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Osiris - A real Pharaoh?

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Val
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« Reply #15 on: August 22, 2015, 02:21:42 am »

there is this Temple of Djer, which was discovered by Emile Amelineau and was erraneously stated that the temple was of Osiris.

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/djertomb.htm

have a read.
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the 300 Spartans
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« Reply #16 on: August 22, 2015, 02:28:29 am »

Almost none of the myths pertaining to Osiris with which modern laypeople are familiar, existed in the earlier periods of pharaonic history. The cult of Osiris did not truly begin to develop until some time in the First Intermediate Period. It had largely matured, although not fully, by Dynasty 12 in the Middle Kingdom. Even when Osiris first appears in detail, in the Pyramid Texts at the end of Dynasty 5, he is sketchily presented at best.

Atum and Ra go back to the predynstic period, as does Min. This is one example where archaeology meshes perfectly with the ancient mythology—Atum was the first god (according to the Heliopolis cult). Atum is an aspect of Re. Obviously Ra came first because Osiris originated from his line—in the mythology. I keep stressing that because cults and myths were different in certain important centers in ancient Egypt. In truth, by all appearances, Osiris arose in the south, but by that time Ra had already been in the pantheon for centuries.

There is no evidence at any point in the predynastic period that a chieftain named Osiris existed.
« Last Edit: August 22, 2015, 02:31:47 am by the 300 Spartans » Report Spam   Logged
Quest for Tomorrow
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« Reply #17 on: August 22, 2015, 02:38:18 am »

I strongly recommend you the book Prehistoric Dacia by late prof Nicolae Densusianu. It`s all free on the web at www.dacia.org/densusianu/pd.pdf. There you can learn about Osiris`s military campaigns against Seth (here called Typhoon) that took place on the North of the Danube (Istru). The Danube by then was collecting waters from the sea that filled the nowadays Pannonic Plain and was emptying it`s waters through an estuary in the Black Sea, initially a sweet water lake.
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Raissa
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« Reply #18 on: August 22, 2015, 02:44:27 am »

Egypt did not display perfectly linear development of religious thought patterns.

In regards to Osiris, his symbols (crook and flail,   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crook_and_flail ) represented what, today, is called the "neolithic package" of "crops and domesticated animals".  And in particular, Osiris was famed for introducing barley into Egypt.  Barley belongs in the "neolithic package". 

In Heliopolitan (Ennead) cosmology, it is said that Osiris took over Egypt from the primitive "goose god", Geb.  (Notably, a goose is not part of what, today, is called the neolithic package.)   

The ancient Egyptians somehow convinced themselves that Osiris's "barley" (and the neolithic package of domesticated crops and animals) had originated in Egypt.  For example, Egyptian myths claimed that Osiris left Isis in charge of Egypt -- while Osiris toured around the world, spreading a neolithic lifestyle around the world. 

But this simple-minded Egyptian theme about Osiris started being shaken to its roots when artisans (from across the Levant) were imported to work on Egyptian king Amenemhet III's huge construction projects. 

At about that time of importing foreign laborers, a "Syrian homeland of natural-growing barley" would have started to make a mark on Egyptian consciousness.  Not only does barley grow wild near Syria -- but also, barley is called by a word that sounds like Osir in Semitic languages (which are spoken in a wide region around Syria).

Apparently, understanding that a natural homeland for barley had been in-or-near Syria rocked the foundations of Egypt's Osiris religion.  From a chronological standpoint, this set the stage for Egypt's Second Intermediate Period -- when it became acceptable in the Nile Delta to believe that Osiris and his brother Set had originated outside Egypt (i.e. near Syria).  Some such viewpoint was held among people whom Egypt called Hyksos. 

After the Hyksos were driven out of Egypt -- Set became regarded as an evil being, but Osiris religion was revived in Egypt. 

Then another innovation occurred in Egyptian religious outlooks (to counterbalance northern influences).  In the 18th dynasty, a primitive Egyptian deity Min (and Thebes's god Amon) became identified with a pinnacle at Gebel Barkal, in the far south of Nubia.  http://www.jebelbarkal.org/
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Socrates
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« Reply #19 on: August 22, 2015, 02:48:14 am »



Quote about Amenemhet III's imported labor (and also about the earliest inscription in a Semitic language), from: 

http://members.bib-arch.org/publication.asp?PubID=BSBA&Volume=36&Issue=02&ArticleID=06
Quote
More than a century later, however, Egyptian policy toward the Asiatics changed. Instead of trying to prevent them from coming in, the Egyptians cultivated close relations with strong Canaanite city-states on the Mediterranean coast and allowed select Asiatic populations to settle in the eastern Delta. The last of the great pharaohs of the XIIth Dynasty, Amenemhet III (c. 1853–1808 B.C.E.) and Amenemhet IV (c. 1808–1799 B.C.E.), even established a new town for them.
The XIIth Dynasty was followed by the much weaker XIIIth Dynasty. Thousands of immigrants from Syria, Lebanon and Canaan then flooded into the eastern Delta, creating the large Canaanite settlement that would become Avaris (modern Tell el-Daba), the capital of the famous Hyksos.
......The alphabet was invented in this way by Canaanites at Serabit in the Middle Bronze Age, in the middle of the 19th century B.C.E., probably during the reign of Amenemhet III of the XIIth Dynasty.

« Last Edit: August 22, 2015, 02:54:04 am by Socrates » Report Spam   Logged
Arturo
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« Reply #20 on: August 22, 2015, 03:02:43 am »

I remember reading about Osiris as a king and looked it up again...

Diodorus Siculus wrote in the 1st chapter of the 1st book of Bibliotheca historica that Osiris was known as Dionysus/ Sirius/Phanetes......

Quote
The Sun and the Moon, the first of which they call'd Osiris, and the other Isis, both Names having proper Etymologies; for Osiris in the Greek Language, signifies a Thing with many Eyes, which may be very properly apply'd to the Sun darting his Rays into every Corner, and as it were with so many Eyes view∣ing and surveying the whole Land and Sea, with which agrees the Poet,
The Sun from's lofty Sphear all sees and hears.
Some also of the antient Greek Mythologists call Osiris Dionysus, and sirname him Sirius, amongst whom Eumolphus in his Bacchanal Verses,
Dionysus darts his Fiery Rays.
And Orpheus;
He's call'd Phanetes and Dionysus.
ome likewise set him forth cloath'd with the spotted Skin of a Fawn (call'd Nebris) from the variety of Stars that surround him.

Afterwards they say Saturn reign'd, and marry'd his Sister *Rhea, and that he begat of her Osiris and Isis; but others say, Jupiter and Juno, who for their great Virtues, rul'd over all the World. That of Jupiter and Juno were born Five Gods, one upon every day of the Five Egyptian† intercalary Days. The Names of these Gods are Osiris, Isis, Typhon, Apollo and Venus. That Osiris was interpreted Bacchus, and Isis plainly Ceres. That Osiris marry'd Isis, and after he came to the

Kingdom, did much, and perform'd many things for the com∣mon * Benefit and Advantage of Mankind. For he was the first that forbad Men eating one another; and at the same time Isis found out the way of making of Bread of Wheat and Barley, which before grew here and there in the Fields amongst other common Herbs and Grass, and the use of it unknown: And O∣siris teaching the way and manner of Tillage, and well ma∣nagement of the Fruits of the Earth, this change of Food became grateful; both because it was naturally sweet and delicious, and Men were thereby restrain'd from the mutual Butcheries one of another: For an evidence of this first finding out the use of these Fruits, they alledge an antient Custom amongst them: For even at this day, in the time of Harvest, the Inhabitants offer the first Fruits of the Ears of Corn, howling and wailing about the Handfuls they offer, and in∣voking this Goddess Isis: And this they do in return of due Honour to her for that Invention at the first. In some Cities also, when they celebrate the Feast of Isis in a Pompous Procession, they carry about Vessels of Wheat and Barley, in memory of the first Invention, by the care and industry of this Goddess. They say likewise, that Isis made many Laws for the good of Human Society, where∣by Men were restrain'd from lawless Force and Violence one upon another, out of fear of Punishment. And therefore Ceres was call'd by the ancient Greeks, The∣mophorus (that is) Lawgiver, being the Princess that first constituted Laws for the better Government of her People.

Osiris moreover built Thebes in Egypt, with an Hundred Gates, and call'd it * after his Mother's Name: But in following Times, it was call'd Diospolis, and Thebes; of whose first Founder not only Historians, but the Priests of Egypt themselves, are much in doubt. For some say that it was not built by Osiris, but many Years after by a King of Egypt, whose History we shall treat of hereafter in its proper place. They report likewise, that he built Two magnificent Temples, and De∣dicated them to his Parents, Jupiter and Juno; and likewise Two Golden * Altars, the greater to the great God Jupiter; the other to his Father Jupiter, who had formerly reign'd there, whom they call Ammon. That he also erected Golden Altars to other Gods, and instituted their several Rites of Worship, and ap∣pointed Priests to have the Oversight and Care of the Holy things. In the time of Osiris and Isis, Projectors and ingenious Artists were in great Honour and E∣steem; and therefore in Thebes there were then Goldsmiths and Braziers, who made Arms and Weapons for the Killing of Wild Beasts, and other Instruments for the husbanding of the Ground, and improvement of Tillage; besides Images of the Gods, and Altars in Gold. They say that Osiris was much given to Hus∣bandry, that he was the Son of Jupiter, brought up in Nisa, a Town of Arabia the Happy, near to Egypt, call'd by the Greeks Dionysus, from his Father, and the Place of his Education. * The Poet in his Hymns makes mention of Nysa, as bordering upon Egypt, where he says,


Far off from Phenice stands the Sacred Nyse,
Where Streams of Eygypt's Nile begin to rise,
On Mountain high with pleasant Woods adorn'd.

Here near unto Nyse, (they say) he found out the use of the Vine, and there planting it, was the first that drank Wine; and taught others how to plant it and use it, and to gather in their Vintage, and to keep and preserve it. Above all o∣thers, he most honoured †Hermes, one of an admirable Ingenuity, and quick Invention, in finding out what might be useful to Mankind. This Hermes was the first (as they report) that taught how to speak distinctly and articulately, and gave Names to many things that had none before. He found out Letters, and instituted the Worship of the Gods; and was the first that observ'd the Motion of the Stars, and invented Musick; and taught the manner of Wrestling; and in∣vented Arithmetick, and the Art of curious * Graving and Cutting of Statues. He first found out the Harp with Three Strings, in resemblance of the Three Seasons of the Year, causing Three several Sounds, the Treble, Base and Mean. The Treble,to represent the Summer; The Base, the Winter; and the Mean, the Spring. He was the first that taught the Greeks Eloquence; thence he's call'd Hermes, a Speaker or Interpreter. To conclude, he was Osiris's * Sacred Scribe, to whom he communicated all his Secrets, and was chiefly steer'd by his Advice in every thing. He (not Minerva, as the Greeks affirm) found out the use of the Olive-tree, for the making of Oyl. It's moreover reported, that Osiris being a Prince of a publick Spirit, and very ambitious of Glory, rais'd a great Army, with which he resolv'd to go through all parts of the World that were inhabited, and to teach Men how to plant Vines, and to sow Wheat and Barly. For he hop'd that if he could civilize Men, and take them off from their rude and Beast-like Course of Lives, by such a publick good and advantage, he should raise a Foun∣dation amongst all Mankind, for his immortal Praise and Honour, which happen'd accordingly. For not only that Age, but Posterity ever after honour'd those among the chiefest of their Gods, that first found out their proper and ordinary Food. Having therefore settl'd his Affairs in Egypt, and committed the Government of his whole Kingdom to his Wife Isis, he join'd with her Mercury, as her chief Councellor of State, because he far excell'd all others in Wisdom and Prudence. But Hercules his near Kinsman, he left General of all his Forces within his Do∣minions, a Man admir'd by all for his Valour and Strength of Body. As to those parts which lay near Phaenicia, and upon the Sea-Coasts of them, he made Busiris Lord Lieutenant, and of Ethiopia and Lybia, Anteus.

Then marching out of Egypt, he began his Expedition, taking along with him his Brother, whom the Greeks call'd Apollo. This Apollo is reported to have dis∣cover'd the Laurel-Tree, which all Dedicate especially to this God. To Osiris they attribute the finding out of the Ivy-Tree, and dedicate it to him, as the Greeks do to Bacchus: And therefore in the Egyptian Tongue, they call Ivy Osiris's Plant, which they prefer before the Vine in all their Sacrifices, because this loses its Leaves, and the other always continues fresh and green: Which Rule the An∣cients have observ'd in other Plants, that are always green, dedicating Mirtle to Venus, Laurel to Apollo, and the Olive-Tree to Pallas.

It's said, that Two of his Sons accompany'd their Father Osiris in this Expedi∣tion, one call'd Anubis, and the other Macedo, both valiant Men: Both of them wore Coats of Mail, that were extraordinary remarkable, cover'd with the Skins of such Creatures as resembled them in Stoutness and Valour. Anubis was cover'd with a Dog's, and Macedon with the Skin of a Wolf; and for this reason these Beasts are religiously ador'd by the Egyptians. He had likewise for his Companion, †Pan, whom the Egyptians have in great Veneration; for they not only set up I∣mages and Statues up and down in every Temple, but built a City in Thebides after his Name, call'd by the Inhabitants † Chemmin, which by interpretation is *Pan's City. There went along with them likewise those that were skilful in Husbandry, as Maro in the planting of Vines, and Triptolemus in sowing of Corn, and gathering in the Harvest.

http://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo/A36034.0001.001/1:7.1.1?rgn=div3;view=fulltext
« Last Edit: August 22, 2015, 03:05:57 am by Arturo » Report Spam   Logged
Arturo
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« Reply #21 on: August 22, 2015, 03:08:12 am »

For dynastic Egypt, the origins of Osiris (as mythical father of Horus) are linked to the introduction of barley into Egypt, which occurred ca. 4000 BC. 


Osiris was most closely connected with barley agriculture.  But symbolically,  Osiris also represented germination of any kind throughout the land -- beginning from the time when barley was introduced into Egypt, in the Naqada periods, ca 4000 BC.

While barley was spreading rapidly throughout Egypt (and becoming the major grain crop in Egypt), Hierakonpolis (Nekken) quickly became the largest city in Egypt, by 3500 BC. At that time, Hierakonpolis's population was swelled by bands of people migrating into the Nile valley from outlying areas.  http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/hierakonpolis.htm
Hierakonpolis was a city whose totem was the falcon, personified by the falcon-god Horus. 

Based on the barley-revolution that was taking place throughout Egypt during the Naqada periods (and the rapid growth of Horus's city Hierakonpolis) -- it is entirely fitting that Egypt eventually developed a mythology where Horus was called the "son" of (barley) Osiris. 



quote about Osiris as both a barley-god and an agricultural germination god, from:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/nile_01.shtml

Osiris, however, did not return to this world but became king of the underworld. His death and revival were linked to the land's fertility. In a festival celebrated during the inundation, damp mud figures of Osiris were planted with barley, whose germination stood for the revival both of the god and of the land.
endquote



quote about bringing barley to Egypt from the place where barley was originally domesticated:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1783110/

...The earliest domesticated barley (9,500–8,400 yBP) also had two-rowed spikes; cultivation of six-rowed barley started later, with estimated dates ranging from 8,800 to 8,000 yBP (1, 11). Around 7,000–6,000 yBP, when barley was cultivated in the alluvial soils of Mesopotamia and, later, in the soils of Lower Egypt, six-rowed barley soon became dominant, replaced two-rowed barley, and established itself as the most important crop for Near Eastern Neolithic civilizations (1, 11,12).
endquote

quote about a) Egypt's INDIGENOUS MILLET; B) introducing barley into Egypt ca 4000 BC; and c) that barley quickly more-than-doubled the grain production in Egypt; from:  http://www.berg1a.freeserve.co.uk/Java%20Out%20Home%20Page/Cereals.HTM
....Wild millet and wild sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, also referred to as Kaffir corn or durra) were indigenous to Egypt..... 
[note:  Geese eat millet; and geese were the symbol of Geb, the ruler of Egypt who preceeded Osiris in Heliopolitan cosmology.  Today millet is only sold by pet stores and used as bird-feed. ] 
In legend the cultivation of cereals was introduced into Egypt during the mythical reign of King Osiris. The myth of Osiris claims that after his death his body was dismembered and scattered throughout Egypt. This could represent the sowing or winnowing of the grain. The death and resurrection of Osiris could symbolize the annual harvest, in which the cereal is destroyed and sowing, in which the seed is buried, then a few months later the cereal returns from the dead. In mythical terms this is a resurrection and a regeneration.
Historically cereals were first cultivated in the Fayum region of Egypt (just below the Nile delta) around 5,000 B.C. This was triggered by the introduction of domesticated animals from Mesopotamia. These animals were draughted into tilling the land and threshing the corn.
B) Type of cereals
The main cereals grown were barley and wheat, but there is some doubt whether millet was grown in pre-dynastic Egypt as the millet found might have been wild millet. Sorghum was also cultivated and used by poorer people for bread and cakes. Originally only emmer wheat was grown but around 4,000 B.C. barley was introduced and soon accounted for about sixty percent of the corn harvest. In ancient Egypt corn referred both to barley and wheat.

[note:  As stated in the previous paragraph, barley (which Osiris personified) was introduced into Egypt at 4000 BC, and quickly revolutionized Egyptian agriculture.  This agricultural revolution, due to barley, occurred during the Naqada I, II and III periods of Egyptian history.  ]

c) Origins of corn
The most ancient type of wheat was einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum), which started life as a wild wheat in northwestern Turkey. This wheat became useful as a food because the chaff and grain could easily be separated. Einkorn wheat has only one grain per ear and 7 chromosomes, but is still cultivated on poor soils. After wheat was cultivated, emmer wheat (Triticum diccoccum), from Armenia and northeastern Turkey, was found to produce higher yields than einkorn, if cultivated on favourable soils. It was the emmer variety which was grown in Mesopotamia then introduced into Egypt. Unlike einkorn, cultivated emmer is double grained and has 14 chromosomes.
Emmer wheat was grown in Egypt from pre-dynastic times until common wheat (Triticum aestivum) was introduced after the Persian invasion. Common wheat originated on the Russian steppes and unlike emmer, strains of common wheat can be grown as hard wheat.
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