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FEB. 12, 2009 - THE BICENTENNIAL OF PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S BIRTH

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Author Topic: FEB. 12, 2009 - THE BICENTENNIAL OF PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S BIRTH  (Read 2151 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #30 on: February 10, 2009, 10:04:18 am »





                 

                  One of the last pictures of Abraham Lincoln,
                  probably taken in April 1865
« Last Edit: February 10, 2009, 10:06:40 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #31 on: February 10, 2009, 10:09:34 am »









Lincoln's rhetoric defined the issues of the war for the nation, the world, and posterity. The Gettysburg Address defied Lincoln's own prediction that "the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here." His second inaugural address is also greatly admired and often quoted.

In recent years, historians have stressed Lincoln's use of and redefinition of republican values. As early as the 1850s, a time when most political rhetoric focused on the sanctity of the Constitution, Lincoln shifted emphasis to the Declaration of Independence as the foundation of American political values — what he called the "sheet anchor" of republicanism.

The Declaration's emphasis on freedom and equality for all, rather than the Constitution's tolerance of slavers, shifted the debate. As Diggins concludes regarding the highly influential Cooper Union speech, "Lincoln presented Americans a theory of history that offers a profound contribution to the theory and destiny of republicanism itself."  His position gained strength because he highlighted the moral basis of republicanism, rather than its legalisms.

Nevertheless, in 1861 Lincoln justified the war in terms of legalisms (the Constitution was a contract, and for one party to get out of a contract all the other parties had to agree), and then in terms of the national duty to guarantee a "republican form of government" in every state.  That duty was also the principle underlying federal intervention in Reconstruction.

In his Gettysburg Address Lincoln redefined the American nation, arguing that it was born not in 1789 but in 1776, "conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal." He declared that the sacrifices of battle had rededicated the nation to the propositions of democracy and equality, "that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." By emphasizing the centrality of the nation, he rebuffed the claims of state sovereignty. While some critics say Lincoln moved too far and too fast, they agree that he dedicated the nation to values that marked "a new founding of the nation."
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« Reply #32 on: February 10, 2009, 10:17:41 am »









During the Civil War, Lincoln appropriated powers no previous President had wielded: he used his war powers to proclaim a blockade, suspended the writ of habeas corpus, spent money before Congress appropriated it, and imprisoned 18,000 suspected Confederate sympathizers without trial.



Lincoln believed in the Whig theory of the presidency, which left Congress to write the laws while he signed them, vetoing only those bills that threatened his war powers. Thus, he signed the Homestead Act in 1862, making millions of acres of government-held land in the West available for purchase at very low cost.

The Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act, also signed in 1862, provided government grants for agricultural universities in each state.

The Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864 granted federal support for the construction of the United States' First Transcontinental Railroad, which was completed in 1869.

Other important legislation involved economic matters, including the first income tax and higher tariffs. Also included was the creation of the system of national banks by the National Banking Acts of 1863, 1864, and 1865, which allowed the creation of a strong national financial system.

Congress created and Lincoln approved the Department of Agriculture in 1862, although that institution would not become a Cabinet-level department until 1889.

The Legal Tender Act of 1862 established the United States Note, the first paper currency in United States history. This was done to increase the money supply to pay for fighting the war.

During the war, Lincoln's Treasury Department effectively controlled all cotton trade in the occupied South — the most dramatic incursion of federal controls on the economy.

In 1862, Lincoln sent a senior general, John Pope, to put down the "Sioux Uprising" in Minnesota. Presented with 303 death warrants for convicted Santee Dakota who were accused of killing innocent farmers; Lincoln affirmed 39 of these for execution (one was later reprieved).

Prior to Lincoln's presidency, the Thanksgiving holiday, while a regional holiday in New England since the 17th century, had only been proclaimed by the federal government sporadically, the last such proclamation having come during James Madison's presidency.

In 1863, Lincoln declared the final Thursday in November to be a day of Thanksgiving, and the holiday has been celebrated annually at that time ever since.
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« Reply #33 on: February 10, 2009, 10:20:10 am »

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« Reply #34 on: February 10, 2009, 10:24:44 am »










Originally, John Wilkes Booth, a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland, had formulated a plan to kidnap Lincoln in exchange for the release of Confederate prisoners.

After attending an April 11 speech in which Lincoln promoted voting rights for blacks, an incensed Booth changed his plans and determined to assassinate the president.

Learning that the President and First Lady would be attending Ford's Theatre, he laid his plans, assigning his co-conspirators to assassinate Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward.

Without his main bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon, to whom he related his famous dream regarding his own assassination, Lincoln left to attend the play Our American Cousin on April 14, 1865.

As a lone bodyguard wandered, and Lincoln sat in his state box (Box 7) in the balcony, Booth crept up behind the President and waited for what he thought would be the funniest line of the play ("You sock-dologizing old man-trap"), hoping the laughter would muffle the noise of the gunshot. When the laughter began, Booth jumped into the box and aimed a single-shot, round-slug 0.44 caliber Derringer at his head, firing at point-blank range.

Major Henry Rathbone momentarily grappled with Booth but was cut by Booth's knife. Booth then leaped to the stage and shouted "Sic semper tyrannis!" (Latin: Thus always to tyrants) and escaped, despite a broken leg suffered in the leap.

A twelve-day manhunt ensued, in which Booth was chased by Federal agents (under the direction of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton).

He was eventually cornered in a Virginia barn house and shot, dying of his wounds soon after.
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« Reply #35 on: February 10, 2009, 10:26:23 am »

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« Reply #36 on: February 10, 2009, 10:29:05 am »









An army surgeon, Doctor Charles Leale, initially assessed Lincoln's wound as mortal.

The President was taken across the street from the theater to the Petersen House, where he lay in a coma for nine hours before dying.

Several physicians attended Lincoln, including U.S. Army Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes of the Army Medical Museum. Using a probe, Barnes located some fragments of Lincoln's skull and the ball lodged 6 inches (15 cm) inside his brain.

Lincoln never regained consciousness and was pronounced dead at 7:22:10 a.m. April 15, 1865.

He was the first president to be assassinated or to lie in state.

Lincoln's body was carried by train in a grand funeral procession through several states on its way back to Illinois.[62] While much of the nation mourned him as the savior of the United States, Copperheads celebrated the death of a man they considered a tyrant.

The Lincoln Tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, is 177 feet (54 m) tall and, by 1874, was surmounted with several bronze statues of Lincoln.

To prevent repeated attempts to steal Lincoln's body and hold it for ransom, Robert Todd Lincoln had Lincoln exhumed and reinterred in concrete several feet thick in 1901.
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« Reply #37 on: February 10, 2009, 10:31:56 am »










Books referenced



Basler, Roy P. (1946), Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings .

Basler, Roy P. (1955), Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press 

Donald, David Herbert (1995), Lincoln, New York: Simon and Schuster 

Foner, Eric (1970), Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War 

Jaffa, Harry V. (2000), A New Birth of Freedom: Abraham Lincoln and the Coming of the Civil War, Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-8476-9952-8 .
 
Goodwin, Doris Kearns (2005), Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-82490-6 .

Guelzo, Allen C. (1999), Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President, Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B.

 Eerdmans Pub. Co, ISBN 0-8028-3872-3, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99466893 

Holzer, Harold (2004), Lincoln at Cooper Union: The Speech That Made Abraham Lincoln President .

McPherson, James M. (1992), Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution .

Miller, William Lee (2002), Lincoln's Virtues: An Ethical Biography, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN 0-375-40158-X 

Sandburg, Carl (1974), Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years and The War Years, Harvest Books, ISBN 0156026112 .

Thomas, Benjamin P. (1952), Abraham Lincoln: A Biography, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=25051697 .

Wills, Garry (1993), Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-86742-3 .

Wilson, Douglas L. (1999), Honor's Voice: The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln .



RETRIEVED FROM

wikipedia.org
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« Reply #38 on: February 14, 2009, 09:15:09 pm »











External links
Find more about Abraham Lincoln on Wikipedia's sister projects:
 Definitions from Wiktionary

 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews


 Learning resources from WikiversityAbraham Lincoln at the Open Directory Project
Abraham Lincoln at the Open Directory Project – Speeches and writings
The Life of Lincoln by Henry Ketcham — Free full-length recording
Lincoln and the Moral Imagination, City Journal online, 2-11-09
Lincoln Studies Center at Knox College
Photographs of Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
The Lincoln Institute
Mr. Lincoln's Virtual Library
Poetry written by Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln quotes collected by Roger Norton
The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum Springfield, Illinois
The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln
President Lincoln’s Cottage
US PATNo. 6,469  — Manner of Buoying Vessels — A. Lincoln — 1849
Lincoln's Patent
National Park Service Abraham Lincoln birthplace (includes good early history)
National Endowment for the Humanities Spotlight – Abraham Lincoln
Research Center provides finding aid to article subject from the Special Collections, Washington State Historical Society (WSHS)
The Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission
Lincoln Memorial Washington, DC
Digitized books about Abraham Lincoln from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library
Lincoln/Net: Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University Libraries
Lincoln Home National Historic Site:A Place of Growth and Memory, lesson plan
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Forging Greatness during Lincoln's Youth, lesson plan
Abraham Lincoln: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress
Essay on Abraham Lincoln and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs
Project Gutenberg eTexts

List of Works by Abraham Lincoln at Project Gutenberg
Richardson, James D. (compiler). A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents and more: Volume 6, part 1: Abraham Lincoln. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12462.  includes major (and minor) state papers, but not speeches or letters
Lincoln's Yarns and Stories. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/2517
Hay, John; John George Nicolay (1890). Abraham Lincoln: a History.  "Volume 1". http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/6812.  to 1856; coverage of national politics. "Volume 2". http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/11708.  (1832 to 1901) ; covers 1856 to early 1861; coverage of national politics; part of 10 volume "life and times" by Lincoln's aides
Nicolay, Helen (1907). The Boys' Life of Abraham Lincoln. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1815.  (1866 to 1954)
Ketcham, Henry (1901). The Life of Abraham Lincoln. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/6811.  ; popular
Morse, John T. (1899). Abraham Lincoln.  ; a solid scholarly biography "Volume 1". http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12800. "Volume 2". http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12801
Francis Fisher Browne (1913). The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14004.  ; popular
George Haven Putnam, Litt. D. (1909). Abraham Lincoln: The People's Leader in the Struggle for National Existence. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/11728
Stephenson, Nathaniel W. (1922). Lincoln's Personal Life. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1713.  ; popular
Benson (Lorn Charnwood), Godfrey Rathbone (1917). Abraham Lincoln. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/18379
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