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OBELISKS - A Short History

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Author Topic: OBELISKS - A Short History  (Read 5687 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #15 on: February 27, 2009, 12:51:39 pm »



OBELISK OF PIAZZA NAVONA
ROMA
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Bianca
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« Reply #16 on: February 27, 2009, 12:53:43 pm »



OBELISK IN FRONT OF THE LATERAN
ROMA








The Egyptian obelisk that stands in the square of St. John Lateran (shown above) is the largest in existence.

Originally carved during the reign of Pharaoh Thutmoses III, it stood in the Temple of Amon in Thebes (Karnak), but was removed to Rome by emperor Constantius (A.D. 317-361), and placed in the Circus Maximus.

In 1587 Pope Sixtus V unearthed the fallen, broken and long forgotten obelisk and had it repaired and placed in the Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano. Interestingly enough, it is possible that Moses saw this very obelisk when he was in Egypt.

Now this obelisk, meant to honor the sun god, stands beside what Catholics call the supreme "Mother of all Churches", the official cathedra of the bishop of Rome, the Pope, which brings to mind Revelation 17: 5 and the apostate Mother Church, Mystery Babylon, the mother of harlots, who stands accused of fornication, a mixing of the sacred with the profane, truth with error.



http://www.aloha.net/~mikesch/wheel.htm
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Bianca
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« Reply #17 on: February 27, 2009, 12:54:45 pm »



OBELISK IN MONTECITORIO SQUARE
ROMA
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Bianca
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« Reply #18 on: February 27, 2009, 12:56:37 pm »



THE OBELISK IN FRONT OF THE PANTHEON
ROMA
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Bianca
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« Reply #19 on: February 27, 2009, 12:57:54 pm »



ANOTHER VIEW OF THE PANTHEON OBELISK
ROMA
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Bianca
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« Reply #20 on: February 27, 2009, 12:59:28 pm »



OBELISK IN FRONT OF THE QUIRINALE PALACE
FORMER ROYAL RESIDENCE
ROMA
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« Reply #21 on: February 27, 2009, 01:00:41 pm »



OBELISK OF THE ESQUILINE SQUARE
ROMA
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« Reply #22 on: February 27, 2009, 01:02:13 pm »



OBELISK 'DOGALI'
MONUMENT TO THE FALLEN IN FOREIGN WARS
ROMA
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« Reply #23 on: February 27, 2009, 01:03:07 pm »



OBELISK AT THE PINCIO
ROMA
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« Reply #24 on: February 27, 2009, 01:04:57 pm »



OBELISK OF VILLA CELIMONTANA
ROMA
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« Reply #25 on: February 27, 2009, 01:05:58 pm »



OBELISK OF THE SPANISH STEPS
ROMA
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Bianca
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« Reply #26 on: February 27, 2009, 01:08:50 pm »



THE SMALLEST OF ROME'S OBELISKS IS NICKNAMED "MINERVA'S CHICK". 

IT IS LOCATED IN FRONT OF THE TEMPLE OF MINERVA (GREEK: ATHENA), WHICH HAS BEEN
APPROPRIATED BY THE CHURCH AND TURNED INTO A CHRISTIAN PLACE OF WORSHIP.

THE MARBLE ELEPHANT ON WHICH IT RESTS WAS SCULPTED BY BERNINI.
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« Reply #27 on: February 27, 2009, 01:10:48 pm »





                                               

AS CAN BE SEEN HERE, 'MINERVA'S CHICK' IS AT THE BACK OF THE PANTHEON
ROMA
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« Reply #28 on: February 27, 2009, 01:12:46 pm »



ANOTHER VIEW OF 'MINERVA'S CHICK' WITH THE FORMER TEMPLE OF MINERVA IN THE BACKGROUND.  NOW CALLED 'SANTA MARIA SOPRA MINERVA'.
ROMA
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« Reply #29 on: February 27, 2009, 01:34:51 pm »

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      Re: I, Obelisk
Reply #26 on: September 19, 2007, 09:36:18 pm Quote 

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Hatshepsut's Obelisks






Just within the gate to either side of the interior of the fourth pylon are Osirian Pillars. These are fitted into niches and those to the north probably wore the Red Crown, while those to the south wear the white crown.  Within this small asymmetrical area we find to the north (left) the obelisk of Hatshepsut, which dominates this area of the temple. North of this obelisk are two rows of three columns each. At one point, there was a complimentary obelisk to the south (right), but that is now gone. South of that obelisk were two rows of four columns each.

 This pair of obelisks was produced from granite on the island Sehel at Aswan under the supervision of the steward Amen-hotep. Their transport by ship and the **** of both obelisks at Karnak is shown in detail in the so-called "Hall of O" in the first portico of the temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari. A relief in her Red Chapel also provides a report about the donation of these two obelisks.

The standing, northern obelisk of Hatshepsutt must be considered one of the most famous single monuments within the whole of the Karnak complex. Originally, she erected four obelisks at Karnak, but only this one remains. However, at approximately 29.56 meters tall, it is the largest standing obelisk in Egypt. Built of red granite, it weighs some 323 tons (note that various figures are given by different sources for the obelisk's height and weight). The bottom part of the obelisk has a slightly different tint than the top, because it had been walled up by her successor, Tuthmosis III.

On its base are thirty-two horizontal lines of hieroglyphs, eight lines to each side, that describe why she had constructed this obelisk. The inscription reads in part:

"I was sitting in the palace and I remembered the One who created me; my heart directed me to make for him two obelisks of electrum [a natural alloy of gold and silver], that their pyramidions might mingle with the sky amid the august pillared hall between the great pylons of [Tuthmosis I].... My Majesty began to work on them in the year 15, the second month of Winter, 1st day, continuing until Year 16, fourth month of Summer, 30th day, spending 7 months in cutting it from the mountain....  I acted for him with a straightforward heart, as a king does for any god... Let not anyone who hears this say it is boasting which I have said, but rather say, 'How like her it is, she who is truthful to her father.' The god knows it in me [namely] Amun, Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands.... I am his daughter in very truth, who glorifies him."

To a significant degree, historians owe what little they know of obelisk raising from archaic sources to this inscription.

All four sides of the obelisk are carved with a central column of inscriptions and, on the upper half, eight tableaux on which the king (in Egypt, the female ruler was not termed a queen, but a king), is directed toward Amun going from the northwest corner towards the southeast corner. On the north face, the central inscription begins with Hatshepsut's titles, including the Horus, the Two Goddesses and the Golden Horus names:

"Horus 'Powerful of Kas', the Two Ladies 'Flourishing of Years', Golden Horus 'Divine of Appearances', King of Upper and Lower Egypt and Lord of the Two Lands 'Maat-Ka-Ra'. Her father Amun had established her great name 'Maat-Ka-Ra' on the Ished tree, her annals are million of years, duration and power, son of Ra 'Hatshepsut, unified with Amun', beloved of Amun-Ra, King of the Gods, as [reward for this good, enduring and excellent monument], that she had donated to him (at the occasion) of the first royal jubilee ( sed festival). May she live forever."

On the west side, after the same title, the text reads:

"Horus 'Powerful of Kas', the Two Ladies 'Flourishing of Years', Golden Horus 'Divine of Appearances', King of Upper and Lower Egypt and Lord of the Two Lands 'Maat-Ka-Ra'. She made (it) as her monument for her father Amun, Lord of the Throne of the Two Lands, erecting for him two large obelisks at the great gate [Pylon) 'Amun is Great in-Terror', wrought with very much electrum, which illuminates the Two Lands like the sun. Never was the like made on earth since the beginning. It was done for him (Amun) by the sun of Ra 'Hatshepsut, unified with Amun', may she live forever like Ra.

Hence, Hatshepsut specifies that these obelisks were intended to be erected in front of the fifth pylon. On the east facade of the obelisk, her title includes only the Horus name and she affirms that the building of these obelisks was for her father:

"Horus 'Powerful of Kas', King of Upper and Lower Egypt 'Maat-Ka-Ra', beloved of Amun-Ra. Her majesty has made the name of her father established on this enduring monument, so that the King of Upper and Lower Egypt and Lord of the Two Lands 'Aa-kheper-ka-Ra' ( Thutmosis I) will be praised by the majesty of this god, when the two great obelisks were erected by her majesty on the first time ( of her royal jubilee). The King of Gods (Amun) said: 'Your (fem.) father, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt "Aa-kheper-ka-Ra' had given the command to erect obelisks. Your (fem.) majesty will repeat the monuments. (So that) you may live forever."

The Southern facade likewise provides only Hatshepsut Horus' name as well, and reads:

"Horus 'Powerful of Kas', King of Upper and Lower Egypt 'Maat-Ka-Ra', brilliant emanation of Amun, whom he has caused to appear as king upon the throne of Horus 'Holy of Holiest'  of the Great House, whom the ennead of gods have brought up to be mistress of the circuit of the sun. They have united her with life, power and joy of the heart, the First of the Livings, son of Ra 'Hatshepsut, unified with Amun', beloved of Amun-Ra, King of the Gods, may he (Hatshepsut) live forever like Ra."
« Last Edit: February 27, 2009, 01:36:09 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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