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The Origin of the Sea Peoples

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Author Topic: The Origin of the Sea Peoples  (Read 171 times)
Gwen Parker
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« on: October 08, 2017, 09:59:26 pm »



http://www.minoanatlantis.com/Origin_Sea_Peoples.php

 Beginning with the rise of the Iberian El Argar from the ashes of the Los Millares culture this discourse hypothesizes that the peninsula was consumed in an evolving, intermittent, yet unending struggle over access to the mineral wealth of Iberia. The conflict pitted the Aegean El Argar colony with the various Beaker groups to the north and west of them. It continues with a description of how the Argaric settlements around Damiel, Spain were planned communities with highly defensible hillside villages protected by a distributed network of watchtower stone fortresses for early warning and how this same El Argar system of signaling fortresses (Motillas) began to be built on Sardinia (Nuraghes) as the conflict escalated. They would eventually grow in number to the tens of thousands and cover the entire island. It then describes the effect of the volcanic eruption of the Theran (Santorini, Greece) volcano in the Aegean, the final period of catastrophe that spawned the El Argar Diaspora from Iberia that created the Sea Peoples, and concludes with the destruction of the Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean.

By 2200 B.C. the Los Millares culture in southeastern Iberia had finally collapsed but the related El Argar culture had soon arisen to replace it. Over the next few hundred years the El Argar would spread well into central Spain much closer to the tin deposits of cassiterite ores known to exist in the Madrid and Cardenas areas. Some of these deposits are still mined today. They built their fortress and defensive hillside settlements in the area around Daimiel and Manzanares in La Mancha. Daimiel is almost 250 kilometers northwest of the settlement of Almizaraque on the coast (the modern day Herrerias silver mine) but is only 150 kilometers due south of Madrid and about 110 km northeast of the Cardenas area. The area around Damiel itself is still quite rich in minerals (silver, copper, mercury, lead, etc.).

The acquisition of these new lands must have been very hotly contested by the native peoples as demonstrated by the many fortress complexes found in the area. Land was scarce in the Aegean and many people may have looked on Spain as a place that had land for the taking and where one could become wealthy by finding gold or silver. The regular flow of shipping over that long period of time could have brought many tens or even hundreds of thousands of people to Spain from the Aegean.

The Spanish Motilla – Sardinian Tholos Nuraghe Connection

With the establishment of the El Argar settlements around Daimiel they began to build a new type of stone watchtower fortress complex; something that had never been seen before then. The Motilla Del Azuer is one of these and is currently being excavated by the University of Granada. The site is named after the small nearby town of Azuer. It is a circular roughly-worked structure about 50 meters in diameter that was built using Aegean tholos construction techniques. It consists of a central tower, concentric walled enclosures, and a large courtyard. There were nearly 20 of these structures built on the La Mancha plain between 2200 and 1500 B.C. when they were finally abandoned. During this time many fortified settlements existed in the area especially in the hills to the north.
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Gwen Parker
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« Reply #1 on: October 08, 2017, 10:00:50 pm »



Motilla Del Azuer Tholos Watchtower
Top View Diagram
Daimiel, Castilla-La Manche, Spain
Credit: Molina, Nájera, Aranda and Sánchez
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Gwen Parker
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« Reply #2 on: October 08, 2017, 10:01:52 pm »



Distribution of Motilla Watchtowers
~ 2200 to 1500 BC
Castilla-La Manche, Spain
Credit: Molina, Nájera, Aranda and Sánchez
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atalante
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« Reply #3 on: October 09, 2017, 11:46:52 pm »

quote the capital city of Argar culture in southesat Spain, from: 
http://www.uab.cat/web/latest-news/news-detail/la-bastida-unearths-impressive-4-200-year-old-fortification-1096476786473.html?noticiaid=1345644845118

The archaeological excavations carried out this year at the site of La Bastida (Totana, Murcia) have shed light on an imposing fortification system, unique for its time. The discovery, together with all other discoveries made in recent years, reaffirm that the city was the most advanced settlement in Europe in political and military terms during the Bronze Age (ca. 4,200 years ago -2,200 BCE-), and is comparable only to the Minoan civilisation of Crete.

endquote
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atalante
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« Reply #4 on: October 17, 2017, 10:21:22 am »

The river network that flows "through" the heartland of the old El Argar empire is the Guadalentin river, whose name comes from Arabic language and means "river of mud and sludge". Quoting fromhttp://www.murcia-ex...dalentin-valley

Guadalentín Valley

Of it it has been said that it is the 'the wild river of Europe', hence the Arabs called it Wad-al-littin (river of mud and sludge), a name that refers to solid contributions from its catastrophic floods.

endquote



Both the Guadalentin and the Segura rivers experience frequent catastrophic floods -- because their drainage area slopes precipitously.

http://www.chsegura....ia/riadas2.html

http://www.chsegura..../riadas2_1.html

http://www.chsegura..../riadas2_2.html
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atalante
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« Reply #5 on: October 19, 2017, 09:24:02 am »

 
Chronological maps of El Argar society's early expansion are at:
https://html1-f.scribdassets.com/gxd3rol1c5ma3ks/images/3-627f10b464.jpg




Link to a research paper (published in 2014, by Lull et.al.) about archaeology of the La Bastida site is at:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264194537_The_La_Bastida_fortification_new_light_and_new_questions_on_Early_Bronze_Age_societies_in_the_western_Mediterranean

The above-linked paper indicates that during Phase 1 of La Bastida (2200-2025 BC), the Guadelentin-Segura river drainage region came under proto-El Argar control.  In that first phase, the La Bastida site had wooden buildings.

The first phase of La Bastida resembles Critias 113c and 115b, which report that:  the earliest phase of Atlantis society started building on a low hill; then Atlantean society opened a large channel to the sea (i.e. a large waterway, resembling the Segura river in Argar society).   

The Guadalentin river was Europe's closest equivalent to the Nile river of Egypt.  Both of these rivers overflow their banks in recurring floods, thus depositing new soil.  Also, Argar society was located in the most arid part of Spain (which thus resembles the arid situation of Egypt).  El Argar society farmed almost entirely barley; so El Argar society is described as a mono-culture. 

The early half of Egypt's Middle Kingdom was contemporary with Phases 1 and 2 of La Bastida.  In that era, Middle Kingdom Egypt developed a religious concept that Egyptian nobles could travel to the far west and grow barley to glorify the sun god Re.  Egypt's terminology called the far western place Sekhet Hetep ("field of peace").   



In phase 2 at La Bastida (2025-1900 BC), large stone buildings replaced the previous wooden buildings. 

The above expansion maps show that territory controlled by proto-Argar society expanded up the Almanzora river drainage region (i.e. expanded upstream from the actual type-site named El Argar).  While crossing a saddle between two mountain ranges at the head of Almanzoroa river (Estansias mountains on the north, and Filabres mountains on the south); this westward proto-Argar territorial expansion moved into highland tributaries of the Guadalquivir river, contemporary with Phase 2 of La Bastida, 2025-1900 BC.

This second phase of proto-Argar expansion resembles Crit 114b, which reports that the Atlantean society established Eumelus/Gadeirus (a twin brother of Atlas) as the supervisor for a region bounded by Cadiz and the Guadalquivir river.  This second phase of proto-Argar expansion (2025-1900 BC) was mostly a trading-post style of activity.  (i.e. Argar society did not conquer and control the lower Guadalquivir river basin.)  Argar people could acquire silver in such trade with the Guadalquivir basin.  At that time, Egypt was valuing silver greater than gold; but silver was plentiful in southwest Spain.  The key to make such metal trade successful (or profitable) was a Middle Minoan  transportation network, which reached from Argar society to Middle Kingdom Egypt. 

The above expansion maps also show that Phase 2 of the La Bastida site was a time when proto-Argar society took control of the region that been previous headquarters for Spain's Los Millares society.   


Phase 3 of the La  Bastida site (1900 BC to 1600/1550 BC) corresponds to full blown El Argar culture, often called El Argar A by archaeologists.  El Argar A society collapsed rapidly at approximately 1550 BC. 

The later El Argar B society collapsed about 1300 BC.
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atalante
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« Reply #6 on: October 21, 2017, 06:54:18 pm »

Archaeologists have documented that southeastern Spain contained a lot of silver.  And Spain's silver had been in use, in Spain, during the El Argar era.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260249143_The_silver_of_the_South_Iberian_El_Argar_Culture_A_first_look_at_production_and_distribution/links/02e7e53053aaaaff17000000/images/2.png

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260249143_The_silver_of_the_South_Iberian_El_Argar_Culture_A_first_look_at_production_and_distribution/links/02e7e53053aaaaff17000000/images/2.png
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atalante
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« Reply #7 on: October 21, 2017, 07:18:02 pm »

I am still filling in background material, BEFORE reaching the chronological era of the Sea Peoples. 

Here is a paper that is very thorough examination of the breakdown era of Argar A culture, leading up to 1550 BC. http://www.academia....end_of_El_Argar

http://www.academia....end_of_El_Argar

In Argar A, the society was led by a very militaristic hierarchy.

The paper shows that common people had a deteriorating lifestyle, working harder as the arid conditions in southeast Spain became more severe. Ultimately, some kind of revolt occurred - and changed the burial customs, after the previous ruling class was overthrown.

The site of a 1550 BC earthquake (Tira del Lienzo) is item #9 in the map named Figure 2, in my link above. But the earthquake is probably not mentioned in the above link.

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atalante
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« Reply #8 on: October 21, 2017, 07:24:48 pm »

(Hopefully I have the link properly in this post.)
I am still filling in background material, BEFORE reaching the chronological era of the Sea Peoples. 

Here is a paper that is very thorough examination of the breakdown era of Argar A culture, leading up to 1550 BC.
https://www.academia.edu/5359180/Political_collapse_and_social_change_at_the_end_of_El_Argar


In Argar A, the society was led by a very militaristic hierarchy.

The paper shows that common people had a deteriorating lifestyle, working harder as the arid conditions in southeast Spain became more severe. Ultimately, some kind of revolt occurred - and changed the burial customs, after the previous ruling class was overthrown.

The site of a 1550 BC earthquake (Tira del Lienzo) is item #9 in the map named Figure 2, in my link above. But the earthquake is probably not mentioned in the above link.


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atalante
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« Reply #9 on: October 22, 2017, 10:30:37 am »

quote from:  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/gea.21505/abstract

An archaeoseismological study of Tira del Lienzo (Totana, Spain) was undertaken. The site belongs to the Argar archaeological group (2200–1550 cal. B.C.; Bronze Age). It is located on the trace of the reverse left-lateral Alhama de Murcia fault (AMF) that was responsible for the 5.1 Mw 2011 Lorca earthquake. The constructive typology of the site consists of mortar-free irregular natural boulders (dry-set masonry) and differs from earlier archaeoseismological sites built on regular masonry constructions in the Betic Cordillera. Four Earthquake Archaeological Effects (EAEs) were identified as follows: (1) an apparent surface rupture (c. 18 cm left-lateral offset), (2) the differential coseismic uplift of several centimeters affecting the main building of the settlement, (3) the widespread development of fractures on the ground surface (ground cracks) in a NE-SW direction consistent with the kinematics of the AMF, and (4) fractures in boulders that constitute the remains of the dry stone walls at the site. Structural analysis of the two fracture types reveals two nearly orthogonal sets (NE-SW and NW-SE), matching the strike-slip kinematics of the AMF in the zone.  Archaeoseismic evidence and related radiocarbon dates of the different building phases of the Bronze Age site indicate the probable occurrence of at least one strong seismic event (6.3–6.5 Mw; IX ESI-07) around 1550 cal. B.C., or soon after, triggering the destruction and probably the eventual abandonment of the site. We have identified an ancient lost earthquake from the Bronze Age and report the first archaeoseismological evidence of surface rupture in the Iberian Peninsula. This study also provides the first numerical data in the Totana-Alhama segment of the AMF based on the recorded archaeoseismic displacements. These data allowed us to characterize the related slip rates (0.05 mm/yr) to define the seismic potential of the analyzed fault segment of the AMF, which was poorly defined by previous seismic and geological data.

endquote
 
The estimated strength of that 1550 BC earthquake is similar to the 1994 AD Northridge earthquake (6.7 Mw) which hospitalized 1600 people in a densely populated area of the US.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1994_Northridge_earthquake
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atalante
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« Reply #10 on: October 24, 2017, 09:08:26 am »

Gustave Glotz wrote about the prosperous international era of Middle Minoan Crete, in his book, The Aegean Civilization.

books.google.com/books?id=xgHnT3xNzvQC&pg=PA204&lpg=PA204&dq=cretan+colony+in+egypt&source=bl&ots=LKVlRp11gd&sig=SU6rKwLb_uHgC4ceXMrGZIZfw4M&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjL1Yuhh4_UAhXHbiYKHSz-DigQ6AEISTAH#v=onepage&q=cretan%20colony%20in%20egypt&f=false

[Egypt's] XIth Dynasty (2160-2100) had hard work to restore order in the kingdom.  It also had to defend itself against the pirates, "to break the sinews of the HAu-nebu".

Under the XII Dynasty, the Foreign Office set up a special department for this [HAu-nebu] people; an official of Senusert I (1970-1937) was able to say that "his stylus (pen) comprised the HAu-nebu people".  Peace reigned.  Business recovered. 

But Crete had gone ahead in the meantime; the XIXth and XVIIIth centuries were to be for Crete a period of intense activity.  It had to be in constant relations with the Relations department for the HAu-nebu.  This is the explanation of the presence at Knossos, in the second part of MMII, of a diorite statuette portraying an Egyptian official named Ab-nub-mes-Waset-User.  This personage was perhaps a high official of the Delta who had given especial satisfaction to the Cretans, a proxenos to whom the king of Knossos had sent tokens of gratitude, and of whom he was anxious to keep a souvenir.  How intimate and lasting these relations were is shown by the arrival in Crete of religious elements which were of some some influence on the development of the cult of the Serpent Goddess.  Certain Egyptian scarabs of this epoch, covered with Cretan motives and characters, are in a way symbolic. 



But we must go right into to the heart of Egypt to appreciate the commercial importance of these relations [ca. 1903 BC - 1765 BC].

When Senusert II (1903-1887) and Amenemhet III (1849-1801) built pyramids for themselves, they collected in the village of Kahun, which was founded for the pupose and abandonned about 1765, gangs of native and foreign workmen. All over this village pottery has been found marked with Cretan signs and fragments of good Kamares ware.

A tomb at Abydos contained, with cylinders of Senusert III (1887-1849) and Amenemhet III, a magnificent vase which by its shape and its polychrome decorations of dog-daisies resembles the best MMII ware from Knossos, Phaestos and Hagia Triada (Fig 34).

Thus in the XIXth century a Cretan colony established itself in Middle Egypt for many long years, and Cretan goods went up the Nile as far as Upper Egypt. 

[Then] business ceased for two or three centuries.  About 1750 BC, the First Palaces of Knossos and Phaistos were destroyed; and from 1685 to 1550 Egypt was occupied by the Hyksos.  The need for repairing all these ruins and the dividing up of Egypt led to a rupture of  the old relations....



endquote from Glotz's book, The Aegean Civilization, pages 203-205
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atalante
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« Reply #11 on: October 27, 2017, 04:44:57 pm »

During Crete's Middle Minoan thassalocracy, plus the Mycenaean ascendancy, and the subsequent era (LBIIIC) of the Sea Peoples - tin was continuously available in large quantities in Tuscany (based on a paper published in 2017).

quote from the 2017 paper, by Auro Pampaloni: www.academia.edu/34237795/The_tin_of_Campigliese_40_centuries_of_usage

alternate source for the 2017 paper: www.minoanatlantis.com/pubs/Pampaloni_2017_The_tin_of_Campigliese_40_centuries_of_usage.pdf



The Tin of Campigliese: 40 centuries of usage.

Conclusions

We determined that the tin of Campigliese was extracted and used throughout the Bronze Age in a fair
amount. This amount, (comparable over time to that of the Kestel mine in Tauro, which produced
5,000 tons of tin for 1,000 years) can be estimated at about 3,400 tons very hypothetically72 as follows:


• EBA73 (2,300 - 1,700 BC) use only local: 300 tons for 600 years (50 t/century);
• MBA (1,700 - 1,300 BC) local use and possibly eastward exports through Cypriot / Levantine
mining: 600 tons for 400 years (150 t/century);
• RBA-FBA (1,300 - 1,000 BC) local and Mediterranean area: 900 tons for 300 years (300t/
century);
• EIA (1,000 to 700 BC) local and Mediterranean-centered area: 600 tons for 300 years (200t/
century);
• Etruscan and Roman period (700 - 100 BC74) only for figurative bronzes production: 1000 tons
for 600 years (166 t/century);

So we have basically two periods: the first one in which bronze (and consequently the tin) represents
the primary metal for any metallic object whether it is for civil, military or artistic use whether it is
figured or not. In the second, which coincides with Iron Age, where all the objects of civil and military
use are iron made, the bronze will only serve for figurative bronzes.

During the EBA the tin was still available for the Middle East from the Taurus mountains,...

endquote

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Allison
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« Reply #12 on: October 28, 2017, 09:08:21 pm »

The Sea People and a more recent Atlantis always made a lot more sense than the prehistoric one. How on earth did they keep records with no writing at 9600 bc?
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