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The Origin of the Sea Peoples

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Author Topic: The Origin of the Sea Peoples  (Read 129 times)
Gwen Parker
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« on: October 08, 2017, 09:59:26 pm »



http://www.minoanatlantis.com/Origin_Sea_Peoples.php

 Beginning with the rise of the Iberian El Argar from the ashes of the Los Millares culture this discourse hypothesizes that the peninsula was consumed in an evolving, intermittent, yet unending struggle over access to the mineral wealth of Iberia. The conflict pitted the Aegean El Argar colony with the various Beaker groups to the north and west of them. It continues with a description of how the Argaric settlements around Damiel, Spain were planned communities with highly defensible hillside villages protected by a distributed network of watchtower stone fortresses for early warning and how this same El Argar system of signaling fortresses (Motillas) began to be built on Sardinia (Nuraghes) as the conflict escalated. They would eventually grow in number to the tens of thousands and cover the entire island. It then describes the effect of the volcanic eruption of the Theran (Santorini, Greece) volcano in the Aegean, the final period of catastrophe that spawned the El Argar Diaspora from Iberia that created the Sea Peoples, and concludes with the destruction of the Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean.

By 2200 B.C. the Los Millares culture in southeastern Iberia had finally collapsed but the related El Argar culture had soon arisen to replace it. Over the next few hundred years the El Argar would spread well into central Spain much closer to the tin deposits of cassiterite ores known to exist in the Madrid and Cardenas areas. Some of these deposits are still mined today. They built their fortress and defensive hillside settlements in the area around Daimiel and Manzanares in La Mancha. Daimiel is almost 250 kilometers northwest of the settlement of Almizaraque on the coast (the modern day Herrerias silver mine) but is only 150 kilometers due south of Madrid and about 110 km northeast of the Cardenas area. The area around Damiel itself is still quite rich in minerals (silver, copper, mercury, lead, etc.).

The acquisition of these new lands must have been very hotly contested by the native peoples as demonstrated by the many fortress complexes found in the area. Land was scarce in the Aegean and many people may have looked on Spain as a place that had land for the taking and where one could become wealthy by finding gold or silver. The regular flow of shipping over that long period of time could have brought many tens or even hundreds of thousands of people to Spain from the Aegean.

The Spanish Motilla – Sardinian Tholos Nuraghe Connection

With the establishment of the El Argar settlements around Daimiel they began to build a new type of stone watchtower fortress complex; something that had never been seen before then. The Motilla Del Azuer is one of these and is currently being excavated by the University of Granada. The site is named after the small nearby town of Azuer. It is a circular roughly-worked structure about 50 meters in diameter that was built using Aegean tholos construction techniques. It consists of a central tower, concentric walled enclosures, and a large courtyard. There were nearly 20 of these structures built on the La Mancha plain between 2200 and 1500 B.C. when they were finally abandoned. During this time many fortified settlements existed in the area especially in the hills to the north.
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Gwen Parker
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« Reply #1 on: October 08, 2017, 10:00:50 pm »



Motilla Del Azuer Tholos Watchtower
Top View Diagram
Daimiel, Castilla-La Manche, Spain
Credit: Molina, Nájera, Aranda and Sánchez
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Gwen Parker
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« Reply #2 on: October 08, 2017, 10:01:52 pm »



Distribution of Motilla Watchtowers
~ 2200 to 1500 BC
Castilla-La Manche, Spain
Credit: Molina, Nájera, Aranda and Sánchez
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atalante
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« Reply #3 on: October 09, 2017, 11:46:52 pm »

quote the capital city of Argar culture in southesat Spain, from: 
http://www.uab.cat/web/latest-news/news-detail/la-bastida-unearths-impressive-4-200-year-old-fortification-1096476786473.html?noticiaid=1345644845118

The archaeological excavations carried out this year at the site of La Bastida (Totana, Murcia) have shed light on an imposing fortification system, unique for its time. The discovery, together with all other discoveries made in recent years, reaffirm that the city was the most advanced settlement in Europe in political and military terms during the Bronze Age (ca. 4,200 years ago -2,200 BCE-), and is comparable only to the Minoan civilisation of Crete.

endquote
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atalante
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« Reply #4 on: October 17, 2017, 10:21:22 am »

The river network that flows "through" the heartland of the old El Argar empire is the Guadalentin river, whose name comes from Arabic language and means "river of mud and sludge". Quoting fromhttp://www.murcia-ex...dalentin-valley

Guadalentín Valley

Of it it has been said that it is the 'the wild river of Europe', hence the Arabs called it Wad-al-littin (river of mud and sludge), a name that refers to solid contributions from its catastrophic floods.

endquote



Both the Guadalentin and the Segura rivers experience frequent catastrophic floods -- because their drainage area slopes precipitously.

http://www.chsegura....ia/riadas2.html

http://www.chsegura..../riadas2_1.html

http://www.chsegura..../riadas2_2.html
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atalante
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« Reply #5 on: October 19, 2017, 09:24:02 am »

 
Chronological maps of El Argar society's early expansion are at:
https://html1-f.scribdassets.com/gxd3rol1c5ma3ks/images/3-627f10b464.jpg




Link to a research paper (published in 2014, by Lull et.al.) about archaeology of the La Bastida site is at:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264194537_The_La_Bastida_fortification_new_light_and_new_questions_on_Early_Bronze_Age_societies_in_the_western_Mediterranean

The above-linked paper indicates that during Phase 1 of La Bastida (2200-2025 BC), the Guadelentin-Segura river drainage region came under proto-El Argar control.  In that first phase, the La Bastida site had wooden buildings.

The first phase of La Bastida resembles Critias 113c and 115b, which report that:  the earliest phase of Atlantis society started building on a low hill; then Atlantean society opened a large channel to the sea (i.e. a large waterway, resembling the Segura river in Argar society).   

The Guadalentin river was Europe's closest equivalent to the Nile river of Egypt.  Both of these rivers overflow their banks in recurring floods, thus depositing new soil.  Also, Argar society was located in the most arid part of Spain (which thus resembles the arid situation of Egypt).  El Argar society farmed almost entirely barley; so El Argar society is described as a mono-culture. 

The early half of Egypt's Middle Kingdom was contemporary with Phases 1 and 2 of La Bastida.  In that era, Middle Kingdom Egypt developed a religious concept that Egyptian nobles could travel to the far west and grow barley to glorify the sun god Re.  Egypt's terminology called the far western place Sekhet Hetep ("field of peace").   



In phase 2 at La Bastida (2025-1900 BC), large stone buildings replaced the previous wooden buildings. 

The above expansion maps show that territory controlled by proto-Argar society expanded up the Almanzora river drainage region (i.e. expanded upstream from the actual type-site named El Argar).  While crossing a saddle between two mountain ranges at the head of Almanzoroa river (Estansias mountains on the north, and Filabres mountains on the south); this westward proto-Argar territorial expansion moved into highland tributaries of the Guadalquivir river, contemporary with Phase 2 of La Bastida, 2025-1900 BC.

This second phase of proto-Argar expansion resembles Crit 114b, which reports that the Atlantean society established Eumelus/Gadeirus (a twin brother of Atlas) as the supervisor for a region bounded by Cadiz and the Guadalquivir river.  This second phase of proto-Argar expansion (2025-1900 BC) was mostly a trading-post style of activity.  (i.e. Argar society did not conquer and control the lower Guadalquivir river basin.)  Argar people could acquire silver in such trade with the Guadalquivir basin.  At that time, Egypt was valuing silver greater than gold; but silver was plentiful in southwest Spain.  The key to make such metal trade successful (or profitable) was a Middle Minoan  transportation network, which reached from Argar society to Middle Kingdom Egypt. 

The above expansion maps also show that Phase 2 of the La Bastida site was a time when proto-Argar society took control of the region that been previous headquarters for Spain's Los Millares society.   


Phase 3 of the La  Bastida site (1900 BC to 1600/1550 BC) corresponds to full blown El Argar culture, often called El Argar A by archaeologists.  El Argar A society collapsed rapidly at approximately 1550 BC. 

The later El Argar B society collapsed about 1300 BC.
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atalante
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« Reply #6 on: October 21, 2017, 06:54:18 pm »

Archaeologists have documented that southeastern Spain contained a lot of silver.  And Spain's silver had been in use, in Spain, during the El Argar era.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260249143_The_silver_of_the_South_Iberian_El_Argar_Culture_A_first_look_at_production_and_distribution/links/02e7e53053aaaaff17000000/images/2.png

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260249143_The_silver_of_the_South_Iberian_El_Argar_Culture_A_first_look_at_production_and_distribution/links/02e7e53053aaaaff17000000/images/2.png
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atalante
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« Reply #7 on: October 21, 2017, 07:18:02 pm »

I am still filling in background material, BEFORE reaching the chronological era of the Sea Peoples. 

Here is a paper that is very thorough examination of the breakdown era of Argar A culture, leading up to 1550 BC. http://www.academia....end_of_El_Argar

http://www.academia....end_of_El_Argar

In Argar A, the society was led by a very militaristic hierarchy.

The paper shows that common people had a deteriorating lifestyle, working harder as the arid conditions in southeast Spain became more severe. Ultimately, some kind of revolt occurred - and changed the burial customs, after the previous ruling class was overthrown.

The site of a 1550 BC earthquake (Tira del Lienzo) is item #9 in the map named Figure 2, in my link above. But the earthquake is probably not mentioned in the above link.

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atalante
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« Reply #8 on: October 21, 2017, 07:24:48 pm »

(Hopefully I have the link properly in this post.)
I am still filling in background material, BEFORE reaching the chronological era of the Sea Peoples. 

Here is a paper that is very thorough examination of the breakdown era of Argar A culture, leading up to 1550 BC.
https://www.academia.edu/5359180/Political_collapse_and_social_change_at_the_end_of_El_Argar


In Argar A, the society was led by a very militaristic hierarchy.

The paper shows that common people had a deteriorating lifestyle, working harder as the arid conditions in southeast Spain became more severe. Ultimately, some kind of revolt occurred - and changed the burial customs, after the previous ruling class was overthrown.

The site of a 1550 BC earthquake (Tira del Lienzo) is item #9 in the map named Figure 2, in my link above. But the earthquake is probably not mentioned in the above link.


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atalante
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« Reply #9 on: October 22, 2017, 10:30:37 am »

quote from:  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/gea.21505/abstract

An archaeoseismological study of Tira del Lienzo (Totana, Spain) was undertaken. The site belongs to the Argar archaeological group (2200–1550 cal. B.C.; Bronze Age). It is located on the trace of the reverse left-lateral Alhama de Murcia fault (AMF) that was responsible for the 5.1 Mw 2011 Lorca earthquake. The constructive typology of the site consists of mortar-free irregular natural boulders (dry-set masonry) and differs from earlier archaeoseismological sites built on regular masonry constructions in the Betic Cordillera. Four Earthquake Archaeological Effects (EAEs) were identified as follows: (1) an apparent surface rupture (c. 18 cm left-lateral offset), (2) the differential coseismic uplift of several centimeters affecting the main building of the settlement, (3) the widespread development of fractures on the ground surface (ground cracks) in a NE-SW direction consistent with the kinematics of the AMF, and (4) fractures in boulders that constitute the remains of the dry stone walls at the site. Structural analysis of the two fracture types reveals two nearly orthogonal sets (NE-SW and NW-SE), matching the strike-slip kinematics of the AMF in the zone.  Archaeoseismic evidence and related radiocarbon dates of the different building phases of the Bronze Age site indicate the probable occurrence of at least one strong seismic event (6.3–6.5 Mw; IX ESI-07) around 1550 cal. B.C., or soon after, triggering the destruction and probably the eventual abandonment of the site. We have identified an ancient lost earthquake from the Bronze Age and report the first archaeoseismological evidence of surface rupture in the Iberian Peninsula. This study also provides the first numerical data in the Totana-Alhama segment of the AMF based on the recorded archaeoseismic displacements. These data allowed us to characterize the related slip rates (0.05 mm/yr) to define the seismic potential of the analyzed fault segment of the AMF, which was poorly defined by previous seismic and geological data.

endquote
 
The estimated strength of that 1550 BC earthquake is similar to the 1994 AD Northridge earthquake (6.7 Mw) which hospitalized 1600 people in a densely populated area of the US.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1994_Northridge_earthquake
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