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ENUMA ELISH - Babylonian Creation Myth

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Bianca
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« Reply #45 on: November 19, 2007, 10:08:30 am »








LXXXIII:2 According to Babylonian belief the upper waters of Tiamat formed the heavenly ocean above the covering of heaven; but it is not clear what became of her lower waters. It is possible that they were vaguely identified with those of Aps, and were believed to mingle with his around and beneath the earth. It may be suggested, however, that perhaps all or part of them were identified with Hubur, the River of the Underworld which was believed to exist in the depths of the earth (cf. Jensen, Mythen, p. 307). The fact that Tiamat bore the title Ummu-Hubur, "the Mother Hubur," may be cited in support of this suggestion, as well as the occurrence upon S. 2,013 (cf. p. 197) of the phrases sham(e) ru-ku-u-ti and Hu-bur pal-ka-ti, corresponding to Ti-amat e-Zi-ti and Ti-amat shap-li-ti respectively; see also p. xlvi, note.

LXXXIV:1 See above, p. 1.

LXXXIV:2 See below, p. 109.

LXXXIV:3 See below, p. 101.

LXXXIV:4 See below, p. 103.

LXXXV:1 See above, p. 1, and below, p. 93.

LXXXV:2 See below, pp. 78 ff.

LXXXV:3 See below, p. 95.

LXXXV:4 See below, p. 109.

LXXXVI:1 See above, p. lix.

LXXXVI:2 See above, p. lix, n. 1, and below, p. 198.

LXXXVI:3 See below, p. 122 f.

LXXXVII:1 The portion of the text on which this reference to the creation of beasts is inscribed forms an introduction to what is probably an incantation, and may be compared to the Creation legend of Marduk and Aruru which is employed as an introduction to an incantation to be recited in honour of the temple E-zida (see below, p. 130 f., n. 1). The account given of the creation of the beasts is merely incidental, and is introduced to indicate the period of the creation by Nin-igi-azag of two small creatures, one white and one black, which were probably again referred to in the following section of the text.

LXXXVII:2 See below, pp. 86 ff.

LXXXVII:3 See above, pp. liv ff.

LXXXVII:4 See also below, p. xciii. It may be also noted that, according to Babylonian belief, the great gods (cf. the plural of Elohim) were always pictured in human form.

LXXXVIII:1 See above, p. lviii.

LXXXVIII:2 See above, p. liii f., and below, p. 85, note 3, and p. 88 f., notes 1 and 3.

LXXXIX:1 See especially, ll. 7 f., 9 ff., 15 ff., 23, and 27 f.

LXXXIX:2 L. 31 f., which read, "May his (i.e. Marduk's) deeds endure, may they never be forgotten in the mouth of mankind whom his hands have made!"

LXXXIX:3 See below, p. 100 f.

LXXXIX:4 See below, p. 87; the account of Berossus is in favour of this restoration.

XC:1 The new parallel to Gen. ii, 23, furnished by l. 5 of the Sixth Tablet, is referred to below, p. xciv.

XC:2 See below, p. 60 f.
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« Reply #46 on: November 19, 2007, 10:09:49 am »








XCI:1 There is, however, a parallel between the Seventh Day on p. XCII which Elohim rested from all His work, and the Seventh Tablet which records the hymns of praise sung by the gods to Marduk after his work of creation was ended.

XCII:1 See my Babylonian Religion and Mythology, pp. 138 ff. The fact that the Jews of the Exile were probably familiar with the later forms of Babylonian legends explains some of the close resemblances in detail between the Babylonian and Hebrew versions of the same story. But this is in perfect accordance with the borrowing of that very story by the Hebrews many centuries before; indeed, to the previous existence of ancient Hebrew versions of Babylonian legends may be traced much of the impetus given to the revival of mythology among the exiled Jews.

XCIII:1 See below, pp. 130 ff.

XCIII:2 See above, p. lxx, n. 1.

XCIII:3 See above, p. lvii, n. 1.

XCIV:1 See below, p. 128 f.

XCIV:2 With the Babylonian River of Creation, suggested by the Euphrates, we may compare the Egyptian beliefs concerning Hp or Hpi, the god of the Nile, who became identified with most of the great primeval Creation gods and was declared to be the Creator of all things. Considering the importance of the Nile for Egypt, it is easy to understand how he came to attain this position. Brugsch sums up his account of this deity in the words: "So ist der Nilgott im letzten Grunde der geheimnissvolle Urheber aller Wohlthaten, welche die von ihm befruchtete gyptische Erde den Gttern und Menschen zu bieten vermag, er ist 'der starke Schopfer von allem'"; see Religion und Mythologie der alten Aegypter, p. 641.

XCIV:3 It is possible that this River, though suggested by the p. XCV Euphrates, is to be identified with Hubur, the River of the Underworld, to whom an incantation in the terms of the one under discussion might well have been addressed. A connection between Tiamat and the river Hubur has been suggested above (cf. p. lxxxiii, n. 2), and, should this prove to be correct, we might see in the phrase banat(at) ka-la-ma, applied to the River, a parallel to pa-ti-ka-at ka-la-ma, the description of Ummu-Hubur (Tiamat) in Tablet I, l. 113 and the parallel passages.

XCV:1 The connection which Gunkel and Zimmern would trace between the River of Paradise and the River of Water of Life in the Apocalypse on the one side and the "water of life," mentioned in the legend of Adapa, on the other, cannot be regarded as proved. The resemblance in the expressions may well be fortuitous, since there are few other points of resemblance between the narratives in which the expressions occur.

XCV:2 On these subjects, see my Bab. Rel. and Myth., pp. 108 ff.

XCV:3 See above, pp. lxxv and lxxix.

CX:1 I learn from Professor Zimmern that he also has identified this fragment as part of the Seventh Tablet by its correspondence with the commentary K. 4,406, published in II R, pl. 31 (see below, p. cxviii).
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« Reply #47 on: November 19, 2007, 10:10:46 am »








CXI:1 That the copies were not always made from Babylonian tablets is proved by the colophon of K. 292 (cf. Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 6), which states that this copy of the Second Tablet was made from p. CXII an Assyrian archetype (gab-ri mtu Ashshur KI). Upon some tablets Ashur-bani-pal's label was scratched after the tablet had been baked, e.g., K. 3,567 + K. 8,588 (Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 22). Other Assyrian copies, though giving the catch-line to the next tablet, are without colophons, e.g., K. 3,473, etc. (cf. Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 9), and K. 8,526 (cf. Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 23); the copy of the last tablet, K. 2,854 (see below, p. 159), the reverse of which is blank, was probably also without a colophon.

CXII:1 Cf. No. 40,559 (vol. ii, pl. xxi), a copy of the Second Tablet which was made for a certain Nab-ah-iddina; and No. 45,528f 46,614 (vol. ii, pl. vi), a copy of the First Tablet, which is described as the property of Nab-meshtik-urri, a worshipper of Marduk and Sarpanitu, and is said to have been copied from an original at Babylon on the ninth day of Iyyar, in the twenty-seventh year of Darius. A certain Nab-baltsu-ikbi, the son of Na'id-Marduk, appears to have owned a complete set of the Seven Creation Tablets, for we possess fragments of the First and of the Sixth Tablet in the series which belonged to him (cf. No. 93,015, Cun. Texts, pl. 3, where the first word of the second line of the colophon, which puzzled Delitzsch, is clearly bush; No. 46,803, vol. ii, pls. ix ff.; and No. 92,629, vol. ii, pl. xxxvii).

CXII:2 Thus the fine copy of the Fourth Tablet, No. 93,016, which was written by the scribe Nab-blishu, was, according to its colophon (cf. Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 15), deposited by the smith Na'id-Marduk as a votive offering in the temple E-zida. In his transliteration of this colophon Delitzsch has made an odd blunder; he has not recognized the common phrase ana balt napshti pl -shu, "for the preservation of his life," which occurs at the end of line 3 of the colophon, and has taken it as a proper name p. CXIII m TIN-ZI pl -shu (see Weltschpfungsepos, p. 41), a transliteration which turns the sentence into nonsense.

CXIII:1 See pls. ii, iii, iv, and vi, and the frontispiece to Vol. II. Photographic reproductions of the reverse of No. 21 and the obverse of No. 29 are given in the Guide to the Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum, pls. vi and vii.

CXIII:2 Cf. e.g., Nos. 93,015 (No. 2), 46,803 (No. 10), and 92,629 (No. 40), all of which were probably written by the same scribe.

CXIII:3 Cf. the notes duppu I KAN E-nu-ma e-lish on No. 45,528, etc. (vol. ii, pl. vi); duppu E-nu-ma e-lish ri-esh on No. 93,015 (Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 3); [dupp]u II KAN E-nu-ma e-lish; on K. 292 (Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 6); duppu IV KAN-MA E-nu-ma e-lish, which follows a note as to the number of lines in the text upon No. 93,016 (Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 15); and dup-pi V KAM-ME E-nu-ma e-lish on K. 3,567 (Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, pl. 22).

CXIII:4 The "practice-tablets" fall into two classes. In one class the tablets are wholly taken up with portions of the text of the Creation Series, which is written out upon them in sections of five verses separated by horizontal lines; cf. Nos. 82-9-18, p. CXIV 1,403 + 6,361 (No. 22) and 93,051 (No. 32). In the other class short extracts from the text are inscribed upon tablets containing other matter, all of which the pupil has written out for practice; cf. Nos. 36,726 (No. s), 36,688 (No. 9), 82-9-18, 6,950 + 83-1-18, 1,868 (No. 241, and 82-9-18, 5,448 + 83-1-18, 2,116 (No. 27). The second class are the more carelessly written of the two.
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« Reply #48 on: November 19, 2007, 10:11:43 am »








CXIV:1 The only apparent exceptions to this rule occur on some of the Neo-Babylonian tablets, in which two lines of the text are occasionally written on one line of the tablet when they are separated from each other by a division-mark. This is simply due to want of space, which necessitated the crowding of the text.

CXV:1 See below, p. cxxii.

CXV:2 See above, pp. lxxii ff.

CXVII:1 See below, pp. 157 ff.

CXVII:2 See above, p. lxxix, n. 1, and below, p. 158.

CXIX:1 The tablet S. 747, which measures 49 in. by 3 1/8 in., is published in Cun. Texts, pt. xiii, p1. 32, and its connection with the text of the Creation Series is described in Appendix I, p. 170 f. The text was given in transliteration by Delitzsch, Weltschpfungsepos, p. 58f.

CXIX:2 The tablet K. 2,107+K. 6,086, which measures 4 in. by 5 in., is published in Vol. II, plate lxi f., and a transliteration and a translation of the text are given in Appendix I, pp. 171 ff. Col. ii of the single fragment K. 2, 107 was given in transliteration by Delitzsch, Weltschpfungsepos, p. 155.

CXXI:1 In the gap in Tablet II, ll. 86-103, may probably be inserted the new fragment K. 10,008; see Appendix II, pp. I 87 ff.

CXXII:1 On Nos. 45,528 + 46,614 (No. 3), 82-9-18, 6,879 (No. 12), 38,396 (No. 14), 42,285 (No. 26), and 93,016 (No. 29); cf. also the "practice-tablets," Nos. 82-9-18, 1,403 + 6,316 (No. 22) and 82-9-18, 5,448 + 83-1-18, 2,116 (No. 27).

CXXII:2 For the first description of the metre of the poem, see Budge, P.S.B.A., vol. vi, p. 7; and for later discussions of the metre of Babylonian poetry in general, see Zimmern's papers in the Zeits. fr Assyr., viii, pp. 121 ff., x, pp. 1 ff., xi, pp. 86 ff., and xii, pp. 382 ff.; cf. also D. M. Mueller, Die Propheten in ihrer ursprnglichen Form, i, pp. 5 ff. It may be noted that in addition to the division of the text into couplets, the poem often falls naturally into stanzas of four lines each. That the metre was not very carefully studied by the Neo-Babylonian scribes is proved by the somewhat faulty division of the verses upon some of the tablets on which the metre is indicated, and also by the fact that the pupils of the scribes were allowed, and perhaps told, to write out portions of the poem in sections, not of four, but of five lines each (see above, p. cxiii f., n. 4).

CXXIII:1 Published by Zimmern, Z.A., x, p. 17 f.
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« Reply #49 on: November 19, 2007, 10:12:30 am »









             T H E   S E V E N   T A B L E T S   O F   T H E   H I S T O R Y   O F   C R E A T I O N






The First Tablet



1. When in the height heaven was not named,

2. And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name,

3. And the primeval Aps, who begat them,

4. And chaos, Tiamat, the mother of them both,--

5. Their waters were mingled together,

6. And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen;

7. When of the gods none had been called into being,

8. And none bore a name, and no destinies [were ordained];

9. Then were created the gods in the midst of [heaven],

p. 5

10. Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being [...].

11. Ages increased, [...],

12. Then Anshar and Kishar were created, and over them [...].

13. Long were the days, then there came forth [...]

14. Anu, their son, [...]

15. Anshar and Anu [...]

16. And the god Anu [...]

17. Nudimmud, whom his fathers [his] begetters [...]

18. Abounding in all wisdom, [...]

19. He was exceeding strong [...]

20. He had no rival [...]

21. (Thus) were established and [were ... the great gods (?)].

p. 7

22 . But T[iamat and ps] were (still) in confusion [...],

23. They were troubled and [...]

24. In disorder(?) ... [...]

26. And Tiamat roared [...]

25. Aps was not diminished in might [...]

27. She smote, and their deeds [...]

28. Their way was evil ... [...] ...

29. Then Aps, the begetter of the great gods,

30. Cried unto Mummu, his minister, and said unto him:

31. "O Mummu, thou minister that rejoicest my spirit,

32. "Come, unto Tiamat let us [go]!"

33. So they went and before Tiamat they lay down,

34. They consulted on a plan with regard to the gods [their sons].

35. Aps opened his mouth [and spake],

p. 9

36. And unto Tiamat, the glistening one, he addressed [the word]:

37. "[...] their way [...],

38. "By day I cannot rest, by night [I cannot lie down (in peace)].

39. "But I will destroy their way, I will [...],

40. "Let there be lamentation, and let us lie down (again in peace)."

41. When Tiamat [heard] these words,

42. She raged and cried aloud [...].

43. [She ...] grievously [...],

44. She uttered a curse, and unto [Aps she spake]:

45. "What then shall we [do]?

46. "Let their way be made difficult, and let us [lie down (again) in peace]."

47. Mummu answered, and gave counsel unto Aps,

48. [...] and hostile (to the gods) was the counsel Mu[mmu gave]:

p. 11

49. "Come, their way is strong, but thou shalt destroy [it];

50. "Then by day shalt thou have rest, by night shalt thou lie down (in peace)."

51. Aps [hearkened unto] him and his countenance grew bright,

52. [Since] he (i.e. Mummu) planned evil against the gods his sons.

53. [...] he was afraid [...],

54. His knees [became weak(?)], they gave way beneath him,

55. [Because of the evil] which their first-born had planned.

56. [...] their [...] they altered(?).

58. Lamentation [...] they sat in [sorrow] '

57. [...] they [...],

59. [...]

p. 13

60. Then Ea, who knoweth all that [is], went up and he beheld their muttering.

61. [...]

62. [...] ... his pure incantation

63. [...] ... [...]

64. [...]

65. [...] misery

66. [...]

67. [...]

[lines 68-82 are wanting.]

83. [...]

84 [...] ...

85. [...] the god Anu,

86. [... an aven]ger.

87. [...]

88. [...] and he shall confound Tiamat.

89. [...] he ...

90. [...] for ever.

91. [...] the evil,

p. 15

92. [...] ... he spake:

93. "[...] thy [...] he hath conquered and

94. " [...] he [weepeth] and sitteth in tribulation(?).

95. "[...] of fear,

96. "[...] we shall not lie down (in peace).

97. "[...] Aps is laid waste(?),

98. "[...] and Mummu, who were taken captive, in [...]

99. "[...] thou didst, ...

100. "[...] let us lie down (in peace).

101. "[...] ... they will smite (?) [...].

102. " [...] let us lie down (in peace).

103. "[...] thou shalt take vengeance for them,

104. "[...]unto the tempest shalt thou [...]!"

105. [And Tiamat hearkened unto] the word of the bright god, (and said):

p. 17

106. "[...] shalt thou entrust! let us wage [war]!"

107. [...] the gods in the midst of [...]

108. [...] for the gods did she create.'

109. [They banded themselves together and] at the side of Tiamat [they] advanced;

110. [They were furious, they devised mischief without resting] night and [day].

111. [They prepared for battle], fuming and raging;

112. [They joined their forces] and made war.

113. [Ummu-Hubu]r, who formed all things,

114. [Made in addition] weapons invincible, she spawned monster-serpents,

115. [Sharp of] tooth, and merciless of fang;

116. [With poison instead of] blood she filled [their] bodies.

117. Fierce [monster-vipers] she clothed with terror,

118. [With splendour] she decked them, [she made them] of lofty stature.

119. [Whoever beheld] them, terror overcame him,

120. Their bodies reared up and none could withstand [their attack].

p. 19

121. [She set] up vipers, and dragons, and the (monster) [Lahamu],

122. [And hurricanes], and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,

123. And mighty [tempests], and fish-men, and[rams];

124. [They bore] cruel weapons, without fear of [the fight].

125. Her commands [were mighty], [none] could resist them;

126. After this fashion, huge of stature, [she made] eleven (monsters).

127. Among the gods who were her sons, inasmuch as he had given [her support],

128. She exalted Kingu; in their midst [she raised] him [to power].

129. To march before the forces, to lead [the host],

130. To give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack,

p. 21

131. To direct the battle, to control the fight,

132. Unto him she entrusted; in [costly raiment] she made him sit, (saying):

133. "I have uttered thy spell, in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power.

134. "The dominion over all the gods [have I entrusted unto him].

135. "Be thou exalted, thou my chosen spouse,

136. "May they magnify thy name over all [of them ... the Anunnaki]."

137. She gave him the Tablets of Destiny, on [his] breast she laid them, (saying):

138. "Thy command shall not be without avail, and[the word of thy mouth shall be established]."

139. Now Kingu, (thus) exalted, having received [the power of Anu],

140. [Decreed] the fate among the gods his sons, (saying):

141. "Let the opening of your mouth [quench] the Fire-god;

142. "Whoso is exalted in the battle, let him [display (his) might]!"
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« Reply #50 on: November 20, 2007, 12:50:04 pm »








The Second Tablet



1. Tiamat made weighty her handiwork,

2. [Evil] she wrought against the gods her children.

3. [To avenge] Aps, Tiamat planned evil,

4. But how she had collected her [forces, the god ...] unto Ea divulged.

5. Ea [hearkened to] this thing, and

6. He was [grievous]ly afflicted and he sat in sorrow.

7. [The days] went by, and his anger was appeased,

8. And to [the place of] Anshar his father he took[his way].

9. [He went] and standing before Anshar, the father who begat him,

10. [All that] Tiamat had plotted he repeated unto him,

11. [Saying, "Ti]amat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us,

12. "With all her force she rageth, full of wrath.

13. "All the gods have turned to her,

14. "[With] those, whom ye created, they go at her side.

p. 25

15. "They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance;

16. "They are furious, they devise mischief without resting night and day.

17. "They prepare for battle, fuming and raging;

18. "They have joined their forces and are making war.

19. "Ummu-Hubur, who formed all things,

20. "Hath made in addition weapons invincible, she hath spawned monster-serpents,

21. "Sharp of tooth, and merciless of fang.

22. "With poison instead of blood she hath filled their bodies.

23. "Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror,

24. "With splendour she hath decked them, she hath made them of lofty stature.

25. "Whoever beholdeth them is overcome by terror,"

26. "Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.

27. "She hath set up vipers, and dragons, and the

p. 27

28. "And hurricanes and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,

29. "And mighty tempests, and fish-men and rams;

30. "They bear cruel weapons, without fear of the fight.

31. "Her commands are mighty, none can resist them;

32. "After this fashion, huge of stature, hath she made eleven (monsters).

33. "Among the gods who are her sons, inasmuch as he hath given her support,

34. She hath exalted Kingu; in their midst she hath raised him to power.

35. "To march before the forces, to lead the host,

36. "To give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack,

37. "[To direct] the battle, to control the fight,

38. "Unto him [hath she entrusted]; in costly raiment she hath made him sit, (saying):

39. "'[I have uttered] thy [spell], in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power,

40. "'[The dominion over all] the gods have I entrusted [unto thee].

41. "'[Be thou exalted], thou [my chosen spouse],

p. 29

42. "'[May they magnify thy name over all of them ...] ...'

43. "[She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny, on his breast she] laid them, (saying):

44. "'[Thy command shall not be without avail], and the [word] of thy mouth shall be established.'

45. "[Now Kingu, (thus) exalted], having received the power of Anu,

46. "Decreed the fate [for the gods, her sons], (saying):

47. "'Let [the opening of your mouth] quench the Fire-god;

48. "'[Whoso is exalted in the battle], let him display (his) might!'"

49. [When Anshar heard how Tiamat] was mightily in revolt,

50. [...], he bit his lips,

51. [...], his mind was not at peace,

52. His [...], he made a bitter lamentation:

53. [...] battle,

54. "[...] thou ....

55. "[Mummu and] Aps thou hast smitten,

p. 31

56. "[But Tiamat hath exalted Kin]gu, and where is one who can oppose her?"

57. [...] deliberation

58. [ ... the ... of] the gods, Ndi[mmud]

[A gap of about ten lines occurs here.]

(69) [...]

(70) [...]

(71) [...]

(72) [Anshar unto] his son addressed [the word]:

(73) "[...] ... my mighty hero,

(74) "[Whose] strength [is great] and whose onslaught cannot be withstood,

(75) "[Go] and stand before Tiamat,

(76) "[That] her spirit [may be appeased], that her heart may be merciful.

(77) "[But if] she will not hearken unto thy word,

(78) "Our [word] shalt thou speak unto her, that she may be pacified."

(79) [He heard the] word of his father Anshar

(80) And [he directed] his path to her, towards her he took the way.

(81) Anu [drew nigh], he beheld the muttering of Tiamat,

p. 33

(82) [But he could not withstand her], and he turned back.

(83) [...] Anshar

(84) [...] he spake unto him:

(85) "[...] upon me

[A gap of about twenty lines occurs here.]

(104) [...]

(105) [...] an avenger [...]

(106) [...] va[liant]

(107) [...] in the place of his decision

(108) [...] he spake unto him:

(109) "[...] thy father

(110) "Thou art my son, who maketh merciful his heart.

(111) " [...] to the battle shalt thou draw nigh,

(112) "[...] he that shall behold thee shall have peace."

(113) And the lord rejoiced at the word of his father,

(114) And he drew nigh and stood before Anshar.

(115) Anshar beheld him and his heart was filled with joy,

p. 35

(116) He kissed him on the lips and his fear departed from him.

(117) "[O my father], let not the word of thy lips be overcome,

(118) "Let me go, that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart.

(119). "[O Anshar], let not the word of thy lips be overcome,

(120) ". [Let me] go, that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart."

(121) "What man is it, who hath brought thee forth to battle?

(122) "[...] Tiamat, who is a woman, is armed and attacketh thee."

(123) "[...] ... rejoice and be glad;

(124) "The neck of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot.

(125) "[...] ... rejoice and be glad;

(126) "[The neck] of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot.

p. 37

(127) "O my [son], who knoweth all wisdom,

(128) "Pacify [Tiama]t with thy pure incantation.

(129) "Speedily set out upon thy way,

(130) "For [thy blood (?)] shall not be poured out, thou shalt return again."

(131) The lord rejoiced at the word of his father,

(132) His heart exulted, and unto his father he spake:

(133) "O Lord of the gods, Destiny of the great gods,

(134) "If I, your avenger,

(135) "Conquer Tiamat and give you life,

(136) "Appoint an assembly, make my fate preeminent and proclaim it.

(137) "In Upshukkinaku seat yourselves joyfully together,

(138) "With my word in place of you will I decree fate.

(139) "May whatsoever I do remain unaltered,

(140) "May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail."
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« Reply #51 on: November 20, 2007, 12:51:55 pm »








The Third Tablet



1. Anshar opened his mouth, and

2. [Unto Gaga], his [minister], spake the word:

3. "[O Gaga, thou minis]ter that rejoicest my spirit,

4. ''[Unto Lahmu and Lah]amu will I send thee.

5. "[...] thou canst attain,

6. ''[...] thou shalt cause to be brought before thee.

7. [... let] the gods, all of them,

8. "[Make ready for a feast], at a banquet let them sit,

9. "[Let them eat bread], let them mix wine,

10. ''[That for Marduk], their avenger, they may decree the fate.

11. "[Go,] Gaga, stand before them,

12. ''[And all that] I, tell thee, repeat unto them, (and say):

p. 41

13. "[Anshar], your son, hath sent me,

14. "[The purpose] of his heart he hath made known unto me.

15. "[He saith that Tia]mat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us,

16. "[With all] her force she rageth, full of wrath.

17. "All the gods have turned to her,

18. "With those, whom ye created, they go at her side.

19. ''They are banded together, and at the side of Tiamat they advance;

20 . "They are furious, they devise mischief without resting night and day.

21. ''They prepare for battle, fuming and raging;

22. "They have joined their forces and are making war.

23. "Ummu-Hubur, who formed all things,

24. "Hath made in addition weapons invincible, she hath spawned monster-serpents,

25. "Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang.

26. "With poison instead of blood she hath filled heir bodies.

p. 43

27. "Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror,

28. "With splendour she hath decked them, she hath made them of lofty stature.

29. "Whoever beholdeth them, terror overcometh him,

30. "Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.

31. "She hath set up vipers, and dragons, and the (monster) Lahamu,

32. "And hurricanes, and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,

33. "And mighty tempests, and fish-men, and rams;

34. They bear merciless weapons, without fear of the fight.

35. "Her commands are mighty, none can resist them;

36. "After this fashion, huge of stature, hath she made eleven (monsters).

37. "Among the gods who are her sons, inasmuch as he hath given her [support],

38. "She hath exalted Kingu; in their midst she hath raised [him] to power.

39. ''To march before the forces, [to lead the host],

40. "[To] give the battle-signal, to advance [to the attack],

41. "[To direct] the battle, to control the [fight],

p. 45

42. "Unto him [hath she entrusted; in costly raiment] she hath made him sit, (saying):

43. "'[I have] uttered thy spell, in the assembly of the gods [I have raised thee to power],

44. "'[The] dominion over all the gods [have I entrusted unto thee].

45. "'[Be] thou exalted, [thou] my chosen spouse,

46. "' May they magnify thy name over all of [them ... the Anunnaki].'

47. "She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny, on his breast she laid them, (saying):

48. "'Thy command shall not be without avail, and the word of [thy] mouth shall be established.'

49. "Now Kingu, (thus) exalted, having received [the power of Anu],

50. "Decreed the fate for the gods, her sons, (saying):

51. "'Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god;

52. "'Whoso is exalted in the battle, let him display (his) might! '

p. 47

53. ''I sent Anu, but he could not withstand her;

54. "Nudimmud was afraid and turned back.

55. "But Marduk hath set out, the director of the gods, your son;

56. ''To set out against Tiamat his heart hath prompted (him).

57. "He opened his mouth and spake unto me, (saying):

58. "'If I, your avenger,

59. "'Conquer Tiamat and give you life,

60. "'Appoint an assembly, make my fate preeminent and proclaim it.

61. "'In Upshukkinaku seat yourselves joyfully together;

62. "'With my word in place of you will I decree fate.

63. "'May whatsoever I do remain unaltered,

64. "'May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail.'

65. "Hasten, therefore, and swiftly decree for him the fate which you bestow,

p. 49

66. "That he may go and fight your strong enemy!"

67. Gaga went, he took his way and

68. Humbly before Lahmu and Lahamu, the gods, his fathers,

69. He made obeisance, and he kissed the ground at their feet.

70. He humbled himself; then he stood up and spake unto them, (saying):

71. "Anshar, your son, hath sent me,

72. ''The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me.

73. "He saith that Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us,

74. "With all her force she rageth, full of wrath.

75. "All the gods have turned to her,

76. "With those, whom ye created, they go at her side.

77. "They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance;

p. 51

78. ''They are furious, they devise mischief without resting night and day.

79. "They prepare for battle, fuming and raging;

80. ''They have joined their forces and are making war.

81. ''Ummu-Hubur, who formed all things,

82. "Hath made in addition weapons invincible, she hath spawned monster-serpents,

83. "Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang.

84. "With poison instead of blood she hath filled their bodies.

85. ''Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror,

86. "With splendour she hath decked them, she hath made them of lofty stature.

87. ''Whoever beholdeth them, terror overcometh him,

88. "Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.

89. ''She hath set up vipers, and dragons, and the (monster) Lahamu,

90. "And hurricanes, and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,

p. 53

91. ''And mighty tempests, and fish-men, and [rams];

92. "They bear merciless weapons, without fear of the fight.

93. "Her commands are mighty, none can resist them;

94. ''After this fashion, huge of stature, hath she made eleven (monsters).

95. ''Among the gods who are her sons, inasmuch as he hath given her support,

96. "She hath exalted Kingu; in their midst she hath raised him to power.

97. "To march before the forces, to lead the host,

98. ''To give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack,

99. "To direct the battle, to control the fight,

100. ''Unto him hath she entrusted; in costly raiment she hath made him sit, (saying):

101. "'I have uttered thy spell, in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power,

102. "'The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee.

103. "'Be thou exalted, thou my chosen spouse,

104. "'May they magnify thy name over all of them ... the Anunna[ki].'

105. "She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny, on [his] breast [she laid them], (saying):

p. 55

106. "'Thy command shall not be without avail, [and the word of thy mouth shall be established].

107. "Now Kingu, (thus) exalted, [having received the power of Anu],

108. "[Decreed the fate] for the gods, her sons, (saying):

109. "'Let the opening of your mouth [quench] the Fire-god;

110. "'Whoso is exalted in the battle, [let him display] (his) might!'

111. "I sent Anu, but he could not [withstand her];

112. "Nudimmud was afraid and [turned back].

113. "But Marduk hath set out, the director of the[gods, your son];

114. "T o set out against Tiamat [his heart hath prompted (him)].

115. "He opened his mouth [and spake unto me], (saying):

116. "'If I, [your avenger],

117. "'Conquer Tiamat and [give you life],

118. "'Appoint an assembly, [make my fate preeminent and proclaim it].

119. "'In Upshukkinaku [seat yourselves joyfully together];

120. "'With my word in place of [you will I decree fate].

121. "'May whatsoever do remain unaltered,

122. "'May the word of [my lips] never be changed nor made of no avail.'

p. 57

123. ''Hasten, therefore, and swiftly [decree for him] the fate which you bestow,

124. "That he may go and fight your strong enemy!"

125. Lahmu and Lahamu heard and cried aloud,

126. All of the Igigi wailed bitterly, (saying):

127. ''What has been altered so that they should ... [...]

128. ''We do not understand the d[eed] of Tiamat!"

129. Then did they collect and go,

130. The great gods, all of them, who decree [fate].

131. They entered in before Anshar, they filled [...];

132. They kissed one another, in the assembly [...].

133. They made ready for the feast, at the banquet [they sat];

134. They ate bread, they mixed [sesame-wine].

135. The sweet drink, the mead, confused their [...],

136. They were drunk with drinking, their bodies were filled.

137. They were wholly at ease, their spirit was exalted;

138. Then for Marduk, their avenger, did they decree the fate.
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« Reply #52 on: November 20, 2007, 12:53:12 pm »








The Fourth Tablet



1. They prepared for him a lordly chamber,

2 . Before his fathers as prince he took his place.

3. "Thou art chiefest among the great gods,

4. "Thy fate is unequalled, thy word is Anu!

5. "O Marduk, thou art chiefest among the great gods,

6. "Thy fate is unequalled, thy word is Anu!

7. "Henceforth not without avail shall be thy command,

8. "In thy power shall it be to exalt and to abase.

9. "Established shall be the word of thy mouth, irresistible shall be thy command;

10. "None among the gods shall transgress thy boundary.

11. "Abundance, the desire of the shrines of the gods,

12. "Shall be established in thy sanctuary, even though they lack (offerings).

13. "O Marduk, thou art our avenger!

14. "We give thee sovereignty over the whole world.

15. "Sit thou down in night, be exalted in thy command.

16. "Thy weapon shall never lose its power, it shall crush thy foe.

p. 61

17. "O lord, spare the life of him that putteth his trust in thee,

18. "But as for the god who began the rebellion, pour out his life."

19. Then set they in their midst a garment,

20. And unto Marduk their first-born they spake:

21. "May thy fate, O lord, be supreme among the gods,

22. "To destroy and to create; speak thou the word, and (thy command) shall be fulfilled.

23. "Command now and let the garment vanish;

24. "And speak the word again and let the garment reappear!"

25. Then he spake with his mouth, and the garment vanished;

26. Again he commanded it, and the garment reappeared.

27. When the gods, his fathers, beheld (the fulfilment of) his word,

28. They rejoiced, and they did homage (unto him, saying), " Marduk is king! "

29. They bestowed upon him the sceptre, and the throne, and the ring,

30. They give him an invincible weapon, which overwhelmeth the foe.

31. "Go, and cut off the life of Tiamat,

32. "And let the wind carry her blood into secret places."

p. 63

33. After the gods his fathers had decreed for the lord his fate,

34. They caused him to set out on a path of prosperity and success.

35 . He made ready the bow, he chose his weapon,

36. He slung a spear upon him and fastened it . . .

37. He raised the club, in his right hand he grasped (it),

38. The bow and the quiver he hung at his side.

39. He set the lightning in front of him,

40. With burning flame he filled his body.

41. He made a net to enclose the inward parts of Tiamat,

42. The four winds he stationed so that nothing of her might escape;

43. The South wind and the North wind and the East wind and the West wind

44. He brought near to the net, the gift of his father Anu.

45. He created the evil wind, and the tempest, and the hurricane,

46. And the fourfold wind, and the sevenfold wind, and the whirlwind, and the wind which had no equal;

p. 65

47. He sent forth the winds which he had created, the seven of them;

48. T o disturb the inward parts of Tiamat, they followed after him.

49. Then the lord raised the thunderbolt, his mighty weapon,

50. He mounted the chariot, the storm unequalled for terror,

51. He harnessed and yoked unto it four horses,

52. Destructive, ferocious, overwhelming, and swift of pace;

53. [...] were their teeth, they were flecked with foam;

54. They were skilled in [...], they had been trained to trample underfoot.

55. [...], mighty in battle,

56. Left and [right ...

57. His garment was [...], he was clothed with terror,

p. 67

58. With overpowering brightness his head was crowned.

59. Then he set out, he took his way,

60. And towards the [rag]ing Tiamat he set his face.

61. On his lips he held [...],

62. ... [...] he grasped in his hand.

63. Then they beheld him, the gods beheld him,

64. The gods his fathers beheld him, the gods beheld him.

65. And the lord drew nigh, he gazed upon the inward parts of Tiamat,

66. He perceived the muttering of Kingu, her spouse.

67. As (Marduk) gazed, (Kingu) was troubled in his gait,

68. His will was destroyed and his motions ceased.

69. And the gods, his helpers, who marched by his side,

70. Beheld their leader's [...], and their sight was troubled.

71. But Tiamat [...], she turned not her neck,

72. With lips that failed not she uttered rebellious words:

p. 69

73. "[...] thy coming as lord of the gods,

74. "From their places have they gathered, in thy place are they!"

75. Then the lord [raised] the thunderbolt, his mighty weapon,

76. [And against] Tiamat, who was raging, thus he sent (the word):

77. "[Thou] art become great, thou hast exalted thyself on high,

78. "And thy [heart hath prompted] thee to call to battle.

79. "[...] their fathers [...],

80. "[...] their [...] thou hatest [...].

81. "[Thou hast exalted King]u to be [thy] spouse,

82. "[Thou hast . . . ] him, that, even as Anu, he should issue decrees.

83. "[...] thou hast followed after evil,

84. "And [against] the .gods my fathers thou hast contrived thy wicked plan.

85. "Let then thy host be equipped, let thy weapons be girded on!

86. "Stand! I and thou, let us join battle!"

p. 71

87. When Tiamat heard these words,

88. She was like one possessed, she lost her reason.

89. Tiamat uttered wild, piercing cries,

90. She trembled and shook to her very foundations.

91. She recited an incantation, she pronounced her spell,

92. And the gods of the battle cried out for their weapons.

93. Then advanced Tiamat and Marduk, the counsellor of the gods;

94. To the fight they came on, to the battle they drew nigh.

95. The lord spread out his net and caught her,

96. And the evil wind that was behind (him) he let loose in her face.

97. As Tiamat opened her mouth to its full extent,

98. He drove in the evil wind, while as yet she had not shut her lips.

99. The terrible winds filled her belly,

100. And her courage was taken from her, and her mouth she opened wide.

101. He seized the spear and burst her belly,

102. He severed her inward parts, he pierced (her) heart.

103. He overcame her and cut off her life;

p. 73

104. He cast down her body and stood upon it.

105. When he had slain Tiamat, the leader,

106. Her might was broken, her host was scattered.

107. And the gods her helpers, who marched by her side,

108. Trembled, and were afraid, and turned back.

109. They took to flight to save their lives;

110. But they were surrounded, so that they could not escape.

111. He took them captive, he broke their weapons;

112. In the net they were caught and in the snare they sat down.

113. The [...] ... of the world they filled with cries of grief.

114. They received punishment from him, they were held in bondage.

115. And on the eleven creatures which she had filled with the power of striking terror,

116. Upon the troop of devils, who marched at her [...],

117. He brought affliction, their strength [he ...];

118. Them and their opposition he trampled under his feet.

p. 75

119. Moreover, Kingu, who had been exalted over them,

120. He conquered, and with the god Dug-ga he counted him.

121. He took from him the Tablets of Destiny that were not rightly his,

122. He sealed them with a seal and in his own breast he laid them.

123. Now after the hero Marduk had conquered and cast down his enemies,

124. And had made the arrogant foe even like ...,

125. And had fully established Anshar's triumph over the enemy,

126. And had attained the purpose of Nudimmud,

127. Over the captive gods he strengthened his durance,

128. And unto Tiamat, whom he had conquered, he returned.

129. And the lord stood upon Tiamat's hinder parts,

130. And with his merciless club he smashed her skull.

131. He cut through the channels of her blood,

132. And he made the North wind bear it away into secret places.

133. His fathers beheld, and they rejoiced and were glad;

p. 77

134. Presents and gifts they brought unto him.

135. Then the lord rested, gazing upon her dead body,

136. While he divided the flesh of the ..., and devised a cunning plan.

137. He split her up like a flat fish into two halves;

138. One half of her he stablished as a covering for heaven.

139. He fixed a bolt, he stationed a watchman,

140. And bade them not to let her waters come forth.

141. He passed through the heavens, he surveyed the regions (thereof),

142. And over against the Deep he set the dwelling of Nudimmud.

143. And the lord measured the structure of the Deep,

144. And he founded E-shara, a mansion like unto it.

145. The mansion E-shara which he created as heaven,

146. He caused Anu, Bl, and Ea in their districts to inhabit.
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« Reply #53 on: November 20, 2007, 12:58:49 pm »








The Fifth Tablet



1. He.(i.e. Marduk) made the stations for the great gods;

2. The stars, their images, as the stars of the Zodiac, he fixed.

3. He ordained the year and into sections he divided it;

4. For the twelve months he fixed three stars.

5. After he had [...] the days of the year [...] images,

6. He founded the station of Nibir 1to determine their bounds;

7. That none might err or go astray,

8. He set the station of Bl and Ea along with him.

9. He opened great gates on both sides,

10. He made strong the bolt on the left and on the right.

11. In the midst thereof he fixed the zenith;

12. The Moon-god he caused to shine forth, the night he entrusted to him.

13. He appointed him, a being of the night, to determine the days;

14. Every month without ceasing with the crown he covered(?) him, (saying):


p. 81

15. "At the beginning of the month, when thou shinest upon the land,

16. "Thou commandest the horns to determine six days,

17. "And on the seventh day to [divide] the crown.

18. "On the fourteenth day thou shalt stand opposite, the half [...].

19. "When the Sun-god on the foundation of heaven [...] thee,

20. "The [...] thou shalt cause to ..., and thou shalt make his [...].

21. "[...] ... unto the path of the Sun-god shalt thou cause to draw nigh,

22. "[And on the ... day] thou shalt stand opposite, and the Sun-god shall ... [...]

23. "[...] to traverse her way.

24. "[...] thou shalt cause to draw nigh, and thou shalt judge the right.

25. "[...] to destroy

26. "[...] me.

"..."

p. 83

[The following twenty-two lines are taken from K. 3,449a,
and probably form part of the Fifth Tablet.]

(66 ). [...]

(67) [...]

(68 ) From [...]

(69) In E-sagil [...]

(70) To establish [...]

(71) The station of [...]

(72) The great gods [...]

(73) The gods [...]

(74) He took and [...]

(75) The gods [his fathers] beheld the net which he had made,

(76) They beheld the bow and how [its work] was accomplished.

(77) They praised the work which he had done [...]

(78) Then Anu raised [the ...] in the assembly of the gods.

(79) H e kissed the bow, (saying), "It is [...]!"

(80) And thus he named the names of the bow, (saying),

(81) "'Long-wood' shall be one name, and the second name [shall be ...]

(82) "And its third name shall be the Bow-star, in heaven [shall it ...]"

p. 85

(83) Then he fixed a station for it [...]

(84) Now after the fate of [...]

(85) [He set] a throne [...]

(86) [...] in heaven [...]

(87) [...] ... [...]

[The following traces of the last thirteen lines of the Fifth Tablet are taken from the reverse of K. 11,641 and from the reverse of K. 8,526.]

(128) "[...] him [...]"

(129) "[...] them [...]"

(130) "[...] him [...]"

(131) "[...] them [...]"

(132) "[...] their [...] may [...]"

(133) [...] the gods spake,

(134) [...] the heavens [...]: 1

(135) "[... your] son [...]"

(136) "[...] our [...] hath he [...]"

(137) "[...] he hath caused to live [...]"

(138) "[...] splendour [...]"

(139) "[...] not [...]!"

(140) "[...] we [...]!"



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Footnotes
77:1 Jupiter

85:1 In the speech that follows it may be conjectured that the gods complained that, although Marduk had endowed the heavens with splendour and had caused plants to live upon the earth, yet there were no shrines built in honour of the gods, and there were no worshippers devoted to their service; see below, p. 88, note 1
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« Reply #54 on: November 20, 2007, 01:00:07 pm »







The Sixth Tablet



1. When Marduk heard the word of the gods,

2. His heart prompted him and he devised [a cunning plan].

3. He opened his mouth and unto Ea [he spake],

4. [That which] he had conceived in his heart he imparted [unto him]:

5. "My blood will I take and bone will I [fashion],

6. "I will make man, that man may ... [...].

7. "I will create man who shall inhabit [the earth],"

p. 89

8. "That the service of the gods may be established, and that [their] shrines 1 [may be built].

9. "But I will alter the ways of the gods, and I will change [their paths];

10. "Together shall they be oppressed 2, and unto evil shall [they ...]."

11. And Ea answered him and spake the word:

12. "[...] the [...] of the gods I have [changed]

13. [...] ... and one ... [...]

14. [...shall be de]stroyed and men will I [...]

15. [...] and the gods [...]

16. [...] ... and they [...]

17. [...] ... and the gods [...]

18. [...] .... [...]

19. [...] the gods [...]

20. [...] the Anunnaki [...]

21. [...] ... [...]



p. 91

[The rest of the text is wanting 1 with the exception of the last few lines of the tablet, which read as follows.]

138. [...] ... [...]

139. [...] ... [...]

140. When [...] ... [...]

141. They rejoiced [...] ... [...]

142. In Upshukkinnaku they set [their dwelling].

143. Of the heroic son, their avenger, [they cried]:

144. "We, whom he succoured, ... [...]!"

145. They seated themselves and in the assembly they named [him ...],

146. They all [cried aloud (?), they exalted [him ...]. 2




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Footnotes
89:1 ... literally the line reads "Let the service of the gods be established, and as for them let [their] shrines be built. It is interesting to note the reason that is here implied for the creation of mankind, i.e., that the gods my have worshipers. There is clearly a reference to this in l. 29 of the Seventh Tablet, where, after referring to Marduk's mercy upon the gods, the text goes on ... "For their forgiveness did he create mankind."

89:2 It seems preferable to assign to the Piel of [kabtu] its usual meaning "to oppress," rather than to render the passage as "Together shall they be honoured." The sense seems to be that Marduk, by the creation of man, will establish the worship of the gods, but at the same time will punish the gods for their complaints. It is possible that in his speech that follows Ea dissuades Marduk from carrying out the second part of his proposal.

91:1 It is probable that the missing portion of the text corresponded closely with the account of the creation of man and animals given by Berossus; for a further discussion of this subject, see the Introduction. The tablet K. 3,364 (Cun. Texts, part xiii, pl. 24 f.) has been thought to belong to the Creation Series, and to contain the instructions given by Marduk to man after his creation. Had this been so, it would have formed part of the Sixth Tablet. On plates lxiv ff. of Vol. II is published the text of a Neo-Babylonian tablet, No. 33,851, which gives a duplicate text to K. 3,364; and in Appendix II I have given reasons for believing that the text inscribed upon K. 3,364 and No. 33,851 has no connection with the Creation Series, but is part of a long composition containing moral precepts. Another fragment which it has been suggested belongs to one of the later tablets of the Creation Series is K. 3,445 + R. 396 (Cun. Texts, part xiii, pl. 24 f.; cf. also its duplicate K. 14,949, pl. 24); but there are strong reasons against the identification of the text as a fragment of the series Enuma elish, though it may well be part of a parallel version of the Creation story (see further, Appendix II).

91:2 The address of the gods to Marduk forms the subject of the Seventh Tablet of the series.
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« Reply #55 on: November 20, 2007, 01:01:33 pm »







The Seventh Tablet



1. O Asari, "Bestower of planting," "[Founder of sowing],"

2. "Creator of grain and plants," "who caused [the green herb to spring up]!"

3. O Asaru-alim, "who is revered in the house of counsel," "[who aboundeth in counsel],"

4. The gods paid homage, fear [took hold upon them]!

5. O Asaru-alim-nuna, "the mighty one," "the Light of [the father who begat him],"

6. Who directeth the decrees of Anu, Bel, [and Ea]!"

7. He was their patron, he ordained [their . . . . ];

8. He, whose provision is abundance, goeth forth [...]!

9. Tutu [is]  1 "He who created them anew;"


p. 95

10. Should their wants be pure, then are they [satisfied];

11. Should he make an incantation, then are the gods [appeased];

12 . Should they attack him in anger, he withstandeth [their onslaught]!

13. Let him therefore be exalted, and in the assembly of the gods [let him ...];

14. None among the gods can [rival him]!

15. Tutu is Zi-ukkina, "the Life of the host [of the gods],"

16. Who established for the gods the bright heavens.

17. He set them on their way, and ordained [their path (?)]

18. Never shall his [...] deeds be forgotten among men.

p. 97

19. Tutu as Zi-azag thirdly they named, "the Bringer 1 of Purification,"

20. "The God of the Favouring Breeze," "the Lord of Hearing and Mercy,"

21. "The Creator of Fulness and Abundance," "the Founder of Plenteousness,"

22. "Who increaseth all that is small."

23. "In sore distress we felt his favouring breeze,"

24. Let them say, let them pay reverence, let them bow in humility before him!

25. Tutu as Aga-azag may mankind fourthly magnify!

26. "The Lord of the Pure Incantation," "the Quickener of the Dead,"

27. "Who had mercy upon the captive gods,"

28. "Who removed the yoke from upon the gods his enemies,"


p. 99

29. "For their forgiveness did he create mankind,"

30. "The Merciful One, with whom it is to bestow life!"

31. May his deeds endure, may they never be forgotten

32. In the mouth of mankind 1 whom his hands have made!

33. Tutu as Mu-azag, fifthly, his "Pure Incantation" may their mouth proclaim,

34. "Who through his Pure Incantation hath destroyed all the evil ones!"

35. Shag-zu, "who knoweth the heart of the gods," "who seeth through the innermost part!"

36. "The evil-doer he hath not caused to go forth with him!"

37. "Founder of the assembly of the gods," "[who ...] their heart! "

38. "Subduer of the disobedient," "[...]!"

39. "Who rebellion and [...]!"


p. 101

41. Tutu as Zi-si, "the [...],

42. "Who put an end to anger," "[who ...]!"

43. Tutu as Suh-kur, thirdly, "the [Destroyer of the foe],"

44. "Who put their plans to confusion," "[...],"

45. "Who destroyed all the wicked," "[...],"

46. [...] let them [...]!

47. [...] ... [...]

[The following lines are taken from the fragment K. 12,830, but their position in the text is uncertain.]

[He named the four quarters (of the world)], mankind [he created],

[And upon] him understanding [...]

[...] ... [...]

[...] Tiamat [...]

[...] ... [...]

[...] distant [...]

[...] may [...].

p. 103

[The following lines are taken from the fragment K. 13,761.]

[...]

(10) 1 [...]

"The mighty one [...]!"

... Agi[l ...],

"The Creator of [the earth ...]!"

Zulummu ... [...],

"The Giver of counsel and of whatsoever [...]!"

Mummu, "the Creator [of ...]!"

Mulil, the heavens [...], "Who for ... [...]!"

Gishkul, let [...],

(10) "Who brought the gods to naught[...]!"

Lugal-ab-[...],

"Who in [ ............ ]!"

Pap-[...],

"Who in [...]!"

[...]


p. 105

[The following lines are taken from the fragment K. 8,519 and its duplicate K. 13,337; this portion of the text was not separated by much from that preserved by K. 13,761.]

[...].

[...] ...

[... the Chief (?) of] all lords,"

[... supreme] is his might!

[Lugal-durmah, "the King] 1 of the band of the gods," "the Lord of rulers,"

"Who is exalted in a royal habitation,"

"[Who] among the gods is gloriously supreme!"

[Adu-nuna], "the Counsellor of Ea," who created the gods his fathers,

Unto the path of whose majesty


p. 107

[No] god can ever attain!

[... in] Dul-azag he made it known,

[...] pure is his dwelling!

[... the ...] of those without understanding is Lugal-dul-azaga!

[...] supreme is his might!

[...] their [...] in the midst of Tiamat,

[...] ... of the battle!

[The numbering of the following lines is based on the marginal numbers upon No. 91,139. + 93,073.]

105. [...] ... [...] him,

106. [...] ... the star, which [shineth in the heavens].

107. May he hold the Beginning and the Future 1, may they 2 pay homage unto him,

108. Saying, "He who forced his way through the midst of Tiamat [without resting],



p. 109

109. "Let his name be Nibiru, 'the Seizer of the Midst'!

110. "For the stars of heaven he upheld the paths,

111. "He shepherded all the gods like sheep!

112. "He conquered Tiamat, he troubled and ended her life,"

113. In the future of mankind, when the days grow old,

114. May this be heard without ceasing, may it hold sway for ever!

115. Since he created the realm (of heaven) and fashioned the firm earth,

p. 111

116. "The Lord of the World," the father Bl hath called his name.

117. (This) title, which all the Spirits of Heaven proclaimed,

118. Did Ea hear, and his spirit was rejoiced, (and he said):

119. "He whose name his fathers have made glorious,

120. "Shall be even as I, his name shall be Ea!

121. "The binding of all my decrees shall he control,

122. "All my commands shall he make known! "

123. By the name of "Fifty" did the great gods

124. Proclaim his fifty names, they made his path pre-eminent." 1

Epilogue
125. Let them 2 be held in remembrance, and let the first man proclaim them;



p. 113

126. Let the wise and the understanding consider them together!

127. Let the father repeat them and teach them to his son;

128. Let them be in the ears of the pastor and the shepherd!

129. Let a man rejoice in Marduk, the Lord of the gods,

130. That he may cause his land to be fruitful, and that he himself may have prosperity!

131. His word standeth fast, his command is unaltered;

132. The utterance of his mouth hath no god ever annulled.

133. He gazed in his anger, he turned not his neck;

134. When he is wroth, no god can withstand his indignation.

135. Wide is his heart, broad is his compassion;

p. 115

136. The sinner and evil-doer in his presence [...].

137. They received instruction, they spake before him,

138. [...] unto [...].

139. [...] of Marduk may the gods [...].

140. [May] they [... his ] name [...]!

141. [...] they took and [...];

142. [...]! 1




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Footnotes
93:1 The title Tutu is there explained as ba-a-nu, " creator," while its two component parts (TU + TU) occur in the Sumerian version of the line as the equivalents of la-nu-u and e-di-shu.

97:1 The text of the commentary read mu-kin, i.e. "the Founder of Purification"; for other variant readings in the line, see Appendix I.

99:1 Literally, "the black-headed ones."

103:1 In the margin of the fragment K. 13,761 every tenth line is indicated by the figure "10."

105:1 The word durmahu was employed as a Babylonian priestly title. It may here be rendered by some such general phrase as "ruler," unless it is to be taken as a proper name.

107:1 ... The expression rshu-arkt, literally "the beginning--the future," may be taken as implying Marduk's complete control over the world, both at its creation and during its subsequent existence. It is possible that s'u-nu is the pronominal suffix and should be attached to the preceding word, i.e. rsh-arktu-shu-nu, "their beginning and future," that is, "the beginning and future of mankind."

107:2 I.e., mankind.

111:1 From the commentary R. 366, etc., and the explanatory text S. 747, it may be concluded that the Seventh Tablet, in its original form, ended at 1. 124. It is probable that ll. 125-142 were added as an epilogue at the time when the composition was incorporated in the Creation Series (see Appendix I).

111:2 I.e., the names of Marduk.

115:1 This is probably the last line of the tablet. It may here be noted that, for the text of the Seventh Tablet given in the preceding pages, only those fragments have been used which are proved by the commentaries to contain missing portions of the text. Several other fragments, which from their contents and style of writing may possibly belong to copies of the text, have not been. included. The text of one such fragment (S. 2,013) is of peculiar interest and is given in Appendix II; in l. 10 f. it refers to Ti-amat e-li-ti and Ti-amat shap-li-ti, "The Ocean (Tiamat) which is above" and "The Ocean (Tiamat) which is beneath," a close parallel to "the waters which were above the firmament" and "the waters which were under the firmament" of Gen. i, 7; see the Introduction.


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« Reply #56 on: November 20, 2007, 01:16:58 pm »










                                                         Enma Eli




 
The Enma Eli is the Babylonian or Mesopotamian creation epic. It was first discovered by modern scholars (in fragmentary form) in the ruined library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh (Mosul, Iraq), recovered by Henry Layard in 1849 and published by George Smith in 1876.

The Enuma Elish has about a thousand lines and is recorded in Akkadian on seven clay tablets, each holding between 115 and 170 lines of text. The majority of Tablet V has never been recovered, but aside from this lacuna the text is almost complete. A duplicate copy of Tablet V has been found in Sultantepe, ancient Harran.

This epic is one of the most important sources for understanding the Babylonian worldview, centered on the supremacy of Marduk and the existence of mankind for the service of the gods. Its primary original purpose, however, is not an exposition of theology or theogony, but the elevation of Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, above other Mesopotamian gods.

The Enma Elish has existed in various versions and copies from Babylonia as well as from Assyria. The version from Ashurbanipal's library dates to the 7th century BC. The story itself probably dates to the 18th century BC on account of the fact that this is the time when the god Marduk seemed to have a prominent status. Some scholars date it later (14th to 12th centuries BC.)
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« Reply #57 on: November 20, 2007, 01:18:31 pm »








                                                       Summary





The title, meaning "when on high" is the incipit. The first tablet begins:

e-nu-ma e-li la na-bu- -ma-mu
ap-lish am-ma-tum u-ma la zak-rat
ZU.AB-ma re-tu- za-ru-u-un
mu-um-mu ti-amat mu-al-li-da-at gim-ri--un
A.ME--nu i-te-ni i-ḫi-qu---un
gi-pa-ra la ki-is-su-ru su-sa-a la she-'u-
e-nu-ma DINGIR.DINGIR la u-pu-u ma-na-ma  When on high heaven was not named,
And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name,
And the primeval Aps, who begat them,
And chaos, Tiamat, the mother of them both,
Their waters were mingled together,
And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen;
When of the gods none had been called into being 

The epic names three primeval gods: Apsu, the fresh water, Tiamat, the salt water, and their son Mummu, apparently the mist. Several other gods are created (Ea and his brothers) who reside in Tiamat's vast body. They make so much noise that it annoys Tiamat and Apsu greatly. Apsu wishes to kill the young gods, but Tiamat disagrees. The vizier, Mummu, agrees with Apsu's plan to destroy them. Tiamat, to stop this from occurring, tells Ea (Nudimmud), at the time the most powerful of the gods, who, using magic, puts Apsu into a coma and kills him, and shuts Mummu out. Ea then becomes the chief god, and along with his consort Damkina, has a son, Marduk, greater still than himself. Marduk is given wind to play with and he uses it to make dust storms and tornadoes. This disrupts Tiamat's great body and causes the gods still residing inside her to be unable to sleep.

They persuade Tiamat to take revenge for the death of her husband. Her power grows, and some of the gods join her. She creates 11 monsters to help her win the battle and elevates Kingu, her new husband, to "supreme dominion." A lengthy description of the other gods' inability to deal with the threat follows. Ultimately, Marduk is selected as their champion against Tiamat, and becomes very powerful. He defeats and kills Tiamat, and forms the world from her corpse. The subsequent hundred lines or so constitute the lost section of Tablet V.

The gods who sided with Tiamat are initially forced to labor in the service of the other gods. They are freed from their servitude when Marduk decides to slay Kingu and create mankind from his blood. Babylon is established as the residence of the chief gods. Finally, the gods confer kingship on Marduk, hailing him with fifty names. Most noteworthy is Marduk's symbolic elevation over Enlil, who was seen by earlier Mesopotamian civilizations as the king of the gods.
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« Reply #58 on: November 20, 2007, 01:21:08 pm »








Relationship with the Tanakh





While the Hebrew bible is not based directly on the Enuma Elish, "the dependence of at least some biblical creation texts on a common ancient Near Eastern 'creation-by-combat' myth are not gainsayable."

The ancient Mesopotamians believed that the world was a flat circular disc surrounded by a saltwater sea. The habitable earth was a single giant continent inside this sea, and floated on a second sea, the freshwater apsu, which supplied the water in springs, wells and rivers and was connected with the saltwater sea. The sky was a solid disk above the earth, curved to touch the earth at its rim, with the heavens of the gods above. So far as can be deduced from clues in the bible, the ancient Hebrew geography was identical with that of the Babylonians: a flat circular earth floating above a freshwater sea, surrounded by a saltwater sea, with a solid sky-dome (raqia, the "firmament") above. It is the creation of this world which Enuma Elish and Genesis 1 describe.

Comparisons between the bible and other ancient Near Eastern texts are often obscured by English translations, which impose on the Hebrew the Christian doctrines of creation ex nihilo (out of nothing) and of the Trinity. Thus the opening of Genesis 1 is traditionally rendered: "In the beginning God created both Heaven and Earth...", whereas the Hebrew makes it clear that Genesis 1:1-3 is describing the state of chaos immediately prior to God's creation:

"In the beginning of God's creating the skies and the earth, when the earth had been shapeless and formless, and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and God's spirit was hovering on the face of the water, God said, 'Let there be light!"

In both Enuma Elish and Genesis, creation is an act of divine speech - the Enuma Elish describes pre-creation as a time "when above, the heavens had not been named, and below the earth had not been called by name", while in Genesis each act of divine creation is introduced with the formula: "And God said, let there be...". The sequence of creation is identical: light, firmament, dry land, luminaries, and man. In both Enuma Elish and Genesis the primordial world is formless and empty (the tohu wa bohu of Genesis 1:2), the only existing thing the watery abyss which exists prior to creation (Tiamat in the Enuma Elish, tehom, the "deep", a linguistic cognate of tiamat, in Genesis 1:2). In both, the firmament, conceived as a solid inverted bowl, is created in the midst of the primeval waters to separate the heavens from the earth (Genesis 1:67, Enuma Elish 4:13740). Day and night precede the creation of the luminous bodies (Gen. 1:5, 8, 13, and 14ff.; Enuma Elish 1:38), whose function is to yield light and regulate time (Gen. 1:14; Enuma Elish 5:1213). In Enuma Elish, the gods consult before creating man (Enuma Elish 6:4), while Genesis has: "Let us make man in our own image..." (Genesis 1:26) and in both, the creation of man is followed by divine rest. "Thus, it appears that the so-called P account echoes this earlier Mesopotamian story of creation."

Nevertheless, the Hebrew bible reflects significant differences from the Mesopotamian account. In Genesis there is a total rejection of all mythology (e.g., "Tiamat" is an animate being, but tehom is merely a lifeless mass of water), there is no suggestion of any primordial battle or internecine war which eventually led to the creation of the universe, nor are water, earth, sky, and luminaries pictured as deities or as parts of disembodied deities.

A single, pre-existing, creator is assumed, and man is conceived of as the pinnacle of creation, not merely the menial of the gods as in Enuma Elish. Furthermore, the biblical story is non-cultic: unlike Enuma Elish, which was read on the fourth day of the Babylonian New Year festival, it plays no ritual role whatsoever in the religion of Israel.
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« Reply #59 on: November 20, 2007, 02:30:16 pm »

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