of the earth's surface. ... I think that this rather astonishing, even fascinating, idea deserves the serious attention of anyone who concerns himself with the theory of the earth's  development."
Hapgood and Einstein continued to correspond and finally met in January of 1955.
Einstein's last letter was dated the 9th of March 1955 just weeks before the great physicist died on the 18th of April 1955. 

Einstein's Archives are held in Jerusalem (with copies at Princeton) where they hold the record of an unique and unheralded collaboration on the theory of earth crust displacement. 

We began corresponding with Hapgood in 1977. 

http://www.flem-ath.com/e-h.htm

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« Reply #4 on: March 07, 2007, 10:41:14 pm »

Hi Stacy

Good stuff,

The fact that someone had a map of antartica before it was covered in ice is compelling evidence for a major climate change.
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« Reply #5 on: March 07, 2007, 10:57:25 pm »

Thanks!  I cold never figure out how it was similar to Antarctica, but I just take their word for it.

Did you see "Search for Atlantis?"
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« Reply #6 on: March 07, 2007, 10:57:54 pm »

This letter dated August 3rd 1977 was Charles Hapgood's response to a paper we sent him applying the earth crust displacement theory to various problems including the location of Atlantis (on Lesser Antarctica).
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   "I am astonished and delighted by your article which arrived here today. Believe it or not, it is the first truly scientific exploration of my work that has ever been done. You have found evidence for crust displacement that I did not find.
     However, it would seem that you are not aware of a book I published in 1966 entitled Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings. Since you are considering presenting your article to the Royal Geographical Society (of which I was a member until I stopped paying my dues), you should examine this book, and I am mailing a copy of it to you.
     What I found, after long research, was that many maps considered of medieval or Renaissance origin are in fact copies of copies of maps drawn in very remote antiquity, and among them is one showing a deglacial Antarctica. I was able to solve the projections of these maps with the help of a mathematician, and have them confirmed by the Cartographic staff of the Strategic Air Command at Westover Air Force Base in Massachusetts.  ...  It may be that after examining this book you may decide to reduce somewhat your emphasis on Atlantis, this on the myths, for the book contains enough hard evidence to stand by itself.
     Let me congratulate you on the work you have done!

    Sincerely,

    Charles H. Hapgood     
.
http://www.flem-ath.com/3aug77.htm

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« Reply #7 on: March 07, 2007, 11:00:50 pm »

Was that the special that just aired recently?

Because I saw the one where they were doing the sonar near Spain.
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« Reply #8 on: March 07, 2007, 11:01:44 pm »

Hapgood Theory- Elevation
Question from Mark Grant - April 2002
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"Strictly speaking, the Crustal Displacement Theory sounds like plausible
science: the idea of the surface layer of Earth, ie the continental masses,
shifting around from time to time sounds good, especially given what we
know about physics and geology as they relate to the destabilizing effects
of Earth's tilting and rotating axis.

My first concern is that, - as far as I've read so far - being just a
layman - this Displacement is described in purely 'horizontal' terms. The
presented thesis seems to imply that, as the continents move, they only
slide across the surface of the adjacent, more interior layer of the earth.
That's a purely horizontal description, but what about 'vertical'
displacement? The idea here is that in the course of the horizontal slide,
the continents seem very likely to tilt in the process, maybe just because
the repositioned themselves over a slightly more elevated part of the ocean floor, or some similar scenario.  Furthermore, given the horrid
descriptions of the cataclysms that coincide with the tilting of the
Earth's axis which leads to Crustal Displacement, it seems also likely
vertical displacement would also occur due to massive volcanic eruptions,
landslides and other events as well.

Let us assume that North America slid a few hundred or even a thousand
miles in the last Crustal Displacement? Can we ascertain how much higher the east coast shoreline would be if the continent tilted upwards to just
one degree? What about a half degree? Any estimates would be appreciated.

My point is that even the slightest 'vertical' displacement would have a
profound effect on the appearance of any affected coastline. Why this is
important is brought up in the second question. For now though I would ask the Flem-Aths to comment on this verticality issue. Is it definitely 'not' an issue for some reason? (If so, why?) Is it 'probably' not an issue? Is it an extremely likely scenario, as I think? If so, are my suspicions
generally on the right track?"

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« Reply #9 on: March 07, 2007, 11:03:02 pm »

Let me begin by saying that the ocean basins are as much a part of the earth's crust as are the continents.  We shouldn't be thinking of just the continents moving.  It is the whole crust that shifts in Hapgood's theory.



It is also important to note that when the crust shifts it move over asthenosphere a semi-liquid layer than lies below the lithosophere.  One of the problems of the earth crust displacement theory is the fact that the asthensophere is under such pressure from the weight of the crust that it tends to be tar-like (an issue of viscosity).  In order for the crust to displace something must happen that will allow the molten layer to flow more freely.  It is here that I think the article by Jared Freedman is important because the heat swelling up from the earth's core as a result of a magnetic solar typhoon would tend to melt the asthenosphere thus allowing the crust to shift more easily.  It also provides a mechanism (cooling) which re-establishes the normal slow flow of the asthenosphere.

These ideas must be considered when we come to Mark's concern about the vertical as opposed to the horizontal dislocations resulting from an earth crust displacement.  I dislike the term 'horizontal' because it tends to give the impression that the continents alone are moving. The continents are just the thicker parts of the crust which also includes the ocean basins (thinner crust).  That's why Hapgood used the term 'displacement'.  It got over the idea of both crust and ocean basins moving together as a single unit. Vertical shifts would be restricted to tropical areas where the shifting crust is encountering or leaving the equatorial bulge. 
http://www.flem-ath.com/mghap.htm

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« Reply #10 on: March 07, 2007, 11:04:01 pm »

Was that the special that just aired recently?

Because I saw the one where they were doing the sonar near Spain.

Nah, this was an older one, it had Ted Danson hosting it.  Did you see it?
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« Reply #11 on: March 07, 2007, 11:06:51 pm »

The earth is not a perfect sphere.

One distortion is the equatorial bulge.

Like a belt around a belly the equatorial bulge sticks out (this is a very fractional change that would unnoticeable from space but remains important for the earth crust displacement theory).  When the crust moves as a unit over the equatorial bulge there should be significant uplifts and depressions.  Areas of the earth's crust that move over the equatorial bulge should experience uplift while regions that leave the equatorial bulge can experience collapse.
 


In this southern hemisphere view of the globe we can see that an earth crust displacement is really about how the whole crust (including the ocean basins and continental shelf) shifts in relation to the earth's climatic zones.
In the map above we show two equators in order to illustrate the movement of the crust.  Of course the Earth only has one equator but in order to illustrate the movement of the crust we show its relationship by drawing two circles.  The top outer circle represents the current land over the equator. The circle below it represents the land that was formerly over the equator.  The red land is the part of the crust that was tropical both before and after the displacement.

The light blue area in the South Indian Ocean used to be in the Antarctic Circle.  The green area of Lesser Antarctica (Atlantis) used to be outside the Antarctica Circle and there is about half of the island continent (dark blue) that was within the polar zone both before and after the last earth crust displacement (this is where the bulk of the ice on our planet resides).

Let us now consider the implications of an earth crust displacement on the issue of 'vertical' changes.  These are largely restricted to the tropics.

If you reside upon a part of the earth's crust near the tropics and the displacement shifts you closer to the equatorial bulge then expect tectonic uplift. During the last earth crust displacement, the Lake Titicaca region of the Central Andes should have experienced tectonic uplift because it was already in the tropics and moved towards the equatorial bulge.

If you reside in the tropics near the equator and the displacement shifts the part of the crust that you are on away from the equatorial bulge then expect tectonic collapse.  Following the last displacement regions of the World Ocean south, east and west of India should have experienced tectonic collapse.

It is entirely plausible to expect submerging lands in the vicinity of southern India following the last earth crust displacement.  This is a region that was formerly near  the equatorial bulge and then moved away from it.  Such dynamics call for the possiblity of tectonic collapse.  The same applies to the Persian Gulf and what Stephen Oppenheimer calls 'Sundaland' in Southeast Asia and even the Yonaguni region.

I believe that not only was the ocean level rising but some lands were actually 'falling' as they left the supporting region of the equatorial bulge. The earth crust displacement theory provides a mechanism for both the rising ocean (melting ice sheets from former polar zones) and tectonic collapse (lands leaving the region of the equatorial bulge).  Both factors need to be considered when evaluating the possibility of lost civilizations formerly residing on what today is the continental shelf.

Evidence for submerged lost civilizations of the Ice Age may be 'deeper' than a simple ocean rising model assumes.  Computer models that don't take the tectonic collapse consideration into their calculation can seriously miss the mark.  They can give false readings by assuming greater depths are equal to greater age when much of the depth might be accounted for by tectonic collapse.

Such a shift of the crust would be accompanied by volcanoes and earthquakes but vertical shifts should be largely restricted to the tropics. The tectonic uplift and collapse wouldn't happen all at once.  There could be significant (many centuries possibly thousands of years) delay in establishing a new equilibrium.

The general configuration of the continents outside the tropics would be primarily changed by the melting ice and ocean levels rising.  Vertical shifts would still occur as the land rebounded when the ice melted but generally speaking if we include the continental shelf as part of the continents then changes in shape would be minor.


http://www.flem-ath.com/bulge.htm


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« Reply #12 on: March 07, 2007, 11:09:30 pm »

Hi Stacy

I might have, but have I don't remember it specifically. I have seen so many specials on Atlantis.

What I am supposed to be seeing the photo of the Antartic? I can't make out anything...
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« Reply #13 on: March 07, 2007, 11:16:49 pm »

Sure, look towards the top:



This is a satellite photo of Lower Antarctica.

Plato describes a city laid out with concentic circles.  What you may be seeing here is the city with the concentric circles buried beneath the ice.

Interesting isn't it?
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« Reply #14 on: March 07, 2007, 11:21:44 pm »

Piri Reis Map Strange Artifacts
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------




Description Translation Bibliography  Related Links


Introduction

In 1929, a group of historians found an amazing map drawn on a gazelle skin.
Research showed that it was a genuine document drawn in 1513 by Piri Reis, a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet in the sixteenth century.
His passion was cartography. His high rank within the Turkish navy allowed him to have a privileged access to the Imperial Library of Constantinople.
The Turkish admiral admits in a series of notes on the map that he compiled and copied the data from a large number of source maps, some of which dated back to the fourth century BC or earlier.



The Controversy

The Piri Reis map shows the western coast of Africa, the eastern coast of South America, and the northern coast of Antarctica. The northern coastline of Antarctica is perfectly detailed. The most puzzling however is not so much how Piri Reis managed to draw such an accurate map of the Antarctic region 300 years before it was discovered, but that the map shows the coastline under the ice. Geological evidence confirms that the latest date Queen Maud Land could have been charted in an ice-free state is 4000 BC.
 

On 6th July 1960 the U. S. Air Force responded to Prof. Charles H. Hapgood of Keene College, specifically to his request for an evaluation of the ancient Piri Reis Map:

6, July, 1960
Subject: Admiral Piri Reis Map
TO: Prof. Charles H. Hapgood
Keene College
Keene, New Hampshire


Dear Professor Hapgood,
Your request of evaluation of certain unusual features of the Piri Reis map of 1513 by this organization has been reviewed.
The claim that the lower part of the map portrays the Princess Martha Coast of Queen Maud Land, Antarctic, and the Palmer Peninsular, is reasonable. We find that this is the most logical and in all probability the correct interpretation of the map.
The geographical detail shown in the lower part of the map agrees very remarkably with the results of the seismic profile made across the top of the ice-cap by the Swedish-British Antarctic Expedition of 1949.
This indicates the coastline had been mapped before it was covered by the ice-cap.
The ice-cap in this region is now about a mile thick.
We have no idea how the data on this map can be reconciled with the supposed state of geographical knowledge in 1513.

Harold Z. Ohlmeyer Lt. Colonel, USAF Commander

The official science has been saying all along that the ice-cap which covers the Antarctic is million years old.
The Piri Reis map shows that the northern part of that continent has been mapped before the ice did cover it. That should make think it has been mapped million years ago, but that's impossible since mankind did not exist at that time.

Further and more accurate studies have proven that the last period of ice-free condition in the Antarctic ended about 6000 years ago. There are still doubts about the beginning of this ice-free period, which has been put by different researchers everything between year 13000 and 9000 BC.
The question is: Who mapped the Queen Maud Land of Antarctic 6000 years ago? Which unknown civilization had the technology or the need to do that?

It is well-known that the first civilization, according to the traditional history, developed in the mid-east around year 3000 BC, soon to be followed within a millennium by the Indus valley and the Chinese ones. So, accordingly, none of the known civilizations could have done such a job. Who was here 4000 years BC, being able to do things that NOW are possible with the modern technologies?

All through the Middle Ages were circulating a number of sailing charts called "portolani", which were accurate maps of the most common sailing routes, showing coastlines, harbors, straits, bays, etc. Most of those portolani focused on the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas, and other known routes, just as the sailing book which Piri Reis himself had written.
But a few reported of still unknown lands, and were circulating among few sailors who seemingly kept their knowledge about those special maps as hidden as they could. Columbus is supposed to have been one of those who knew these special sailing charts.

To draw his map, Piri Reis used several different sources, collected here and there along his journeys. He himself has written notes on the map that give us a picture of the work he had been doing on the map. He says he had been not responsible for the original surveying and cartography. His role was merely that of a compiler who used a large number of source-maps. He says then that some of the source-maps had been drawn by contemporary sailors, while others were instead charts of great antiquity, dating back up to the 4th century BC or earlier.

Dr. Charles Hapgood, in his book Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings (Turnstone books, London 1979, preface), said that:

It appears that accurate information has been passed down from people to people. It appears that the charts must have originated with a people unknown and they were passed on, perhaps by the Minoans and the Phoenicians, who were, for a thousand years and more, the greatest sailors of the ancient world. We have evidence that they were collected and studied in the great library of Alexandria (Egypt) and the compilations of them were made by the geographers who worked there.

Piri Reis had probably come into possession of charts once located in the Library of Alexandria, the well-known most important library of the ancient times.
According to Hapgood's reconstruction, copies of these documents and some of the original source charts were transferred to other centers of learning, and among them to Constantinople. Then in 1204, year of the fourth crusade, when the Venetians entered Constantinople, those maps begun to circulate among the European sailors.

Most of these maps - Hapgood goes on - were of the Mediterranean and the Black sea. But maps of other areas survived. These included maps of the Americas and maps of the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans. It becomes clear that the ancient voyagers travelled from pole to pole. Unbelievable as it may appear, the evidence nevertheless indicates that some ancient people explored Antarctic when its coasts were free of ice. It is clear too, that they had an instrument of navigation for accurately determining the longitudes that was far superior to anything possessed by the peoples of ancient, medieval or modern times until the second half of the 18th century. [...]

This evidence of a lost technology will support and give credence to many of the other hypothesis that have been brought forward of a lost civilization in remote times. Scholars have been able to dismiss most of those evidences as mere myth, but here we have evidence that cannot be dismissed. The evidence requires that all the other evidences that have been brought forward in the past should be re-examined with an open mind." (Ibid.)

In 1953, a Turkish naval officer sent the Piri Reis map to the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Bureau. To evaluate it, M.I. Walters, the Chief Engineer of the Bureau, called for help Arlington H. Mallery, an authority on ancient maps, who had previously worked with him.
After a long study, Mallery discovered the projection method used.  To check out the accuracy of the map, he made a grid and transferred the Piri Reis map onto a globe: the map was totally accurate. He stated that the only way to draw map of such accuracy was the aerial surveying: but who, 6000 years ago, could have used airplanes to map the earth??

The Hydrographic Office couldn't believe what they saw: they were even able to correct some errors in the present days maps!!
The precision on determining the longitudinal coordinates, on the other hand, shows that to draw the map it was necessary to use the spheroid trigonometry, a process supposedly not know until the middle of 18th century.

Hapgood has proved that the Piri Re'is map is plotted out in plane geometry, containing latitudes and longitudes at right angles in a traditional "grid"; yet it is obviously copied from an earlier map that was projected using spherical trigonometry! Not only did the early map makers know that the Earth was round, but they had knowledge of its true circumference to within 50 miles!

Hapggod had sent his collection of ancient maps (we will see the Piri reis map was not the only one...) to Richard Strachan, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Hapggod wanted to know exactly the mathematical level needed in order to draw the original source maps. Strachan answered in 1965, saying that the level had to be very high.
In fact Strachan said that in order to draw such maps, the authors had to know about the spheroid trigonometry, the curvature of the earth, methods of projection; knowledge that is of a very high level.

View Piri Reis map with projected latitudes and longitudes:

Diagram 1

Diagram 2

The way the Piri Reis map shows the Queen Maud land, its coastlines, its rivers, mountain ranges, plateaus, deserts, bays, has been confirmed by a British-Swedish expedition to Antarctic ( as said by Olhmeyer in his letter to Hapggod); the researchers, using sonar and seismic soundings, indicated that those bays and rivers etc, were underneath the ice-cap, which was about one mile thick.

Charles Hapggod, in 1953, wrote a book called "Earth's shifting crust: a key to some basic problems of earth science", where he made up a theory to explain how Antarctic had been ice-free until year 4000 BC. (visit the Bibliography )
The theory summing up is as follows:
The reason Antarctic was ice-free, and therefor much warmer, it is to be found in the fact that, at one time, its location wasn't the south pole. It was located approximately 2000 miles further north. Hapgood says this "would have put it outside the Antarctic Circle in a temperate or cold temperate climate".

Read more information about Pole Shifting.

The reason why the continent moved down to its present location has to be found in a mechanism called "earth-crust-displacement". This mechanism, not to be confused with the plate-tectonics or the continental drift, is one whereby the lithosphere, the whole outer crust of the earth "may be displaced at times, moving over the soft inner body, much as the skin of an orange, if it were loose, might shift over the inner part of the orange all in one piece". (Charles Hapgood, "Maps of the ancient sea-kings", cited, visit the Bibliography for more info).

This theory was sent to Albert Einstein, which answered to Hapgood in very enthusiastic terms. Though geologists did not seem to accept Hapgood's theory, Einstein seemed to be as much open as Hapgood saying:
"In a polar region there is a continual deposition of ice, which is not symmetrically distributed about the pole. The earth's rotation acts on these unsymmetrically deposited masses, and produces a centrifugal momentum that is transmitted to the rigid crust of the earth. The constantly increasing centrifugal momentum produced in this way will, when it has reached a certain point, produce a movement of the earth's crust over the rest of the earth's body...." (Einstein's foreword to "Earth's shifting crust" p.1)

Anyway, whether Hapgood's theory is correct, the mystery still thrills.
The Piri Reis map is something which is not supposed to exist. I mean that by no means there was supposed to be anyone that far back in time able to draw a map of such precision; in fact the relative longitudinal coordinates are totally accurate, as stated by Official studies on the map that we saw above.
And this is a demonstration of impossible technology: the first instrument to calculate the longitude in a approximately correct way has been invented in 1761 by the english John Harrison.
Before there was no way to calculate the longitude in an acceptable way: there could be errors of hundreds kilometers....
And the Piri Reis map is just one of several which show supposedly unknown lands, impossible knowledge, precision which still today would surprise........

In fact Piri Reis himself admitted he based his map on way older charts; and those older charts had been used as sources by others who have drawn different maps still of great precision.
Impressive is the "Dulcert's Portolano", year 1339, where the latitude of Europe and North Africa is perfect, and the longitudinal coordinates of the Mediterranean and of the Black sea are approximated of half degree.
An even more amazing chart is the "Zeno's chart", year 1380. It shows a big area in the north, going up till the Greenland; Its precision is flabbergasting. "It's impossible" says Hapgood "that someone in the fourteenth century could have found the exact latitudes of these places, not to mention the precision of the longitudes..."
Another amazing chart is the one drawn by the Turkish Hadji Ahmed, year 1559, in which he shows a land stripe, about 1600 Km. wide, that joins Alaska and Siberia. Such a natural bridge has been then covered by the water due to the end of the glacial period, which rose up the sea level.

Oronteus Fineus was another one who drew a map of incredible precision. He too represented the Antarctic with no ice-cap, year 1532.
There are maps showing Greenland as two separated islands, as it was confirmed by a polar French expedition which found out that there is an ice cap quite thick joining what it is actually two islands.

As we saw, many charts in the ancient times pictured, we might say, all the earth geography. They seem to be pieces of a very ancient world wide map, drawn by unknown people who were able to use technology that we consider to be a conquer of the very modern times.
When human beings were supposed to live in a primitive manner, someone "put on paper" the whole geography of the earth. And this common knowledge somehow fell into pieces, then gathered here and there by several people, who had lost though the knowledge, and just copied what they could find in libraries, bazaars, markets and about all kind of places.

Hapggod made a disclosure which amazingly lead further on this road: he found out a cartographic document copied by an older source carved on a rock column, China, year 1137. It showed the same high level of technology of the other western charts, the same grid method, the same use of spheroid trigonometry. It has so many common points with the western ones that it makes think more than reasonably, that there had to be a common source: could it be a lost civilization, maybe the same one which has been chased by thousands years so far?

 

Summary
The Piri Re'is map is often exhibited in cases seeking to prove that civilization was once advanced and that, through some unknown event or events, we are only now gaining any understanding of this mysterious cultural decline.  The earliest known civilization, the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, appear out of nowhere around 4,000 B.C. but have no nautical or maritime cultural heritage. They do, however, speak reverently of ancestral people who were like the "gods" and were known as the nefilim.

Here is a summary of some of the most unusual findings about the map:


Scrutiny of the map shows that the makers knew the accurate circumference of the Earth to within 50 miles.


The coastline and island that are shown in Antarctica must have been navigated at some period prior to 4,000 B.C. when these areas were free of ice from the last Ice Age.
 
The map is thought to be one of the earliest "world maps" to show the Americas. Early scholars suggested that it showed accurate latitudes of the South American and African coastlines - only 21 years after the voyages of Columbus! (And remember, Columbus did NOT discover North America - only the Caribbean!) Writing in Piri Re'is own hand described how he had made the map from a collection of ancient maps, supplemented by charts that were drawn by Columbus himself. This suggests that these ancient maps were available to Columbus and could have been the basis of his expedition.
As can be seen below, an azimuthal projection ( looking at the globe from a point above the globe), from the point above Cairo, Africa (Egypt) shows that the Piri Reis map corresponds more or less with the lower right quarter of this map if one rotates it some 20 degrees counter clockwise.

 




The contours from the Piri Reis map (top image),
and an azimuthal projection of the real globe (bottom image),
show very similar distortions.


Piri Re'is own commentary indicates that some of his source maps were from the time of Alexander the Great (332 B.C.).
 http://www.world-mysteries.com/sar_1.htm
Related links:
Bibliography
http://www.viewzone.com/pirireis.html
http://www.ancientarchaeology.org/
http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/PSEUDOSC/PiriRies.HTM
http://www.progonos.com/furuti/MapProj/Normal/ProjAz/projAz.html

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