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Alarming video shows how the ground turns to SOUP and swallows up buildings

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« on: November 05, 2017, 11:49:57 pm »

Alarming video shows how the ground turns to SOUP and swallows up buildings during an earthquake

    During a quake, the ground collapses in a process called liquefaction
    The energy from an earthquake jostles solid ground causing it to turn to liquid
    The unstable liquefied ground can then suck in cars, roads and buildings
    Scientists demonstrated the process in a video using wet sand and weights

By Daisy Dunne For Mailonline

Published: 06:51 EST, 22 February 2017 | Updated: 06:51 EST, 22 February 2017

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We often think of earthquakes by imagining violent tremors and cracks in the ground.

But one of the most damaging impacts of an quake is liquefaction - a phenomenon where the ground turns to soup and sucks in cars, roads and even buildings.

To help people understand the little-known process, scientists from Illinois State University have created an alarming video demonstrating how sand can turn to liquid when it is put under stress.

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Scientists from Illinois State University have created an alarming video using wet sand and a weight to demonstrate how sand can turn to liquid when put under stress
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http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4245758/Earthquake-video-shows-ground-turns-liquid.html


Scientists from Illinois State University have created an alarming video using wet sand and a weight to demonstrate how sand can turn to liquid when put under stress
WHAT IS LIQUEFACTION?

Liquefaction is a deadly natural phenomenon that occurs during an earthquake.

When the land is in its normal formation, the grains of sand and soil stack on top of one another in layers to create a firm structure held together by friction.

But when an earthquake hits, this strong network is put under pressure.

The energy created starts to jostle the layers of sediment and the structure collapses.

The collapse forces the grains of sand to push up against each other, putting pressure on the water molecules surrounding the soil.

Vibrations from the ground also force the sand grains to keep moving around and around.

Together, hese two forces create an effect similar to a sink hole.

The liquefied ground starts to swallow up anything that lies on top of it.

In the video, a demonstrator uses a tub of damp sand to represent solid earth.

When the land is in its normal formation, the grains of sand and soil stack on top of one another in layers to create a firm structure held together by friction.

But when an earthquake hits, demonstrated by shaking the tub, the strong network is put under pressure.

The energy created by an earthquake starts to rock and jostle the layers of sediment and the structure suddenly collapses.

This sudden collapse forces the grains of sand to push up against each other, which puts pressure on the water molecules surrounding the soil.

To add to this, vibrations from the ground force the sand grains to keep moving around and around.

The combination of these two forces creates an effect similar to a sink hole - and the liquefied ground starts to swallow up anything that lies on top of it.

In 2011, Japan was hit by a devastating magnitude nine earthquake which caused widespread liquefaction.

Areas with a high water to soil ratio near coastlines, harbours and rivers were most affected by the phenomenon.
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'We've seen localised examples of soil liquefaction as extreme as this before, but the distance and extent of damage in Japan was unusually severe,' Scott Ashford, a researcher from Oregon State University who studied the impact of the disaster, told Live Science.

'Entire structures were tilted and sinking into the sediments, even while they remained intact.

'The shifts in soil destroyed water, sewer and gas pipelines, crippling the utilities and infrastructure these communities need to function.
During an earthquake, the ground can collapse and become fluid in a process known as liquefaction. Pictured is a car is trapped in a sink hole caused by liquefaction which occurred during a 6.3 magnitude earthquake in Christchurch on February 27
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During an earthquake, the ground can collapse and become fluid in a process known as liquefaction. Pictured is a car is trapped in a sink hole caused by liquefaction which occurred during a 6.3 magnitude earthquake in Christchurch on February 27

'We saw some places that sank as much as four feet (1.2 metres).'

Hundreds of streets in Christchurch, New Zealand, were also destroyed by liquefaction during a 6.3 magnitude earthquake in 2011.

Roads were covered in silt thrown up from the ground after liquefaction occurred as a result of the earthquake.
The phenomenon is mostly likely to affect areas close to water. Pictured is an aerial shot showing people clearing up mud that escaped from the ground during liquefaction in Christchurch
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The phenomenon is mostly likely to affect areas close to water. Pictured is an aerial shot showing people clearing up mud that escaped from the ground during liquefaction in Christchurch
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