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Reimagining the Ancient World

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Author Topic: Reimagining the Ancient World  (Read 4972 times)
Felecia
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« on: February 21, 2007, 01:08:14 pm »

Hello again to everyone.

If we follow the traditional timeline of ancient history, it reads something like this:

Ancient History Timeline

c6500-2900 BC
NEOLITHIC PERIOD- Domestication of plants and animals allows for permanent settlements.


3000 BC Menes unifies Upper and Lower Egypt, and a new capital is erected at Memphis.


c3100-2686 BC Early Egyptian dynastic period, with a succession of kings that strengthened the unification of the two Egypts.

c2900-2000 BC
Bronze Age- Early Aegean cultures


2700 BC 365 -day calendar is invented ( for Egyptians new year started with June)


2900 BC First Egyptian hieroglyphs


c2686-2613 BC Third Egyptian Dynasty

Zoser builds first pyramid, Step Pyramid at Sakkara, with the great help of the chief architect and priest Imhotep.


2600 BC Kufu (Cheops) builds the great Pyramid at Giza, followed by Chephren with a second pyramid and the Sphinx and Mycerinus with another pyramid.

c2500 BC
Minoan civilization develops.


c2494-2345 BC During the 5th Egyptian dynasty, worship of sun god Ra becomes the predominant religion.


c2181-2040 BC FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD of EGYPT- increases in power of provincial governors through the 6th dynasty, leads to breakdown of central authority and chaos throughout the country. This is the period of the upsurge of the cult of Osiris.


c2100 BC Mentuhotep II, first king of the 11th dynasty reunites Egypt, and established the capital at Thebes.


C1700-1550 BC SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD. 13th dynasty collapses after a succession of short-lived and little known kings.


C1674 BC Memphis falls to Hyksos.


C1550-1085 BC NEW KINGDOM of EGYPT-Ahmose completes defeat of Hyksos and unites Egypt under new dynasty.


1512-1448 BC During Tuthmosis III, Egyptian rule is extended as far as the Euphrates River to the east and south to the Fourth Cataract of the Nile.


c1450 BC Tuthmosis IV digs the Sphinx out of the sands.

c1400 BC
Volcanic eruption on Thera destroys Mycenae.


1391-1358 BC Amenhotep IV changes name to Akhenaten and tries to institute a monotheistic religion by worshipping only the sun-disk god Aten.

1375-50 BC
Mycenaean customs appear on Crete.


1368-1349 BC Tutankhamen restores the old cults at Thebes, but shortly after is assasinated.


c1299 BC Ramesses II fights Hitties at the Battle of Kadesh. Builds temples at Thebes and Abu Simbel. He is considered the most prolific pharaoh to construct temples.


1224-1165 BC

Ramesses III repulses invasion of Seas Peoples. He is considered the last great Egyptian pharaoh.

c1200 BC
Destruction of Cretan palaces and of Priam's city at Troy (Ilium).


c1070-712 BC THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD of EGYPT- Ephemeral kings whom little is known. It is a period of overlapping rulers, with no strong central power. Invasion by Assyrians.

c1050-750 BC
EARLY PERIOD of GREECE- First Greek migration to west coast of Asia minor. Few written records of this time period remain. Also, this era is known as the Dark Ages of Greece.

800-700 BC
Italy inhabited by Hellenic and Etruscan people. The land is undeveloped.

776 BC
First Olympic Games

753 BC
Romulus founds Roman culture at the Palatine.

c750-700 BC
Homer writes the Iliad and the Odyssey

c750-500 BC
ARCHAIC PERIOD of GREECE- Greeks search for new land for agriculture. City-states are formed throughout the Mediterranean that function as political units or polis, each ruled by a king and a council.

735-700 BC
First Greek colonies in Sicily.

c730-710 BC
Spartans conquer southwest Peloponnese in the First Messenian War.

c700 BC
Lelantine war in Euboia

c671-667 BC
Assyrians invade Egypt, "sacking" Thebes and Memphis.

736-656 BC
25th dynasty. Egypt ruled by Kushite pharaohs.

540 BC
Anaximander dies. He is credited with writing the first philosophical treatise and making the first map of know world.

525-404 BC
27th dynasty. Conquered by the King Conlyses who establishes first Persian domination of Egypt.

524 BC
Greeks stop the southward Etruscan migration at Cumae.

509 BC
Romans overthrow tyrant Tarquinius Superbus, ending the Etruscan dynasty.

500-323 BC
CLASSICAL PERIOD of GREECE- Interest in literature, artwork, architecture, philosophy, and politics surges during this time period. Athens is the hub of activity throughout the Mediterranean.

490-479 BC
GREEK Persian Wars.

490 BC
First Persian War- Athenians defeat Persians at Marathon.

480 BC
Second Persian War- Persian forces led by Xerxes destroy Athens. Greek forces won a major sea battle at Salamis.

461-446 BC
First of the Peloponnesian Wars begins between Sparta and Athens.

450 BC
ROMAN- Twelve Tables of Roman law are published.

441 BC
Euripides writes his first tragic play.

431-405 BC
Second of the Peloponnesian Wars between Sparta and Athens.

399 BC
Socrates is tried and executed for his opposition to the Thirty Tyrants.

396 BC
The city of Veii is conquered by Romans.

386 BC
Plato, student of Socrates, founds the Academy.

384 BC
Aristotle, student of Plato, is born.

359 BC
Philip II becomes the king of Macedon.

357-356 BC
Social War- between Macedon and Athens.

356 BC
Alexander the Great, son of Philip II, is born. The temple of Delphi is destroyed in the Sacred War.

340 BC
The Latin War begins.

338 BC
King Philip II defeats Athenians and Thebans.

336 BC
King Philip II is assassinated, and Alexander the Great takes throne.

332 BC
Alexander the Great of Macedonia defeats Persians at Issus in 333 BC and is given Egypt by the Persian Satrap. He builds a capital at Alexandria.

332-395 AD
Graeco-Roman Period.

323 BC
Alexander the Great dies at Babylon.

323-31 BC
HELLENISTIC PERIOD. Antigonid Macedon, Ptolemaic Egypt, and Seleucid Syria emerge as the three major kingdoms. Greece suffered from internal revolts.

304-30 BC
The Ptolemies.

264 BC
First Punic War to take Carthage for dominance of Mediterranean.

241 BC
Romans win Sicily.

224 BC
Earthquake destroys the Colossus.

221 BC
The structure Circus Flaminius is built.

218-201 BC
Second Punic War brings the defeat of General Hannibal of Carthage.

197 BC
King Philip V loses to Roman forces at Kynoskephalai.

179 BC
The structure Basilica Aemilia is built.

149-146 BC
Third Punic War ends with the Roman capture of Carthage.

86 BC
Roman General Sulla seizes Athens.

44 BC
The assassination of Julius Caesar marks the end of the Roman Republic.

31 BC
Octavian Caesar defeats Mark Antony and becomes emperor of Roman world. He is given title Augustus.

14 BC
Augustus dies.

41 AD
Gaius Julius, the emperor Caligula, is murdered.

43 AD
Claudius wins victories in Britain.

64 AD
Rome is burnt.

68 AD
Civil War breaks out in Rome.

70 AD
Emperor Titus captures Jerusalem.

97 AD
Death of Nerva.

235-284 AD
Germans, Goths, and Persians attack Rome.

267 AD
Goths ruin Athens, Sparta, and Korinth

284 AD
Diocletian restores order to Rome.

286 AD
Emperor Diocletian divides Roman empire in two, forming modern Greece (the Byzantine Empire)

302 AD
Diocletian banned Christians from the Roman Army.

312 AD
Constantine defeats Maxentius to become absolute ruler of Rome.

337 AD
Constantine dies.

363 AD
Persians capture Mesopotamia.

410 AD
Goths destroy Rome.

476 AD
Western Rome dies.

641 AD
Arab conquest.

641 AD
Slavs overrun Greece

1453 AD
Eastern Rome dissolves.


http://library.thinkquest.org/10805/timeline.html
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Felecia
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« Reply #1 on: February 21, 2007, 01:09:22 pm »

However, if we take into account the ancient texts, back much further and reads something like this:


400,000 B.C. - Homo sapiens - "The transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens, the earliest forms of our own species, occurred approximately 300,000 to 400,000 years ago."

*Commentary: - Adam? - "If [according to popular literary translations of the Holy Bible] Adam was a thinking-feeling type of person with a state of consciousness comparable to Homo sapiens [or Homo sapiens-sapiens], who then [or what] exactly were Neanderthals, Homo erectus, and Lucy, etc?" [Etznab Mathers]

400,000 B.C. - Irish Elk - "Irish Elk [Megaloceros giganteus] lived in temperate climates throughout Europe and western Asia from about this time to a last record in Ireland at 10,600 years ago."

400,000 B.C. - Wolf Bones - "Human and wolf bones have been found in the same place from about this time."


400,000 B.C. - Hearths - "What may be one of Europe's oldest hearths has been found at a 400,000-year-old Stone Age site in southeastern England by archaeologists from Liverpool University. The find consisted of an area of red, baked sediments, whose limited expanse suggests a controlled fire rather than a natural one. The burnt sediments have been removed intact as part of a one-cubic-meter block so laboratory tests can be undertaken to help identify the nature of the burning. The site, near Bury St. Edmunds in Suffolk, was in a favorable spot near a source of water. According to Gowlett, it seems to have been used over centuries during a lull between the Ice Ages, when numerous large mammals, including bear and deer, undoubtedly hunted by early humans, were found in the area. Thousands of flint flakes have been discovered at the camp, the by-products of stone tool manufacturing, and many have been matched to the cores from which they were struck. Human control of fire is well documented at sites dating from 150,000 to 200,000 years ago, and remains of hearths between 300,000 and 400,000 years old have been found at a handful of sites in France, Hungary, and China. If confirmed, this latest find will provide further evidence that early humans had mastered the use of fire, in this case the ancestors of Neandertals in northern Europe."

300,000 B.C. - Prehistoric Rock Art - "The most ancient evidence of the production of art predates the generally accepted earliest dates for the appearance of modern humans. Cup marks and a meandering line were etched into a sandstone cave in India two or three hundred thousand years ago. Line markings on bone, teeth, ivory and bone of equal antiquity are known from the campsites of archaic humans. Sculpture, in the form of modified natural forms, has been dated to 250-300,000 years ago in the Near East." Links: 1

280,000 B.C. - Animal Remains / Los Angeles Bones - "Reportedly, a mastodon tooth and camel jaw of about this time were found in tunnels under Los Angeles in 1997."

278,000 B.C. - Human Remains / China - "The Jinniushan cranium found in 1985 by a student excavation team from Peking University under the direction of Prof. Lu Zun'e, is one of the more recent fossil human specimens discovered in China. The cranium was directly associated with a partial skeleton, including a complete pelvis, portions of the spinal column, and nearly complete hand and foot bones. The remains were recovered from a collapsed limestone cave in Yingkou county, Liaoning. The human bearing deposits have been dated to approximately 250-280,000 years ago. The Jinniushan cranium shows certain derived features that ally it to early forms of H. sapiens. These traits include a cranial capacity within the range of modern people, thin vault bones, an expansion of the parietal region, a more gracile cranial base and a more rounded occipital bone, posteriorly. In other respects it shares features with H. erectus such as projecting brow ridges, low cranial height and an elongate, strongly buttressed cranial vault."

250,000 B.C. - Human Habitation / Siberia - "Russian Archeologist Yuri Mochanov of the Yakutish Academy of Sciences announced the discovery of human habitation in northern Siberia that dated back to at least 30,000 years. More precise techniques later measured the stone artifacts at the site to 250-300,000 years ago."

250,000 B.C. - Evolution / Human Brain - "Reportedly, about this time the human brain size stopped its slow trend toward enlargement. It may correspond with the human attainment of the rudiments of language."

200,000 B.C. - Evolution / Human Speech - "Reportedly, human speech began no earlier than about this time."

200,000 B.C. - Homo Erectus / Java - "In December 1996, skulls found on the Indonesian island of Java suggested that homo erectus [thought to have disappeared about 200,000 years ago] was still in existence 40,000 years ago."

200,000 B.C. - Mu - "Man made his advent on earth about two hundred thousand years ago, on the continent of Mu, or Lemuria. Mu, the 'Empire of the Sun,' was a continent that supported over 60 million inhabitants in the Pacific Ocean, and consisted of ten distinct tribes, or peoples all under one government. As legend has it, nearly the entire continent fell into the Pacific Ocean by 10,000 B.C." [based on, Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

* Trivia: "The time I have given as the time man had been on earth may appear long but it is taken from two tablets written by the Naacals, which state that about the time Mu went down [10,000 B.C.] man had been on earth 200,000 years. There are many Oriental legends stating the same thing." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

* Trivia: "Other names associated with Mu include: Lemuria, and Kuiland." [Etznab Mathers]

178,000 B.C. - Human Remains / China - "The Dali specimen from Shaanxi, is dated to approximately 180,000 YA. It is similar in many ways to Jinniushan and represents a pre-modern form of H. sapiens. Its cranial capacity is intermediate between earlier forms of H. erectus and later more modern forms of H. sapiens, although it overlaps the range of variation seen in both. Dali is also intermediate in its morphological character, retaining many features associated with Asian H. erectus while evincing a number of derived features associated with modern humans such as expansion of the parietals and transformation in cranial base anatomy."

174,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / Australia - "A remarkable find in the Northern Territory, Australia, has opened a fierce debate on the prehistory of humans. The date of the find, if correct, dramatically pushes back the date at which people began to create art and language, and triples the date of occupation of Australia. It is, however, strongly contended.... Enormous sculpted boulders, described by Australian scientists Richard Fullagar and Paul Tacon as similar in concept to Stonehenge, and thousands of detailed circular engravings have been dated by them at around 75,000 years old, with stone tools dating back to 176,000 years. Fullagar and Tacon say that the engravings and sculptures are possibly the oldest rock art in the world - more than twice the age of the famous French rock art paintings at Chauvet and Cosquer. But the most extraordinary find, published in British Antiquity in December 1996, revealed that Australia may have been occupied for up to 176,000 years - more than 110,000 years longer than previously thought. While excavating in sediments below the rock art, the scientists recovered ochre dating back between 116,000 and 176,000 years. If Aboriginals really have been in Australia for over 100,000 years it enormously changes the traditional view of pre-history in several ways. Hieroglyphs [over 250] discovered in the National Park forest of the Hunter Valley, 100 km north of Sydney [Australia], were known in the first years of 1900. They resemble archaic Egyptian hieroglyphs and among them there is the unmistakable image of Anubis, the ancient Egyptian judge of the dead!" Link 1 [12th photo]

135,000 B.C. - Modern Dog - "DNA evidence in 1997 indicated that the modern dog has been around since about this time."

118,000 B.C. - Human Remains / China - "The Maba cranium, dated to approximately 120,000 years ago was discovered in 1958 in the southern Chinese province of Guangdong. It was the first substantial specimen of a pre-modern form of H. sapiens found in East Asia. It was iniatially thought to be an Asian Neandertal but does not in fact show any of the derived features of Neandertals as known from Europe and the Near East. The Maba skull is similar to other more complete finds of pre-modern H. sapiens subsequantly found in China, differing only in minor ways, such as the size and shape of the orbits and nasal bones. Maba is also somewhat reminiscent of the recently discovered Narmada skull from India."

118,000 B.C. - Carbon 14 - "According to popular science, the age of fossils of once-living creatures can be determined by radio carbon dating, often abbreviated as carbon dating. When plants take up carbon dioxide from the air, the carbon they 'inhale' includes a radioactive form of carbon, carbon-14, as well as the normal, non-radioactive carbon-12. Carbon-14's half life is precisely known: 5,730 years. By comparing the amount of carbon-12 in a fossil to the remaining amount of carbon-14, the age of the fossil can be determined. Animal fossils [including human] can be dated this way because the animals eat plant matter. This technique only works to an age of about 120,000 years, because beyond that time so little carbon-14 remains that it is impossible to measure it."

113,000 B.C. - North American Ice Age - "In North America the last Ice Age is called the Wisconsin Glaciation [named for rock deposits studied in the state of Wisconsin] and its early phase has been dated by geologists to 115,000 years ago. There were various advances and retreats of the ice-cap after that, with the fastest rate of accumulation taking place between 60,000 years ago and 17,000 years ago - a process culminating in the Tazewell Advance, which saw the glaciation reach its maximum extent around 15,000 B.C. By 13,000 B.C., however, millions of square miles of ice had melted, for reasons that have never properly been explained, and by 8,000 B.C. the Wisconsin had withdrawn completely. The Ice Age was a global phenomenon, affecting both the northern and the southern hemispheres; similar climatic and geological conditions therefore prevailed in many other parts of the world as well [notably in eastern Asia, Australia, new Zealand, and South America]." [based on, Popular Gologic Theory]

* Commentary: "The geological Glacial Period is one of those bizarre, fantastic, mythical theories that has taken strong root in the minds of our present-day scientists. The Glacial Period is history repeating itself. Such scientific misconceptions have pervaded the scientific world all through history and even back beyond historical times, as is shown by the symbolical Tower of Babel; and when there was Atlas disturbing the scientific fraternity until they clubbed together and unceremoniously buried him in the Northwest corner of Africa. The Glacial Period is really modern and up-to-date, for it boasts of having a family of little glaciations, so that there will be some support for it in its old age. Agassiz and his assistants, who framed the Glacial Period Theory and surrounded it with such a corrollary of impossibilities, never studied the origin and workings of forces or natural laws, otherwise they would never have foisted such a raw scientific proposition on an unsuspecting public." [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, pp.114-115]

* Commentary: "To form an ice cap around the Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere down to the 40th Parallel, of a thickness of 20,000 feet, would require more water than now exists in the Artic Ocean, North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Where did the water come from? and where has it gone to since? The water which formed the Northern Ice Cap could not have come from the the South, because the South Pole was imitating her northern sister by dressing herself also up in an equally imposing ice cap. Between the two, there was more water used in forming these two lumps of ice than now exists on the face of the earth!" [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.125]

100,000 B.C. - Afro-Arabian Expansion - "The 'Weak Garden of Eden' model for the origin and dispersal of modern humans posits a spread around 100,000 years ago followed by population bottlenecks. Then around 50,000 years ago a dramatic growth occurred in genetically isolated, small population. In a 1998 article Stanley Ambrose proposed an alternative hypothesis, a volcanic winter scenario, to explain recent human differenciation. The bottleneck was caused by a volcanic winter resulting from the super-eruption of Toba in Sumatra. If Ambrose's hypothesis is correct modern human races differentiated abruptly through founder effect, genetic drift and adaptation to local environments around 70,000 years ago. Ambrose points out that the Out of Africa dispersal date of around 100,000 years ago fits the generally warm, humid last interglacial period, 130 - 74,000 years ago. An impressive body of paleontological evidence shows an Afro-Arabian biotic community expanded northward during this period. Several such multi-species dispersals out of Africa have occurred during previous interglacial phases. He considers the variants of the Replacement model to be more accurate and realistic than the Multiregional models."

100,000 B.C. - Hominid Fossils / Australasia - "The hominid fossils from Australasia are argued to show a continuous anatomic sequence, with the earliest Australians displaying features seen in Indonesia 100,000 years ago. Similar evidence is seen in northern Asia. One million years old Chinese fossils differ from Javan fossils in ways that parallel the differences between north Asians and Australians today. Morphological continuity is also evidenced by prominently shoveled maxdlary incisors occurring in high frequency in living east Asians and in all the earlier Asian fossils. They point out the fact that the Neandertals and modern humans in the Near East shared an identical culture. They also argue that the Neandertals were not fully replaced. The more recent DNA isolation from Neandertal fossils counters this belief."

100,000 B.C. - Hominids - "The fossil record shows that about 100,000 years ago, several species of hominids populated Earth. Homo sapiens could be found in Africa and the Middle East; Homo erectus, as typified by Java Man and Peking Man, occupied Southeast Asia and China; and Neanderthals roamed across Europe."

http://mirrorh.com/timeline.html
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Felecia
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« Reply #2 on: February 21, 2007, 01:10:14 pm »

90,000 B.C. - Pottery - "Potassium-argon dating and thermoluminescence can be used to date pieces of pottery back to about this time."
80,000 B.C. - Expansion / Homo sapiens - "After millions of years of sluggish evolution a major population expansion of early modern Homo sapiens occurs from 80,000 to 30,000 years ago. A scenario consistent with ecological and genetic evidence indicates spread to separate regions from an initial restricted area about 100,000 years ago followed by dramatic population growth, especially after 50,000 B. P." [link number 3]

74,000 B.C. - Volcanic Eruption / Sumatra - "According to one report, a major volcanic eruption occurred in Sumatra at this time."

73,000 B.C. - Fashioned Ornaments - "WASHINGTON - About 75,000 years ago, in a Stone Age cave overlooking the ocean, someone collected shells and bored holes in them, producing the oldest known evidence that humans had fashioned an ornament. Discovery of the set of beads pushes back by about 30,000 years the first indications of the ability to make and use such symbolic materials.... The previously oldest known human ornaments are perforated teeth and eggshell beads from Bulgaria and Turkey, dated 41,000 to 43,000 years old, and 40,000-year-old ostrich-shell beads from Kenya." [By Randolph E. Schmid, The Associated Press, 04/16/04]

73,000 B.C. - Human Art / Australia - "A remarkable find in the Northern Territory, Australia, has opened a fierce debate on the prehistory of humans. The date of the find, if correct, dramatically pushes back the date at which people began to create art and language, and triples the date of occupation of Australia. It is, however, strongly contended. Enormous sculpted boulders, described by Australian scientists Richard Fullagar and Paul Tacon as similar in concept to Stonehenge, and thousands of detailed circular engravings have been dated by them at around 75,000 years old, with stone tools dating back to 176,000 years. While excavating in sediments below the rock art, the scientists recovered ochre dating back between 116,000 and 176,000 years. If Aboriginals really have been in Australia for over 100,000 years it enormously changes the traditional view of pre-history in several ways."

70,000 B.C. - Historical Records - "Most of the ancient nations kept in their temples imperishable records - writings on either stone or burnt clay tablets like bricks. Some of the oldest known are in Tibet and some were written, according to the astrological dates written on them, 70,000 years ago. There are hundreds in India dating back 35,000 years and some are even older but without a date. In the Himalayan monastaries, writings of 70,000 years ago are to be seen. Some of these date man back 200,000 years or 270,000 years. The dates are given by the positions of stars, one to the other." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

70,000 B.C. - Mu - "All who left the motherland [Mu] in any direction were called Mayas. Colonization must have started at least 70,000 years before Mu sank [about 10,000 B.C.], for there are Naacal writings in the Orient stating that the Holy Brothers carried the religion and the sciences of the Motherland to the colonies 'over 70,000 years ago." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

70,000 B.C. - Uighur Empire - "The Uighur Empire was possibly the first, and unquestionably the largest, most important, and most powerful of all the colonial empires belonging to Mu. Colonization commenced just north of Burma more than 70,000 years ago." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

70,000 B.C. - Human Habitation / Greece - "The country of Greece has been inhabited since 70,000 B.C." [The History Channel, 2004]

69,000 B.C. - Volcanic Winter - "A new hypothesis about recent human evolution suggests that humans came close to extinction because of a 'volcanic winter' that occured 71,000 years ago. Reportedly, the 'volcanic winter' [subsequent to the eruption of Mount Toba in Sumatra] lasted about six years and was followed by 1,000 years of the coldest Ice Age on record."

68,000 B.C. - European Ice Age - "Known technically as the Wurm Glaciation, this European Ice Age started about 70,000 years ago, a little later than its American counterpart [at 115,000 yrs. ago], but attained its maximum extent at the same time [17,000 years ago], and then experienced the same rapid withdrawl [15,000 - 13,000 B.C.], and shared the same terminal date [8,000 B.C.]." [based on, Popular Geologic Theory]

* Commentary: "To form an ice cap around the Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere down to the 40th Parallel, of a thickness of 20,000 feet, would require more water than now exists in the Artic Ocean, North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Where did the water come from? and where has it gone to since? The water which formed the Northern Ice Cap could not have come from the the South, because the South Pole was imitating her northern sister by dressing herself also up in an equally imposing ice cap. Between the two, there was more water used in forming these two lumps of ice than now exists on the face of the earth!" [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.125]

68,000 B.C. - South American Emigration - "The topography of South America today is totally different from what it was 20,000 years ago, the time when droves of Carians, Karians, and Negro colonists were leaving the Motherland to find new homes and more room upon the earth. When this exodus from the Motherland commenced we have not as yet been told, but there are various records of emigration some 35,000 years ago and others 70,000 years ago. Then South America was like the rest of the world - flat and without mountains." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

60,000 B.C. - Neanderthals - "Homo Neanderthalensis discovered at Shanidar cave, Iraq."

57,000 B.C. - Human Presence / Australia - "In 1974 a near complete skeleton was found near Lake Mungo, a dry lakes in western New South Wales. The corpse of this individual, Lake Mungo 3 was covered with red ochre before burial. In 1999 the specimen was restudied (Thorne, et. al.,1999). The researchers carried out ESR and U-series dating study. The age estimate obtained for the human skeleton through the combination of U-series and ESR analyses was 62,000 ± 6000 years. The age agrees with age estimates for the burial sediment, 61,000 ± 2000 years. The age results are far older than previously assumed. The authors concluded that the Lake Mungo 3 burial documents the earliest known human presence on the Australian continent. The specimens age implies that the present Australian indigenous population colonized the continent by 57,000-71,000 years ago."

58,000 B.C. - Rapid Advance / Norh American Glaciation - "There were various advances and retreats of the ice-cap after 113,000 B.C., with the fastest rate of accumulation taking place between 60,000 years ago and 17,000 years ago." [based on Popular Geologic Theory]

50,000 B.C. - Mexico - "Mu's 1st colony in North America was established at Mexico more than 50,000 years. B.C." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

50,000 B.C. - North America - "If we were to start the beginning of man's history in America we would have to go back beyond 50,000 years ago and possibly more than 100,000 years ago. Geological records show very high and advanced civilization in North America more than 50,000 years ago. [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

50,000 B.C. - Scandinavia - "That part of Europe which now forms the Scandinavian countries had a settlement made from Central America at least 50,000 years ago. The Central American tradition says that the Quetzals 'had milk white skins, blue eyes and light, flaxen hair', the characteristics of the Scandinavians today." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

50,000 B.C. - Mediterranean Population Boom - "A population boom some 40,000 to 50,000 years ago may have given rise to some uniquely modern human behaviors - like flashy dressing. Archaeologists Mary Stiner and Steve Kuhn of the University of Arizona and Erksin Güleç of Ankara University say their study of animal bones suggests a rise in population density around the Mediterranean that accompanied, and may have even caused, a proliferation in objects of personal adornment like shell beads. The archaeologists have noticed a shift in diet during this time from slow-reproducing animals that are relatively easy to capture ['unless,' says Kuhn 'you have a really bad back'], like tortoises and shellfish, to quickly reproducing, hard-to-catch game like rabbits and birds. They speculate that a burgeoning human population forced people to broaden their diet to include animals that were more difficult to hunt. Finds of shell beads from places like Üçagizli Cave in Turkey and Ksar' Akil in Lebanon also suggest a growing population. 'Youuse ornaments to identify things about yourself,' says Kuhn. 'The target audience for the beads is people who are more or less strangers, that know just enough about you to understand what ornaments mean. As populations grow, you deal with more strangers. Beads are a new form of communication, so that you know at a distance who the person is and how you should deal with them.' "

50,000 B.C. - Cataclysm / Mu [Lemuria] - "These records tell us that the legendary paradise of man, thought of as the Garden of Eden, was laid on the lost continent of Lemuria which was sunk by earthquakes and tidal waves fifty thousand years ago." [Paul Twitchell, The Shariyat-Ki- Sugmad, Book Two, p. 107, Second Edition - 1988]

43,188 B.C. - Configuration - "Reportedly, modern astrologers who have charted the Mayan date for the end of the Fifth Sun calculate that there will be a most peculiar arrangement of planets at the time [2012 A.D.], an arrangement so peculiar that it can only occur once in 45,200 years." [Graham Hancock, Fingerprints Of The Gods]

43,000 B.C. - Flute / Slovenia - "A fragment of a 45,000 year old flute was found in Slovenia."

40,000 B.C. - Russia - "Humans lived within the Arctic Circle tens of thousands of years earlier than previously believed, paleontologists from Norway and Russia report. The common assumption has been that humans first colonized the far north at the end of the last Ice Age, around 13,000 to 14,000 years ago. But stone artifacts, animal bones, and a mammoth tusk with human-made marks found at a Paleolithic site in the Russian Arctic push this date back to nearly 40,000 years ago. Anatomically modern humans began arriving in Europe and the Middle East about 40,000 to 35,000 years ago. Neandertals are thought to have appeared in Europe about 120,000 years ago. They disappear from the fossil record about 28,000 years ago."

38,000 B.C. - Homo Erectus / Java - "In December 1996, skulls found on the Indonesian island of Java suggested that homo erectus [thought to have disappeared about 200,000 years ago] was still in existence 40,000 years ago."

38,000 B.C. - Europe - "Reportedly, Stone-age humans came to Europe, probably from central Asia and the Middle East, in 2 waves of migration that began about this time. DNA evidence from Y-chromosomes in 2,000 A.D. suggested that 4 of 5 European men shared a common ancestor from this 1st wave."

38,000 B.C. - Sufism / Central Asia - "Reportedly, there is a tradition in Sufism that it originated in Central Asia 40,000 years ago."

36,000 B.C. - Emerald Tablets - "By one report, an ancient set of tablets ascribed to Hermes, or Thoth, etc., date back some 36,000 years B.C."

35,000 B.C. - Neanderthal / Cro-Magnon Crossover - "In terms of geological time, there appeard to be nothing to separate the late neanderthalers and the early Cro-magnons, but they were as different from each other as cattle are from horses. Not only that, but their cultures were remarkably dissimilar, with the Cro-Magnons displaying an uncanny sophistication in terms of their art, clothing, habitation and general lifestyle.
"The apparent time-frame for the Neanderthal/Cro-Magnon crossover was about 35,000-30,000 BC, and they did exist as contemporaries for a time, thereby proving that one did not evolve from the other. It is of particular interest to note that there has never been a trace of any interbreeding between the distinctly different strains, and as the Cro-Magnons grew to prominence, so the Neanderthalers became totally extinct." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Holy Grail, p. 67]

35,000 B.C. - Birth / Adam - "The fact that Adam is credited with the knowledge of good and evil, having eaten from the tree that made him wise (Genesis 3:6), determines that he was of the strain called homo sapiens. In practice, he would actually have been of the further advanced modern strain called homo sapiens-sapiens. Adam's date, consequently, falls into a post-35,000 BC category. But the Neanderthalers and others preceded this era -so how could Adam be said to be the 'first' man? Of what particular strain was he the first?" [Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, p. 15]

35,000 B.C. - Homo Sapien Expansion - "We modern humans emerged anatomically earlier than the cultural characteristics that we today commonly associate with modern humans. A new set of cultural features appeared in full bloom during the Upper Paleolithic, about 30,000 to 35,000 years ago, when population expansion spread to extensive new areas in Asia, Europe and Australia. The cultural baggage of H. sapiens at the time included musical instruments, ceramics, sculpture, flaked stone blades, portable art objects, jewelry, and new tools and equipment. Materials employed were stone, bone, antler, teeth, ivory, wood and clay. The important invention of the needle occurred and sewn, fitted clothing and footwear were invented. A dozen bird bone flutes are known from between 32,000 and 22,000 BP. Art included the adornment of bodies by 30,000 years ago. Materials proveniences of hundreds of miles distance indicate long distance travel or trade networks." [link 4]

32,000 B.C. - Neanderthal Crossbreading? - "Three fossils - 34,000 to 36,000 years old - may support the theory that early Europeans bred with Neanderthals, a WU [Washington University] anthropologist says." [Tina Hesman, St Louis Post-Dispatch, 09/23/03]

33,000 B.C. - Indian Tablets - "Most of the ancient nations kept in their temples imperishable records - writings on either stone or burnt clay tablets like bricks. Reportedly, some of the oldest were written [according to the astrological dates written on them] 70,000 years ago. There are hundreds in India dating back 35,000 years and some are even older but without a date." [Col. James Churchward]

33,000 B.C. - East Timor Settlement - "A settlement twice as old as any previously known in East Timor has been identified following carbon dating from an archaeological dig. Researchers at the Australian National University [ANU] dated the shells from a cave near Tutuala village at the eastern end of the island at between 30,000 and 35,000 years old."

33,000 B.C. - South American Emigration - "The topography of South America today is totally different from what it was 20,000 years ago, the time when droves of Carians, Karians, and Negro colonists were leaving the Motherland to find new homes and more room upon the earth. When this exodus from the Motherland commenced we have not as yet been told, but there are various records of emigration some 35,000 years ago and others 70,000 years ago. Then South America was like the rest of the world - flat and without mountains." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

30,000 B.C. - Japan - "Although the Japanese do not settle Japan until the third century B.C., humans had lived in Japan from about 30,000 B.C. For Japan was not always an island. During the Ice Ages, it was connected to the Korean peninsula by means of a land bridge. All four main Japanese islands were connected, and the southern island of Kyushu was connected to the Korean peninsula while the northern island of Hokkaido was connected to Siberia. Around 10,000 B.C. these original inhabitants developed a unique culture which lasted for several thousand years: the Jomon [cord pattern] culture."


30,000 B.C. - Colonial Empire / India - "Valmiki, the Hindu sage-historian, writing from ancient temple records, said: 'that the children of the Motherland were mighty navigators who took their ships from the eastern to the western oceans and from the southern to the northern seas in days so remote that India was only a colony and had not yet become an Empire.' It was more than 30,000 years ago that India was turned from a colony into a colonial empire." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

30,000 B.C - Nephilim - "We now discover why it was that the Nephilim/Watchers were said to have fallen from grace having fathered their offspring from the daughters of men. Enoch tells that those of their senior number [the seven archangels] were annoyed that the Chiefs of the Tens had begun to teach their offspring too much too soon by imparting some of the secrets of the signs in earlier days. It was reported that they had taught about the metals of the earth, and how to use them; they taught about the roots of the earth and their medicines; they taught about the sun, the moon and the constellations, and of clouds and weather patterns. The Archangels were said to have admonished the chiefs of the Watchers for having 'revealed the eternal secrets' and for having thrown humankind into an internecine turmoil so that the preeminent sons of the Watchers were at varience with the evolutionary sons of men.
"The writings indicate that, in light of their new-found supremecy, the Watchers' offspring took advantage of their priviledge and assumed martial control over their mundane brothers, [who were called the Eljo] slaughtering them wholesale in the process. It is often said that 'a little knowledge is a dangerous thing', and this is presented as the case in this regard. Although the sons of the Watchers [called the Naphidem] had gained an amount of advanced knowledge from their Nephilim fathers, they were genetically still somewhat primitive by way of their mothers, and they were, seemingly, unable to cope with this knowledge. Hence, they demonstrated the darwinian principle of the 'survival of the fittest'. They were bigger and stronger than their neighbors; they were generally superior to their neighbors; and so they slew their neighbors. Indeed the Jubilees text indicates that there was a full-blown genocide, with the Naphidem race against the Eljo people, while the Nephilim unsuccessfully endeavored to restrain their Naphidem sons." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, pp. 59-60]
"It is apparent, therefore, that the story of the Naphidem-Eljo racial war comes from long before the Flood, and from long before Adam. On that account, it is significant [as will be disclosed when we look at the Sumerian historical listings] that the Nephilim ancestry is itself said to trace back tens of thousands of years. From the time of the genocidal slaughter, the Nephilim became what we might describe as 'guardian angels' - the custodians of a salvaged world which they had practically destroyed. Their new domain was essentially the world of the Naphidem - a root breed of culturally advanced Afro-Asian homo sapiens, who had superseded their Eljo predecessors by about 30,000 years." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, p.61]

30,000 B.C. - Neanderthal Extinction - "Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis disappeared at the beginning of this era [about 30,000 B.C.], but he left behind evidence of his Spiritual perceptions. This is most clearly seen in Neanderthal Burials at Shanidar in northern Iraq, excavated by Richard Solecki, and in Russian Turkestan. The Shanidar grave contained the body of a 42 year old man, sprinkled with flowers. The Turkestan grave contained a 4 year old boychild buried with the accouterment of a warrior. The Shanidar burial is not in and of itself evidence of a belief in an Afterlife. But in the case of the boy from Turkestan, one must ask why a boy, who could not have been a warrior, were buried with such equipment unless there were an expectation that he might need it? This is the best evidence of a belief in an afterlife 45,000 years ago, though it is not proof."

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28,186 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune. Note: Neptune-Pluto configurations later than 600 B.C. represent estimated projections that could be off by several years. They are caluclated by subtracting [from 577 B.C.] multiples of 493 years."
*Trivia: - Phoenix Cycle - "From classical sources we discover that the Greeks recognized what was called the Phoenix Cycle, derived from Egyptian legends of the Bennu bird that rose from its own ashes every 500 years. There are some indications this Cycle was linked with the Plutonic revolution of 247 years doubled. According to the Pythagorean/NeoPlatonic Greeks and Egyptians, with each Cycle culmination and for a hundred years on either side of it, it was prophesied that an influx of special souls would be incarnating - variously called savants, masters, teachers, messiahs, avatars, and bodhisattvas by different traditions - whose chosen work was to raise overall planetary consciousness."

28,000 B.C. - Equinox at Aries - "The period of a complete cycle of the vernal point around the celestial sphere is approximately 25,800 [or 25,776] years. In other words, after 25,800 years, the vernal point is back at the starting point or fiduciary vernal point [zero degrees sidereal Aries]. For the same reason that astrologers have allowed for twelve signs as the sun passes through its annual orbit, this 25,800 years cycle is also divided into twelve signs, with each of these twelve signs averaging some 2,150 [or 2,148] years each."

28,000 B.C. - Ainu / Japan - "The Ainu were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Japanese islands back to this time. They had European features, wavy hair and thick beards before they intermarried with the Japanese."

28,000 B.C. - Human Presence / Chile - "In Chile, scientists excavating a 12,500-year-old settlement at Monte Verde have found evidence of a human presence that may extend back as far as 30,000 years."

28,000 B.C. - Primitive Tools - "Evidence has emerged of common origins of primitive tools dating back over 30,000 years recovered from ancient sites in America, and those from sites in the trans-Baikal region of Siberia."

28,000 B.C. - Ice Age Camp / Artic Siberia - "Russian scientists uncovered a 30,000-year-old site where ancient hunters lived on the Yana River in Siberia, about 300 miles north of the Artic Circle and not far from the Bering land bridge that then connected Asia with North America." [The Associated Press, 01/02/04]

27,000 B.C. - Villages - "It is unlikely that we will ever determine which of the 'cities' currently contending for the honor of being oldest is the more ancient. It is indeed probable hat none of the settlements now being considered was the first to develop into a city. The evidence now available suggests 7,000 B.C. as a likely date for the beginning of cities. That would be 20,000 years after the oldest known 'villages'."

25,000 B.C. - 13 Moon Calendar - "The 13 Moon calendar reflects the natural cycle of the thirteen month lunar year, and is, in fact, a cycle used by all indigenous cultures present and past. Amazingly, human understanding of lunar phases can be traced back to around 25000 BC. The modern version of this calendar is formed by 13 regular months of 28 days each, plus one day out of time. This period also equals the length of a solar year. The cycle of 28 days reflects the natural female cycle of menstruation. Moreover, the days are designated by the progression of the Tzolkin count. Each day is formed by the combination of one of the 13 pulsations, one of the 20 solar frequencies, and a color which represents one of the four directions. The most effective way to break the hypnotic spell of artificial time is to follow the thirteen month calendar. The 13:20 frequency transcends all cultural boundaries, and this calendar has been made available in a number of different languages. The 13 Moon calendar synchronizes all people of Earth with the natural cycles of planetary, solar, and galactic rhythms."

24,000 B.C. - Beginning / Grand Cycle - "Approximate [theoretical ] beginning date for the 26,000-year Grand Cycle period of evolution that reportedly culminates in December, 2012."

23,400 B.C. - Atlantis - "Reportedly, Atlantis was governed by a king, that is, Atlantis was a kingdom over 25,400 years ago. An Egyptian papyrus states that Poseidon was the first king of Atlantis and that he was followed by a long line of Poseidons, thus forming a Poseidon Dynasty. A map drawn up by Admiral Piri Reis [believed to have been compiled from earlier source documents at the library of Constantinople in 1513 A.D.] portrays a large island in the Atlantic Ocean to the east of the South American coast where no such island now exists. The island is located right over the sub-oceanic Mid-Atlantic Ridge just north of the equator and 700 miles east of the coast of Brazil, where the tiny rocks of the Sts Peter and Paul now jut above the waves."

23,000 B.C. - Amazon Sea - "There are a collection of clay tablets in a monastary located in western Tibet that contain maps of various parts of the earth. Twenty-five thousand years ago, according to one map, two great streams of colonists were crossing the center of South America in boats. They were going from the Motherland [Mu] in the Pacific Ocean to Atlantis and points beyond, even through the Mediterranean Sea as far as Asia Minor. This map showed the Amazon Sea opening to the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and connecting [by canal] to the Pacific Ocean on the west. The Amazon basin only became a swamp after the great island of Atlantis was submerged." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

23,000 B.C. - Indo-European - "According to popular history, basic Indo-European is thought to have started 25 thousand years ago in central Europe and through Russia and Iran to the Indian subcontinent.”

20,000 B.C. - Birth / Osiris - "Osiris was a man and his history has been recorded by the Naacals, Their writings say: 'Osiris was born in Atlantis [about] 22,000 years ago. On arriving at young manhood, he left Atlantis and went to the Motherland to study in her colleges. He entered a Naacal college where he studied and remained until he became a Master and a Holy Brother. He then returned to Atlantis and there purged religion of the extravagances and excesses which had crept into it. He then became the head of the Atlantian Church, a position which he held through a long life....' " [Col. James Churchward]

20,000 B.C. - Russian Artifacts - "Unusual, mostly spiral-shaped objects found in years 1991-1993 on the small river Narada, on the eastern side of the Ural mountains [Russia]. Their size ranges from a maximum of 3 cm [1.2 in.] down to an incredible 0.003 mm, about 1/10,000th of an inch! The larger ones are of copper, while the small and very small ones are of the rare metals tungsten and molybdenum. Exact measurements of these often microscopically-small objects have shown that the dimensions of the spirals are in the so-called Golden Mean ratio. All tests carried out to date give an age for the objects of between 20,000 and 318,000 years ago, depending on the depth and the situation of the site." Link 1 [19th photo]

19,000 B.C.

18,000 B.C. - Mountains - "Mountains were relatively unknown before 20,000 years ago. Most of our mountains were not raised until about 10,000 to 11,000 B.C. There are Oriental records which speak of both the first and second migrations of Uighurs into Europe. The first entered Europe during the Pliocene, before the mountains were raised. The second migration took place during the Pleistocene and after the mountain raising, many thousands of years after the first migration. The people of the first migration were pretty generally wiped out by the Great magnetic Cataclysm and subsequent mountain raising. They were not entirely wiped out as three small communities or families were saved. The descendants of these today are: the Bretons of France, the Basques of Spain, and the genuine Irish. They are all linguistically related." [Col. James Churchward]

*Trivia: "The Bible relates that the waters of the 'Flood' rose 26 feet and covered the mountains. In Psalms there is a reference 'before the mountains were raised.' Many of the Central Asiatic tribes date their time from the raising of the Himalayas and mountains of Central Asia. The Zulus claim that they came to South Africa from the north, as their country in the north was ruined by the raising of the mountains." [Col. James Churchward,The Children Of Mu, pp. 53-54]

18,000 B.C. - Human Art / Spain - "There were paintings discovered in northern Spain [Altimira cave] of bison, deer, and other animals, in red and black, drawn perhaps as long as 20,000 years ago."

18,000 B.C. - Babylon - "The history of Babylonia is made up of the histories of the Akkadians, the Sumerians, the Chaldaens, the Assyrians, the Medes, and the Persians; only one of which today exists as a distinctive people. The recorded history such as has been found, referring to what historians have called 'the Old Oriental Empires' and recorded by our scientists, consists of the reading of a few tablets and inscriptions written in cuneiform and then matching up the translations with the Biblical Legends. The furthest any of these go back is 5,000 years ago. The commencement of Babylonia dates back 18,000 years or more when a settlement on the river Euphrates was made by a company of Naga-Mayas from India. In after times they met the end of the Eastern Line from Mu. The people they met were Semitic. After the Akkad settlement was firmly established, the Akkadians worked inland up the Euphrates River and became known as Sumerians. Herodotus, Lib. 1-181, says; Berosus, who was an early Babylonian priest-historian, wrote, 'the first inhabitants of Babylonia were foriegners of another race.' Berosus then proceeds to establish distinctions between the foriegners and the Babylonians and Assyrians, and follows by saying, 'Civilization was brought to Mesopotamia by Oannes and six other beings, half man and half fish who came up the river from the persian gulf.' " [Col. James Churchward]

18,000 B.C. - Sumeria - "Sumer is a Naga-Maya word meaning 'flat lands or plains.' From this they took or were given the name Sumerians, plainsmen or men of the plains. It is thus seen that the Sumerians and the Akkadians were one and the same people; the difference being that one set lived inland, countrymen, and the other set lived on the seashore, shoremen. Historians, however have written as if the Akkadians and Sumerians were two different peoples, which is erroneous. Valmiki, the Hindu sage-historian, in his works written 1,300 B.C., tells us that 'these colonists...of the Euphrates settlement' [Akkadians and Sumerians] 'called their settlement Babylonia and their chief city, Babylon.' Babylon was also 'Ka Ra' which is Naga-Maya meaning 'the city of the Sun.' Valmiki also states 'that the Naacals left India and went to Babylonia, there to teach the religion and the sciences of the Motherland.' " [Col. James Churchward]

18,000 B.C. - Akkadians - "According to popular history: About 3,000 B.C. a group of people called Akkadians drifted into the Tigris-Euphrates valley along the northern fringes of Sumeria. They spoke a language [Semitic] entirely unrelated to Sumerian."

* Trivia: "The first Akkadians were a company of Naga-Mayas from India who came through the Persian Gulf and made their first settlement at the mouth of the Euphrates river. They called the place Akkad. Akkad is a Naga-Maya word meaning 'soft and marshy ground' which today is the character of the ground on the Euphrates Delta. When the settlement was formed the people adopted the name they had given to their settlement and thus became known as Akkadians. Temple records in India speak of this settlement but give no date. Contemporary records have dates of about 18,000 years ago." [Col. James Churchward]

18,000 B.C. - Chaldaens - "The Akkadians and Sumerians, the real and ancient Babylonians, were far in advance of a Semitic people living to the north of them, as regards both civilization and learning. Surrounding the settlement at Akkad, and at various places along the river, there were large areas of tall reeds, the homes of vicious animals. To protect themselves against these marauding beasts the settlers built stockades around their homes and villages. These stockades they called Chaldi. All of their colleges and temples of learning were within an enclosure. This enclosure was called Chaldi. Later, Chaldi was the name given to the learned class and their colleges." [Col. James Churchward]

B.C. - Semites - "The Sumerians and Akkadians were attacked and conqured by a Semitic people coming down from the North. These Semitics finding the civilization of the Akkadians and Sumerians so far in advance of their own, instead of putting them to the sword or enslaving them, assimilated them, that is, they were placed on an equality with their conquers and intermarried. Their scientists were given the greatest honors. So successfully did this work that in the absorbtion the Akkadians and Sumerians were never known again as a separate people. They disappeared from history. There is no mystery about the origin of the Semitic race which came down from the north. They left the Motherland, Mu, and first made a settlement in Yucatan calling their city Zahia, the remains of which are to be found a few miles from Uxmal. From there a company migrated to the east, forming a settlement on the Caucasian Plains and around the foot of the Caspian sea. This is the hinterland of asia minor and where we find the Biblical historical mountain, Mt. Ararat, raising its imposing head some 15,000 or 16,000 feet above the level of the plain. The Egyptians called this country Zahia after the Yucatan name." [Col. James Churchward]

B.C. - Art - "Reportedly, 'Classical scholars know about the orientalising periods in Greek art; and near eastern specialists are familar with Minoan, Mycenaean, Hellinistic and still later Greek influence in Western Asia and Egypt. The interconnections antedate not only the earliest Hebrew and Greek writings, but also the earliest texts of Sumer and Egypt."

17,000 B.C.

16,354 - Neptune-Pluto conjunction -

16,000 B.C.

15,000 B.C. - Tiahuanaco - "Just 12 miles southward of the southernmost tip of Lake Titicaca lie the remains of Tiahuanaco, the site of a technologically advanced culture considered by many archaeologists to be the oldest ruins in the world. Although some misguided scholars have attributed the buildings of Tiahuanaco to the Incas, it has now been established that the city was already in ruins when the first Incas came upon the scene. In his voluminous work Tianacu: the Cradle of American Man, the late Professor Arthur Posnansky explains the archaeo-astronomical calculations which led to his controversial re-dating of Tiahuanaco. According to Posnansky, Tiahuanaco had been in active use as a port as early as 15,000 B.C. Based on the mathematical/astronomical calculations of Prof. Posansky, and Professor Rolf Muller [who has also challenged the official dating of Machu Picchu], it pushes the main phase of construction of Tiahuanaco back to 15,000 B.C. This chronology also indicates that the city later suffered immense destruction in a phenomenal natural catastrophe around the eleventh millennium B.C., and thereafter rapidly became separated from the lakeshore. The orthodox historical view is that the ruins of Tiahuanaco cannot possibly be dated much earlier than 500 A.D." More Links: 1, 2, 3, 4

15,000 B.C. - Athens, Greece - ""There are many records stating that Asia Minor, the Lower Balkans and Egypt were first colonized through Mayax and Atlantis. According to the temple records at Sais, a city existed on the spot which Athens occupied 11,500 years ago and which was built 17,000 years ago - a thousand years before the history of Lower Egypt commenced." [Col. James Churchward]

15,000 B.C. - Human Art / France - "The cave art of Paleolithic man of Lascaux, France dates to this time. It contains some 600 paintings, 1,500 engravings, and innumerable mysterious dots and geometric figures."

15,000 B.C. - Maximum Extent / Norh American Glaciation - "The Tazewell Advance saw the North American glaciation reach its maximum extent around 15,000 B.C. By 13,000 B.C., however, millions of square miles of ice had melted, for reasons that have never properly been explained, and by 8,000 B.C. the Wisconsin had withdrawn completely." [Based on, popular Geological Theory]

15,000 B.C. - Maximum Extent / European Ice Age - "Known technically as the Wurm Glaciation, this European Ice Age attained its maximum extent 17,000 years ago, and then experienced the same rapid withdrawl, and shared the same terminal date [8,000 B.C.]." [Based on, popular Geological Theory]

* Commentary: "The geological Glacial Period is one of those bizarre, fantastic, mythical theories that has taken strong root in the minds of our present-day scientists. The Glacial Period is history repeating itself. Such scientific misconceptions have pervaded the scientific world all through history and even back beyond historical times, as is shown by the symbolical Tower of Babel; and when there was Atlas disturbing the scientific fraternity until they clubbed together and unceremoniously buried him in the Northwest corner of Africa. The Glacial Period is really modern and up-to-date, for it boasts of having a family of little glaciations, so that there will be some support for it in its old age. Agassiz and his assistants, who framed the Glacial Period Theory and surrounded it with such a corrollary of impossibilities, never studied the origin and workings of forces or natural laws, otherwise they would never have foisted such a raw scientific proposition on an unsuspecting public." [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, pp.114-115]

* Commentary: "The earth has been subjected to two forms of cataclysms, arising from two distinct causes. First, the volcanic cataclysm arising from volcanic workings. These cataclysms affect local areas only. Second, the magnetic cataclysm, caused by a lurch of the earth going back into magnetic balance. A magnetic cataclysm results from the earth getting out of magnetic balance. The earth is out of magnetic balance when her pole gets drawn towards the sun more than 23 1/2 degrees from its mean position. When the pole has been drawn more than 23 1/2 degrees from mean, the earth's gyroscopical force carries it back at too great a velocity, which causes a displacement of the earth's surface waters. During the early part of the earth's history, magnetic cataclysms were of frequent occurence, as shown by various rock formations. They continued down to the end of the Tertiary Era, when the earth's crust had been so thickened and compacted that the earth went into the final magnetic balance." [Col. James Churchward]

15,000 B.C. - Height of Civilization / Uighur - "Chinese legend tells that the Uighurs were at the height of their civilization about 17,000 years ago. This date agrees with geological phenomenon."

15,000 B.C. - Destruction / Uighur Empire - "Various Oriental traditions record that the destruction of the Uighur Empire occurred 17,000 years ago.... The Uighurs were the forefathers of all of the present-day Aryan Races." [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.133-134]

15,000 B.C. - Species Extinction - "... in different parts of the earth (for different reasons and at different times) the long epoch of glaciation witnessed several quite distinct episodes of extinction. In all areas, the vast majority of the many destroyed species were lost in the final seven thousand years from about 15,000 BC down to 8,000 BC.... In the New World, for example, more than seventy genera of large animals became extinct between 15,000 BC and 8,000 BC, including all North American members of seven families, and one complete order, the Proboscidea. These staggering losses, involving the violent obliteration of more than 40 million animals, were not spread out evenly over the whole period; on the contrary, the vast majority of the extinctions occured in just two thousand years, between 11,000 BC and 9000 BC. To put this in perspective, during the previous 300,000 years only about twenty genera had disappeared.
"The same pattern of late and massive extinctions was repeated across Europe and Asia. Even far-off Australia was not exempt, losing perhaps nineteen genera of large vertebrates, not all of them mammals, in a relatively short period of time.
"The northern regions of Alaska and Siberia appear to have been the worst hit by the murderous upheavals between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. In a great swathe of death around the edge of the Artic Circle the remains of uncountable numbers of large animals have been found - including many carcases with the flesh still intact, and astonishing quantities of perfectly preserved mammoth tusks. Indeed, in both regions, mammoth carcases have been thawed to feed to sled dogs and mammoth steaks have featured on restaurant menus in Fairbanks. One authority has commented, 'Hundreds of thousands ofindividuals must have been frozen immediately after death and remained frozen, otherwise the meat and the ivory would have spoiled ... Some powerful general force was certainly at work to bring the catastrophe about.' " [Graham Hancock, Fingerprints Of The Gods, p. 212-213]


15,000 B.C.

14,000 B.C. - Height of Civilization / Atlantis - "A reported date marking the height of Atlantian civilization."

14,000 B.C. - Lower Egypt - "The Nile Colony was the original name of Lower Egypt. It was started at Sais on the Nile Delta by Mayas, coming from Atlantis under the leadership of Thoth about 16,000 years ago. Thoth was the Son of an Atlantean Priest, who founded a temple at Sais on the banks of the Nile, where he taught the Osirian Religion. Thoth was the god of writing, learning, and medicine. It was he who composed the early and most important portions [the 64th chapter] of the Book of the Dead at the commencement of Egyptian Civilization. He was depicted as having the head of an ibis bird." [Col. James Churchward]

14,000 B.C. - Egyptian Book of the Dead - "The earliest texts bear within themselves proofs, not only of having been composed, but also of having been revised, or edited, long before the days of king Meni, and judging from many passages in the copies inscribed in hieroglyphics upon the pyramids of Unas [the last king of the Vth dynasty, about B.C. 3,333], and Teta, Pepi I., Mer-en-Ra, and Pepi II. [kings of the VIth dynasty, about B.C. 3,300-3,166], it would seem that, even at that remote date, the scribes were perplexed and hardly understood the texts which they had before them. The most moderate estimate makes certain sections of the Book of the Dead as known from these tombs older than three thousand years before Christ. We are in any case justified in estimating the earliest form of the work to be contemporaneous with the foundation of the civilization which we call Egyptian in the valley of the Nile."

14,000 B.C. - Egyptian Sky Chart - "Reportedly, the original sky chart of the remote Ancient Egyptians [dating back to 11:57 pm July 3rd 14,000 BCE] was incorporated into the Narmer Plate in 4,468 B.C. Plato [4th century B.C.] reported that the Egyptians had observed the stars 'for ten thousand years'."

14,000 B.C. - Human Art / France - "Several thousand engravings are made at La Marche, France, mostly of animals but also including some humans."

14,000 B.C. - Human Civilization / Peru - "Reportedly, sixteen thousand years or more ago Peru enjoyed a civilization as prominent as the civilization of Yucatan - this was about the time Egyptian history commenced."
"The walls of Sacsahuaman in Peru, that in a certain way resemble the underwater constructions of Bimini, are an archeological mystery because they date back to an ancient age and because the stones are disposed in a way to appear merged together. Nobody can explain how such big stones, with so strange internal and external angles, were transported, cut and measured, and disposed with precise purposes, but also in an irregular manner by prehistorical people, so ancient that even Incas haven't documentations on them. Some of the lines near Nazca [Peru] continue in parallel for kilometers though they come across mountains and valleys on their way. Who could trace them and what was their purpose?" Link 1 [8th and 9th photos]."

14,000 B.C. - Cara Maya - "Maya records state that Karas [Carians, Chancas] made settlements along the coasts of South and Central America [Mayax] during the time of Queen Moo. According to the Troano Manuscript, Queen Moo lived 16,000 years ago." [Col. James Churchward]."

14,000 B.C. - Manoa - "According to legends, a group of Cara Mayas left Central America and founded the city of Manoa [The City of Gold] more than sixteen thousand yearsago." [Col. James Churchward]

14,000 B.C. - Tiahuanaco - "On top of the Andes Mountains, 13,500 feet above the level of the Pacific Ocean on the shores of Lake Titicaca, are the ruins of a prehistoric city called Tiahuanaco. Among the ruins of this city there is a wonderful monolith called by archaeologists 'one of the archaeological wonders of the world.' It is completely covered with inscriptions, most of which are Cara-Maya. The stone is reportedly about 16,000 years old." [Col. James Churchward]

14,000 B.C.

13,800 B.C. - Fossil Remains / Dogs - "Fossil remains of dogs have been found in human-occupied caves. Reportedly the oldest date back some 14,000 years."

13,000 B.C.

13,000 B.C. - Mountains - "Many records show that from 12,000 to 15,000 years ago mountains were unknown. Reportedly, the Bible relates that the waters of the 'flood' rose 26 feet and covered the mountains. Also, in Psalms, there is a reference: 'before the mountains were raised.' Many of the Central Asiatic tribes date their time from the raising of the Himalayas and mountains of Central Asia. The Zulus claim that they came to South Africa from the north, as their country in the north was ruined by the raising of the mountains. Legends say that hundreds of millions of lives were lost during the raising of the Asiatic mountains. Geological phenomena throughout the world confirm the fact that mountains are of recent origin. But the greatest exibits of all are: the Valley of Mexico and the Andes in south America [Col. James Churchward]."

*Trivia: "The Bible relates that the waters of the 'Flood' rose 26 feet and covered the mountains. In Psalms there is a reference 'before the mountains were raised.' Many of the Central Asiatic tribes date their time from the raising of the Himalayas and mountains of Central Asia. The Zulus claim that they came to South Africa from the north, as their country in the north was ruined by the raising of the mountains." [Col. James Churchward,The Children Of Mu, pp. 53-54]

13,000 B.C. - Melting Ice? / North America - "The Tazewell Advance saw the North American glaciation reach its maximum extent around 15,000 B.C. By 13,000 B.C., however, millions of square miles of ice had melted, for reasons that have never properly been explained, and by 8,000 B.C. the Wisconsin had withdrawn completely." [Based on, popular Geological Theory]

13,000 B.C. - Transition Period - "Fifteen thousand years ago in a span of several decades a dramatic shift in global weather brought a rapid end to the cold, glacial Pleistocene epoch. The impact of this period of intense transitions for humanity is aptly expressed in the survival of flood epics in so many now disparate mythologies." [link number 14]

* Trivia: "Since 13,000 B.C. a vast area of land [the size of Australia, Canada, and North America combined], now [2,000 A.D.] lies below sea level. For the most part, modern archaeology continues to 'avoid' this area, in spite of the numerous man-made structures that litter its surface."

13,000 B.C. - Upper Egypt - "Both Indian and Egyptian records speak about a settlement called Maioo, in Nubia [Upper Egypt] near the modern town of Suakin. Colonization reportedly took place somewhere in the neighborhood of 15,000 years ago. Valmiki: 'The Mayas from India established a colony in Egypt, giving it the name of Maioo.' Valmiki in 'Ramayana,' Vol 1, page 342, Fauche's translation reads: 'The Naacals first established themselves in the Deccan, India, and from there carried their religion and learning to the colonies of Babylonia and Egypt'." [Col. James Churchward]

13,000 B.C. - Egyptian Agriculture - "At some point between 13,000 B.C. and 10,000 B.C. Egypt has enjoyed a period of what has been described as 'precocious' agricultural development - possibly the earliest agricultural revolution anywhere in the world identified with certainty by historians. This golden age of agricultural plenty, however, was brought to an abrupt halt around the middle of the 11th millennium B.C. "

12,410 - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -

12,000 B.C.

12,000 B.C. - Ancient Letters - "In one of the caves at Mas d'azil in southern France, as in Spain, Portugal and England, pebbles were found covered with mysterious geometrical signs and decorations partly similar to letters of our alphabet [ex: M, T, EI]. The French archaeologist Piette dated them as far back as 12,000 to 8,000 B.C."

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11,000 B.C. - Ancient Human Bones / North America - "In 1959, the partial skeletal remains of an ancient woman estimated to be 10,000 years old were unearthed in Arlington Springs on Santa Rosa Island, one of the eight Channel Islands off the southern California coast. They were discovered by Phil C. Orr, curator of anthropology and natural history at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. The remains of the so-called Arlington Springs woman were recently reanalyzed by the latest radiocarbon dating techniques and were found to be approximately 13,000 years old. The new date makes her remains older than any other known human skeleton found so far in North America."
*Trivia: "In 1959-60, two femurs were excavated at a site called Arlington Springs on Santa Rosa Island. Responsible for the digs was Phil C. Orr, Curator of Anthropology at the Museum of Natural History in Santa Barbara. He published his findings in Science 135, 3499 (1962): 219 and American Antiquity 27, 3 (1962): 417-419, followed up by full account in Prehistory of Santa Rosa Island (Santa Barbara, 1968). Jon Erlandson reviews the evidence Orr collected at Arlington Springs in Early Hunter-Gatherers of the California Coast (New York: Plenum, 1994), pp. 184-186.... The main discovery is that Arlington Springs Man was in fact a woman and significantly earlier than previously thought. Radiocarbon dating has moved Orr's estimate of 10,000 years ago back to 13,000 B.P."

11,000 B.C. - Holocene Period - "The Holocene is the name given to the last 11,000 years of the Earth's history - the time since the end of the last major glacial epoch, or 'ice age'. Since then, there have been small-scale climate shifts but in general, the Holocene has been a relatively warm period in between ice ages." Links: 1

*Commentary: "The geological Glacial Period is one of those bizarre, fantastic, mythical theories that has taken strong root in the minds of our present-day scientists. The Glacial Period is history repeating itself. Such scientific misconceptions have pervaded the scientific world all through history and even back beyond historical times, as is shown by the symbolical Tower of Babel; and when there was Atlas disturbing the scientific fraternity until they clubbed together and unceremoniously buried him in the Northwest corner of Africa. The Glacial Period is really modern and up-to-date, for it boasts of having a family of little glaciations, so that there will be some support for it in its old age. Agassiz and his assistants, who framed the Glacial Period Theory and surrounded it with such a corrollary of impossibilities, never studied the origin and workings of forces or natural laws, otherwise they would never have foisted such a raw scientific proposition on an unsuspecting public." [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, pp.114-115]

*Commentary: "To form an ice cap around the Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere down to the 40th Parallel, of a thickness of 20,000 feet, would require more water than now exists in the Artic Ocean, North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Where did the water come from? and where has it gone to since? The water which formed the Northern Ice Cap could not have come from the the South, because the South Pole was imitating her northern sister by dressing herself also up in an equally imposing ice cap. Between the two, there was more water used in forming these two lumps of ice than now exists on the face of the earth!" [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.125]

*Commentary: "The earth has been subjected to two forms of cataclysms, arising from two distinct causes. First, the volcanic cataclysm arising from volcanic workings. These cataclysms affect local areas only. Second, the magnetic cataclysm, caused by a lurch of the earth going back into magnetic balance. A magnetic cataclysm results from the earth getting out of magnetic balance. The earth is out of magnetic balance when her pole gets drawn towards the sun more than 23 1/2 degrees from its mean position. When the pole has been drawn more than 23 1/2 degrees from mean, the earth's gyroscopical force carries it back at too great a velocity, which causes a displacement of the earth's surface waters. During the early part of the earth's history, magnetic cataclysms were of frequent occurence, as shown by various rock formations. They continued down to the end of the Tertiary Era, when the earth's crust had been so thickened and compacted that the earth went into the final magnetic balance." [Col. James Churchward]

11,000 B.C. - Gas Belts - "Gas belts could not form until after the rock above was too thick to raise and puncture. This occured about 12,500 to 13,000 years ago, so that mountains are of camparatively recent origin." [Col. James Churchward]

11,000 B.C. - Species Extinction - "... in different parts of the earth (for different reasons and at different times) the long epoch of glaciation witnessed several quite distinct episodes of extinction. In all areas, the vast majority of the many destroyed species were lost in the final seven thousand years from about 15,000 BC down to 8,000 BC.... In the New World, for example, more than seventy genera of large animals became extinct between 15,000 BC and 8,000 BC, including all North American members of seven families, and one complete order, the Proboscidea. These staggering losses, involving the violent obliteration of more than 40 million animals, were not spread out evenly over the whole period; on the contrary, the vast majority of the extinctions occured in just two thousand years, between 11,000 BC and 9000 BC. To put this in perspective, during the previous 300,000 years only about twenty genera had disappeared.
"The same pattern of late and massive extinctions was repeated across Europe and Asia. Even far-off Australia was not exempt, losing perhaps nineteen genera of large vertebrates, not all of them mammals, in a relatively short period of time.
"The northern regions of Alaska and Siberia appear to have been the worst hit by the murderous upheavals between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. In a great swathe of death around the edge of the Artic Circle the remains of uncountable numbers of large animals have been found - including many carcases with the flesh still intact, and astonishing quantities of perfectly preserved mammoth tusks. Indeed, in both regions, mammoth carcases have been thawed to feed to sled dogs and mammoth steaks have featured on restaurant menus in Fairbanks. One authority has commented, 'Hundreds of thousands ofindividuals must have been frozen immediately after death and remained frozen, otherwise the meat and the ivory would have spoiled ... Some powerful general force was certainly at work to bring the catastrophe about.' " [Graham Hancock, Fingerprints Of The Gods, p. 212-213]

11,000 B.C. - North American Extinction - "Reportedly, a mass extinction occurred in parts of North America and coincided with the growing population of Indian hunters."


11,000 B.C. - Plentiful Wild Game / Ohio - "North-central Ohio's flat, almost featureless landscape is covered with fields of corn, soybeans, wheat, and alfalfa as far as the eye can see. But at Sheriden Cave, more than 32 feet below the surface, we have found remains of plants and animals that tell of a very different landscape at the end of the Ice Age, some 12,000 to 13,000 years ago. Then, there were spruce and pine parklands, open patches of grassland interrupted by occasional cedars, and shallow streams and wetlands bounded by willows and poplars. Some of the animals inhabiting this landscape - white-tailed deer, raccoon, woodchuck, and fox - are found in Ohio today, while others - caribou, pine marten, and lemming - were far south of their modern ranges. Most spectacular were the now extinct species, including short-faced bear, giant beaver, stag moose, and herds of pig-like peccaries. In this game-rich environment, a small band of hunters made use of the cave."

11,000 B.C. - Egyptian Rock Art - "Rock art in the El-Hosh area of Upper Egypt has been firmly dated to at least 8,000 years old, making it the oldest artwork ever recorded in the Nile Valley. One of the samples, taken from a typical 'fish-trap' design, gave a radiocarbon date of about 5,900 to 5,300 B.C. This date provides a minimum-age estimate for the petroglyphs. It is estimated that the curvilinear designs are between 13,000 and 8,000 years old, well beyond the age of any other graphic activity known in the Nile Valley. "

10,970 B.C. - Equinox at Leo - "According to one report, the Age of Leo spanned from 10,970 B.C. to 8,810 B.C." [Based on, Fingerprints Of The Gods, p. 240, by Graham Hancock]

10,500 B.C. - Stone-Age Egyptians - "No one knows exactly why, but after about 10,500 B.C. the early sickle blades and grinding disappear to be replaced throughout Egypt by hunting, fishing and gathering peoples who use stone tools."

10,500 B.C. - Giza Complex - "Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock argue that in 10,500 BCE, an advanced culture in Egypt decided upon the ground plan of the Giza complex." [The Stargate Conspiracy, p. 24]

10,500 B.C. - Skulls - "Reportedly, specimens of modern humans after about 10,500 B.C. have smaller craniums. Another skull coming from Ica [Peru] and Merida [Mexico] is equivalent to the modern skull type, but with several factors out of proportion. The eye sockets are about 15% larger than the ones of a modern man skull, but the most significant thing is the cranial capacity, that ranges between minimum of 2,600 and maximum of 3,200 ccm [our current cranial capacity is about 1,450 ccm!]."

10,500 B.C. - Jomon Period / Japan - "Japanese Jomon [cord pattern] Period [10,500-300 B.C.]."

10,450 B.C. - Giza Pyramids - "According to archaeo-astronomer Robert Bauval, the pattern traced out on the ground [in almost fifteen million tons of perfectly dressed stone] matched exactly the pattern in the sky [of Orion's belt] during the epoch of 10,450 B.C. Using a sophisticated computer programme capable of plotting the precessionally induced changes in the declinations of all the stars visible in the sky over any part of the world in any epoch, Bauval found that the Pyramids/Orion's Belt correlation was general and obvious in all all epochs, but specific and exact in only one: At 10,450 B.C. - and at that date only - we find that the pattern of the pyramids on the ground provides a perfect reflection of the pattern of the stars in the sky."

10,000 B.C. - Sumer - "Although Mesopotamia was a world leader in numerous aspects from around 10,000 B.C., there appears to have been a very marked further advancement from about 4,000 B.C. when southern Mesopotamia became identified as Sumer and the truly municipal cities flourished. By that time they were formally recognized as city-states which operated as individual kingdoms, and it is the story of the amazing rise of Sumer which provides the very thrust of the patriarchal narrative in Genesis. This sudden cultural expansion was not simply a matter of general evolvement; it was a mighty technical and academic revolution which has long baffled scholars and historians worldwide."

10,000 B.C. - Egyptian / Sphinx - "The Sphinx is supposed to have been built by Khafre around 2,500 B.C., but since the beginning of dynastic times - say 3,000 B.C. onwards - there just hasn't been enough rain on the Giza plateau to have caused the very extensive erosion that we see all over the Sphinx's body. You really have to go back to before 10,000 B.C. to find a wet enough climate in Egypt to account for weathering of this type and on this scale. It therefore follows that the Sphinx must have been built before 10,000 B.C. and since it's a massive, sophisticated work of art it also follows that it must have been built by a high civilization."

10,000 B.C. - Thailand Settlements - "Over 10,000 years ago, man lived near the waterways in the north and central Thailand. Archaeological evidence of Neolithic settlements has been discovered in an area covering no less than 40 provinces. They include tools and decorative objects made of flint, bone and shells. Primitive paintings dating to this period exist in a number of caves."

10,000 B.C. - Burma Disaster - "The ancient civilization of Burma was reportedly wiped out about 12,000 years ago, during the forging of various gas belts, and the raising of mountains." [Col. James Churchward]

10,000 B.C. - Mu Disaster - Reportedly: "Nearly the entire continent of Mu fell into the Pacific Ocean around 10,000 B.C. After the sinking of the Motherland Mu, all civilizations throughout the world either degenerated or came to a standstill, not only Egypt, but all others, including India." [Col. James Churchward]

*Commentary: "At the destruction of Mu, the King and High Priest of the Motherland, addressed the pleading crowds, saying: 'You shall all die together, you and your servants and your riches. From your ashes new nations shall arise and if they forget they are superior, not because of what they put on but what they put out, the same will befall them.' [Col. James Churchward, The Sacred Symbols of Mu, p. 34]

10,000 B.C. - Nez Perce / North America - "The Nez Perce are a North American Indian people of the Sahaptin family. The name is from the French and means pierced nose. They lived in the Wallowa Valley of Oregon, Washington and Idaho for some 12,000 years."

10,000 B.C. - Lake Titicaca Ruins - "There are stone 'ruins' more 'ancient' than the stone causeway leading out of Lake Titicaca. These 'ruins' are buried under six feet of 'sediment' on the shallow 'bottom' of Lake Titicaca. The sediment contains 'pre-historic' [more ancient than 12,000 B.C.] sea shell fossils."

10,000 B.C. - Antartica - "According to theorists, the continent of Antartica [between 10,000 to13,000 yrs. ago] drifted to its present location as the result of earth-crust displacement. The combined effect of the Piri Reis, Oronteus Finaeus, Mercator, and Buache maps is the strong, though disturbing, impression that Antartica may have been continuously surveyed over a period of several thousands of years as the ice cap gradually spread outwards from the interior, increasing its grip with every passing millennium but not engulfing all the coasts of the southern continent until around 4000 B.C."

10,000 B.C. - Ruins / Bimini - "The ruins of temples dated at 12,000 years old have been found near Bimini, Bahamas. Preliminary analysis has revealed that the original structures, although smaller in size than the Great Pyramid of Giza, appear to have been more advanced. Casing stones have been measured which are of the same unique angle as those at the Great Pyramid. The ruins are megalithic and bear a remarkable resemblance to ancient sites in Egypt. So called 'quarry marks' found in the Aswan quarries and also on the Great Pyramid, itself, appear to be identical matches with those found on the Bimini temple stones. Other characteristics closely match features at megalithic sites in Peru, the Yucatan, Ireland and Scandinavia."

10,000 B.C.

10,000 B.C. - Glacial Decline - "During this period [10,000 - 8,000 B.C.], the last period of glaciation that Earth has experienced [so far] was drawing to its close. The glaciers were receding, and Earth's climate was beginning to approach what it is today.
"With the glaciers gone, great changes came about. The Sahara Desert, for instance, once a lush grassland, began to dry out and become a desert. The land-bridges joining Asia with North America in the north, and with Australia in the south, were drowned. The people, who had now occupied the Americas and Australia were separated from the main population on the World Island and would remain separated for over 9000 years...."
"... large strands of wild grain grew throughout the Middle East." [Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World, p. 23]

* Commentary: "The geological Glacial Period is one of those bizarre, fantastic, mythical theories that has taken strong root in the minds of our present-day scientists. The Glacial Period is history repeating itself. Such scientific misconceptions have pervaded the scientific world all through history and even back beyond historical times, as is shown by the symbolical Tower of Babel; and when there was Atlas disturbing the scientific fraternity until they clubbed together and unceremoniously buried him in the Northwest corner of Africa. The Glacial Period is really modern and up-to-date, for it boasts of having a family of little glaciations, so that there will be some support for it in its old age. Agassiz and his assistants, who framed the Glacial Period Theory and surrounded it with such a corrollary of impossibilities, never studied the origin and workings of forces or natural laws, otherwise they would never have foisted such a raw scientific proposition on an unsuspecting public." [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, pp.114-115]

* Commentary: "To form an ice cap around the Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere down to the 40th Parallel, of a thickness of 20,000 feet, would require more water than now exists in the Artic Ocean, North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Where did the water come from? and where has it gone to since? The water which formed the Northern Ice Cap could not have come from the the South, because the South Pole was imitating her northern sister by dressing herself also up in an equally imposing ice cap. Between the two, there was more water used in forming these two lumps of ice than now exists on the face of the earth!" [Col. James Churchward, Cosmic Forces of Mu, Volume Two, p.125]

* Commentary: "The earth has been subjected to two forms of cataclysms, arising from two distinct causes. First, the volcanic cataclysm arising from volcanic workings. These cataclysms affect local areas only. Second, the magnetic cataclysm, caused by a lurch of the earth going back into magnetic balance. A magnetic cataclysm results from the earth getting out of magnetic balance. The earth is out of magnetic balance when her pole gets drawn towards the sun more than 23 1/2 degrees from its mean position. When the pole has been drawn more than 23 1/2 degrees from mean, the earth's gyroscopical force carries it back at too great a velocity, which causes a displacement of the earth's surface waters. During the early part of the earth's history, magnetic cataclysms were of frequent occurence, as shown by various rock formations. They continued down to the end of the Tertiary Era, when the earth's crust had been so thickened and compacted that the earth went into the final magnetic balance." [Col. James Churchward]

10,000 B.C. - Native Americans / Tennessee - "Reportedly, Native Americans lived in Tennessee about 12,000 years ago."

10,000 B.C. - Villages and Towns - "From around 10,000 – 7,000 B.C. communities based on agriculture [link 7] appeared in various places throughout the world. Excavations at Catal Huyuk in what is now Turkey, Teleilat el Ghassul in the Jordan valley, the Hussuna, Samarran and Halaf cultures of the Mesopotamian plain just to mention a few, all show conclusively that these early agricultural communities were well planned villages and towns, some with elaborate irrigation and even sanitation systems. One of the most striking features about these communities however, was the fact they were all built without any fortifications or defenses of any kind. And astonishingly these early cultures didn’t manufacture weapons of war."

9,975 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction - "Uranus-Pluto conjunctions and oppositions might bring sudden and radical changes, like a cathartic diarrhoea, yet their full integration takes ages."

Note: Uranus-Pluto configurations later than 577 B.C. represent estimated projections only. They are caluclated here by subtracting alternating multiples of 111 and 143 years." [Etznab Mathers]

9,945 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune."

Note: "Neptune-Pluto configurations later than 600 B.C. represent estimated projections only. They are caluclated here by subtracting alternating multiples of 493 years." [Etznab Mathers]

9,700 B.C. - African Ice Core Analysis - "A detailed analysis of six cores retrieved from the rapidly shrinking ice fields atop Tanzania's Mount Kilimanjaro shows that those tropical glaciers began to form about 11,700 years ago." [COLUMBUS, Ohio, October 22nd]

9,610 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

9,500 B.C. - Atlantis Disaster - "A traditional date when Atlantis 'began' to sink."

*Trivia: "When Atlantis was first submerged she only went down deep enough to be awash at low tide so that at low tide mud banks appeared with masses of seaweed which made the Northern Atlantic Ocean impassable. This fact is recorded in the temple histories of Egypt." [Col. James Churchward]

9,500 B.C. - Syrian Flood - "The Neolithic site of Abu Hureyra, 40 miles downstream from Jerf el-Ahmar, Syria, was flooded [9,500 - 6,100 B.C.] under the waters of the Taqba Dam in the 1970s."

9,500 B.C. - Athens Disaster - "From Egypt we learn that one of the Athenian capital cities, ancient Athens, was destroyed by earthquakes and submerged 11,500 years ago, about the same time that Atlantis was submerged. The Egyptians further tell us that ancient Athens was built 17,000 years ago." [Col. James Churchward, The Children ofMu]

9,500 B.C. - North American Mountains - "The various phenomena which are shown throughout the Valley of Mexico today demonstrate without the possibility of controversy that the mountain ranges in North America are not over 11,500 years old, if as much." [Col. James Churchward, The Children of Mu]

*Trivia: "The Bible relates that the waters of the 'Flood' rose 26 feet and covered the mountains. In Psalms there is a reference 'before the mountains were raised.' Many of the Central Asiatic tribes date their time from the raising of the Himalayas and mountains of Central Asia. The Zulus claim that they came to South Africa from the north, as their country in the north was ruined by the raising of the mountains." [Col. James Churchward, The Children Of Mu, pp. 53-54]

9,500 B.C. - Chinese Agriculture - "Rice cultivation began in China ca. 11,500 years ago, some 3,500 years earlier than previously believed, according to Chinese and Japanese archaeologists who studied 125 samples of rice grains, husks, plant remains, and grain impressions in pottery excavated from more than 100 sites along the Yangtze River. The oldest specimens were from sites on the middle Yangtze in Hubei and Hunan provinces, while samples from both upstream and downstream were dated between 10,000 and 4,000 years ago. Syuichi Toyama, an environmental archaeologist at Japan's Kogakukan University, says the evidence suggests rice cultivation began in the middle Yangtze and spread from there."

9,467 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction"

9,452 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto conjunction -

9,000 B.C. - Atlantis Disaster - "Traditional date when the continent of Atlantis sank beneath the waves. Researchers probing the ocean bottom have found 18-story-high towers of stone deep in the ocean near a section of volcanic fault ridges that extend for 6,200 miles along the Atlantic Ocean floor."

9,000 B.C. - Jericho Settlement - "This city, located near a permanent spring a few miles west of the Jordan River was excavated by Kathleen Kenyon. There were indications of settlement after 9,000 B.C. This settlement grew to city status by 7,000 B.C. and is perhaps the oldest continuously occupied city on Earth."

9,000 B.C. - Wooly Mammoth Extinction - "The wooly mammoth became extinct about 11,000 years ago."

9,000 B.C. - Large City / Iraq - "The town of Chemi Shanidar, later part of Iraq, was the largest city of the time with 150 people."

9,000 B.C. - Human Habitation / Denmark - "The finest record [9,000 B.C. - 4,000 B.C.] of Mesolithic and Neolithic peoples exists in Denmark, due to the country's numerous bogs."


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« Reply #5 on: February 21, 2007, 01:12:21 pm »

9,000 B.C. - Lunar Calendar / Uganda - "The Ishango bone from modern Uganda in equatorial east Africa was identified by Marshak as a Lunar Calendar, dated about 9,000 B.C."

9,000 B.C. - Wheat Cultivation / Turkey - "The wild progenitor of einkorn wheat, one of the first crops to be domesticated (ca. 9000 B.C.), has been identified genetically in southeastern Turkey, according to a report in the journal Science. Manfred Heun of the Agricultural University of Norway, along with Norwegian, German, and Italian colleagues, examined the DNA of 68 lines of cultivated einkorn (Triticum monococcum monococcum), 194 lines of wild einkorn (T. m. boeoticum) from nine geographical regions within the Fertile Crescent, and nine lines of a weedy einkorn (T. m. aegilopoides) found in the Balkans."

9,000 B.C. - Tools / North America - "The Wenachee site, dated to 11,000 B.P. and located in the Inner Columbia River Basin, presents evidence of a new assemblage of stone tools in the Americas at their earliest known horizon." [link 5]

8,810 B.C. - Equinox at Cancer - "About this time, the Vernal Equinox was at Cancer."

8,600 B.C. - Irish Elk - "Until this time, Irish Elk [Megaloceros giganteus] lived in temperate climates throughout Europe and western Asia."

8,500 B.C. - Cities / Middle East - "According to popular history, this was the date when the first cities were established in the Middle East. One of the leading contenders is Jericho."

8,466 - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "There are five major planets with average cycles of motion relevant to the study of history. These are: Pluto [250 years], Neptune [165 years], Uranus [84 years], Saturn [28 years] and Jupiter [12 years]."

8,451 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

8,000 B.C. - Neolithic Age - "According to popular history, this period [10,000 - 8,000 B.C.] in which herding and agriculture came into use, is called the 'New Stone Age' or [in Latin] the 'Neolithic Age.' "

8,000 B.C. - Glacial Decline / Northern Hemisphere - "Popular Belief: By 8,000 B.C. the Wisconsin Glaciation and the European Wurm Glaciation had withdrawn completely.

8,000 B.C. - Vedas - "Reportedly, the Vedas have been passed down through oral tradition for over 10,000 years, appearing in written form between 2,000 - 4,000 B.C."

8,000 B.C. - Ancient Ruins / India - "At Poompuhur, facing the Bay of Bengal, Indian divers found a horseshoe-shaped object, measuring 85 metres in length, in water more than 23 metres deep. According to one scientist, the land on which this structure was built last stood above water more than 11,000 years ago. In January [2002], Indian marine scientists discovered what may be the more extensive remains of two ancient cities in the Gulf of Cambay. The site spans an area of about 25 square kilometres, 35 metres deep, which, until as late as 6,900 years ago, was entirely above water. About 2,000 possibly man-made artifacts have been dredged and carbon-dated from 8,500 to 9,500 years old."

8,000 B.C. - Civilization / Ur - "The Ur culture developed during the Neolithic Age and became global in expanse by 8,000 B.C. According to popular belief: 'Where the Sumerians came from is still disputed. Typologically, the language of Sumer resembles Chinese, which suggests an eastern origin. Some scholars have proposed that the Sumerians came by ship, landing on the north shore of the Persian Gulf.' "

8,000 B.C. - Writing - "Clay tokens have been used since as early as 8,000 B.C. in Mesopotamia for some form of record-keeping."

8,000 B.C. - European Inscriptions - "Epigraphers remain perplexed concerning such ancient European inscriptions as the Azillian signary c.8000 B.C.E. from southern France."

8,000 B.C. - Stonehenge - "Stonehenge was for a long while thought to have built slowly - over about 1000 years between 2,100 and 1,100 BC. This chronology was called into question in 1996 by new archaeological evidence. Following a two-year study commisioned by the English Heritage Foundation, researchers concluded that the great circles of blustones and sarsens had in fact been put up between 2,600 BC and 2,030 BC. Less than a year after these results were published another study showed that the stone circles had been preceded by wooden circles of 6-metre pine 'totem poles' dated to 8,000 BC. [Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, by Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, p. xiii]

8,000 B.C. - Geography / Ireland - "The shape and landscape of present-day Ireland—an island of 27,100 square miles [70,200 square kilometers]—were formed 10,000 years ago when Atlantic Ocean glaciers slowly began their retreat. The event left the country rich with the soil that has nurtured Ireland's flora and fauna for centuries, and which offered a hospitable environment for migrating people to settle and plant seeds."

8,000 B.C. - Bog Bodies - "Over the past centuries, remains of many hundreds of people - men, women, and children - have come to light during peat cutting activities in northwestern Europe, especially in Ireland, Great Britain, the Netherlands, northern Germany, and Denmark. These are the "bog bodies." The individual bog bodies show a great degree of variation in their state of preservation, from skeletons, to well-preserved complete bodies, to isolated heads and limbs. They range in date from 8,000 B.C. to the early medieval period. Most date from the centuries around the beginning of our era. We do not know exactly how many bog bodies have been found--many have disappeared since their discovery."

8,000 B.C. - Florida Indians - "Florida's Aucilla River is yielding evidence of the adaptability of Paleoindians to their changing environment at the end of the Pleistocene, 10,000 years ago. For a decade, researchers from the Florida Museum of Natural History have been excavating the Page-Ladson site, and this past fall [1996] they uncovered the ground surface of a Paleoindian habitation at a depth of 15 feet. Radiocarbon dates place the beginning of the occupation at ca. 10,000 years ago. At the time, the site, now only five miles from the Gulf Coast near Tallahassee, was nearly 100 miles inland, and Florida's landscape resembled Africa's savannahs. Within 100 years, however, rising water at the end of the last glaciation flooded the site, sealing it with deposits that contain shells of freshwater molluscs."

8,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / South America - "The altiplano of Peru and Bolivia appears at first sight to be a very inhospitable land. Its high mountains, windswept plains, and icy waters of Lake Titicaca make it a stark, yet beautiful landscape. This 'high plain' (literally!) at a base elevation of 12,600 feet above sea level, is the ancestral home to the famous Andean animals (llamas and alpacas) and plants (potatoes and quiñoa). These creatures evolved in this harsh environment through natural selection. However, the highly successful human occupation of the area that began approximately 10,000 years ago depended largely on cultural adaptations, rather than biological ones. These cultural developments from the Archaic (ca.9,500- 4000 years ago) through the Formative Period (ca. 3200-2000 years ago) attest to a long period of economic and social intensification, a trend that is common throughout the world. In this 7,000 year span, we see the first colonization of the altiplano, the settling of permanent villages, and the rise of chiefly societies that formed the basis of Tiwanaku, one of the high civilizations of the New World. Dating of squash seeds from a cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, has confirmed that plant domestication in the Americas began some 10,000 years ago. The new finding, reported by Smithsonian archaeologist Bruce Smith in the journal Science, indicates that planting began in the New World about the same time as in the Near East and China."

7,422 B.C. - Copper Age - "Theoretical date for the beginning of the Copper Age based on computations using the number 2,160 years for the length of Kali Yuga."

7,420 B.C. - Mummy / Nevada - "A mummy excavated in 1940 and stored at the Nevada State Museum in Carson City was recently dated to ca. 7,420 B.C., making it the oldest mummy ever discovered in North America.

7,300 B.C. - Kennewick Man - "A skeleton was found in July, 1996 A.D. by the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington. It was named the 'Richland Man.' The 9,300 year old bones were later studied and determined to be most closely related to Asian people, particularly the Ainu of northern Japan. It was concluded in 2,000 A.D. that he was an American Indian. The bones were dated to 7514-7324 B.C. Most intriguing is that the mummy was wearing moccasins and shrouds of woven marsh plants. The weave of the shrouds indicates that it was made on a loom. 'Kennewick Man' represents the best-preserved - human remains yet found in this part of the world, among the oldest anywhere in North America."

7,300 B.C. - Neolithic Surgery - "New accelerator radiocarbon dating of the Dnieper Rapids cemeteries near Kiev in Ukraine by the Oxford Radiocarbon Laboratory has produced evidence that trepanation, the surgical removal of bone from the cranial vault, was performed during the Mesolithic period. During a study of 14 individuals at the Vasilyevka II cemetery, Malcolm C. Lillie, a geoarchaeologist and palaeoenvironmentalist at the University of Hull, found one skeleton [no. 6285-9] to have evidence of trepanation. The cemetery, excavated in 1953 by A.D. Stolyar, has been dated to 7,300-6,220 B.C., making the trepanned cranium the oldest known example of a healed trepanation yet discovered. The skull, which was originally reported in Russian by I.I. Gokhman in 1966, has a depression on its left side with a raised border of bone and 'stepping' in the center showing stages of healing during life. The complete closure indicates the survival of the patient, a man who was more than 50 years old at his death. The dates for the individual are 1,000-2,000 years earlier than those of the skull at Ensisheim in France, recently reported by Kurt Alt to be the earliest evidence for trepanation [see Neolithic Surgery, September/October 1997]."

7,000 B.C. - Chinese Flute - "Archaeologists discover a 9,000 year old playable Flute in China. The 8.6 inch instrument in pristine condition has seven holes and was made from a hollow bone of a bird, the red-crowned crane. It is one of six flutes and 30 fragments recovered from the Jiahu arcaeological site in henan province."

7,000 B.C. - Human Skeleton / England - "In 1903 A.D. a skeleton of a man, 9,000 years old, was discovered in the underground caves at Cheddar, 130 miles west of London, England."

7,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / Alaska - "The Discovery Channel's latest archaeological offering takes mummy-mania to an unpublicized corner of the known mummy world - Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The Unangan, seafaring ancestors of today's Aleut, made their home in the barren archipelago for some 9,000 years, honing techniques for hunting large sea mammals, building sturdy houses, and, perhaps surprisingly, perfecting ritual mummification in a hostile, wet climate."

7,000 B.C.

6,800 B.C. - Jarmo Settlement / Iraq - "Reportedly, the settlement of Jarmo, in the foothills of northern Iraq, dates to about 6,800 B,C."

6,500 B.C. - Equinox at Gemini - "About this time, the Vernal Equinox was at Gemini."

6,500 B.C. - Catalhuyuk - "A prehistoric city located in Anatolia, or modern day Turkey where a number of artifacts appear to support evidence for the widespread practice of Goddess worship. Reportedly, 'the oldest layer of Catal Huyuk yet excavated [virgin soil has not yet been reached] is reliably carbon dated to 6,500 B.C.' "

6,500 B.C. - Mexican Step Pyramid - "Just south of the university campus of Mexico City, off the main road connecting the capital to Cuernavaca, stands a circular step pyramid of great complexity [with four galleries and a central staircase]. It was partially excavated in the 1920's from beneath a mantle of lava. Geologists were called to the site to help date the lava, and carried out a detailed examination. To everyone's surprise, they concluded that the volcanic eruption which had completely buried three sides of this pyramid [and had then gone on to cover about sixty square miles of the surrounding territory] must have taken place at least seven thousand years ago. It is worth noting, however that Byron Cummings, the American Archaeologist who origianally excavated the site for the national geographic Society, was convinced by clearly demarcated stratification layers above and below the pyramid [laid down both before and after the volcanic eruption] that it was 'the oldest temple yet uncovered on the American continent.' He went further than the geologists and stated categorically that this temple 'fell into ruins some 8,500 years ago.' "

6,200 B.C. - Domesticated Cattle - "The archeological record shows traces of domesticated cattle back to this time."

6,001 - Neptune-Pluto conjunction -

6,000 B.C. - Ocean-Going Vessels / Mesopotamia - "By 6,000 BC, the people of the Mesopotamian Near East were using ships on the open sea."

6,000 B.C. - Flax Cultivation - "Flax was being cultivated well before 6,000 B.C."

6,000 B.C. - Pottery Established - "By 6,000 B.C. pottery was a well established product."

6,000 B.C. - City / Ugarit - "Ugarit experienced a very long history. A city was built on the site in the Neolithic period around 6,000 B.C. Since the discovery of the Ugaritic texts, the study of the Old Testament has never been the same."

6,000 B.C. - Ancient Structure / Japan - "The submerged structure near the isle of Yonaguni [Japan], that is approximately 75 ft under the sea level, which has an evident artificial origin; it is 600 ft wide and 90 ft high, and it's about 8,000 years old." Links: 1 [7th photo]

6,000 B.C.

5,500 B.C. - Cities Established / Mesopotamia - "Reportedly: "Cities, or settlements which became cities, existed in Mesopotamia from 5,500 B.C. The earlier cities lay in the northern part of Iraq, and in northeastern Syria. City living quickly spread down the Euphrates River and into the valley of the Tigris River, reaching the swamps at the head of the Persian Gulf before 4,000 B.C." Links: 1, 2

5,546 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

5,400 B.C. - Human Settlement / Eridu - "Mesopotamia is located on the fertile flood plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in a hot desert ecology. Human settlements based on irrigation agriculture first appeared coincident to the establishment of Eridu about 7,400 BP. A great stepped tower, a ziggurat, which culminated a series of 20 structures built one upon another during a span of 3,500 years evidences Eridu's importance. Public architectural monuments were the focus of early Mesopotamian community centers. By 6,500 BP. large scale canal systems and many towns with public architecture had been founded. Eridu was the largest."

5,508 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -

5,292 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto conjunction."

5,149 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto conjunction."

5,038 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto conjunction."

5,015 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -

5,000 B.C. - Horus - "According to reports, many Egyptologists have endowed Horus with a grand old age. He commenced life at the time of Osiris 22,000 years ago and kept up his health and strength down to the time of Menes 5,000 years ago. A grand old age of 17,000 years. This goes the Hindu mistranslation about Rama one better. Rama lasted only 10,000 years. From the commencement of Egyptian history, and apparently for thousands of years, Egypt was governed by the Church with a Horus. The last Horus as the Hieratic head of religion in Lower Egypt was the Horus that immediately preceded King Menes, according to Manetho [in the writings of Manetho there are references to six different Horuses as Hieratic heads]. The date of Mena, the first king of Egypt, is variously given B.C. 5,867 [Champollion], B.C. 5,004 [Mariette], B.C. 5,892 [Lepsius], and B.C. 4,455 [Brugsch]."

5,000 B.C. - Megaliths / Egypt - "Standing megaliths and a ring of stones were erected from 6,700 to 7,000 years ago in the southern Sahara desert. They are the oldest dated astronomical alignment discovered so far and bear a striking resemblance to Stonehenge and other megalithic sites constructed a millennium later in England, Brittany, and Europe."

5,000 B.C. - Sahara Ecology - "Dried-up riverbeds as well as cave paintings indicate that at this time the Sahara was a land of flowing rivers, lush green pastures, and forests."

5,000 B.C. - I Ching - "The I Ching, or Book of Changes, is the most widely read of the five Chinese Classics. The book was traditionally written by the legendary Chinese Emperor Fu Hsi [2953-2838 B.C.]. It is possible that the the I Ching originated from a prehistoric divination technique which dates back as far as 5,000 B.C. Futher commentaries were added by King Wen and the Duke of Chou in the eleventh century B.C."

5,000 B.C. - Trepanation - "A 7,000-year-old burial at Ensisheim, in the French region of Alsace, has yielded the earliest [1997] unequivocal evidence for trepanation, according to Kurt W. Alt of Freiburg University and his colleagues. Trepanation is a surgical operation that involves the removal of a rectangle or disk of bone from the cranial vault. Most previous claims to cases predating the Late Neolithic age have been shown to be untreated head injuries or the results of decomposition."

5,000 B.C. - Human Habitation / Lebanon - "Stone age farmers and fisherman inhabited the area around Byblos, Lebanon. Archeologists at Byblos found at least 12 layers of civilizations that dated back 7,000 years."

5,000 B.C.

4,900 B.C. - Abandonment / Catalhuyuk - "An estimated date when the Catalhuyuk area was abandoned."

4,895 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

4,784 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

4,700 B.C. - Megaliths / Carnac - " 'Prehistory' itself is just the name that we give to the almost total amnesia that our species has suffered concerning more than 40,000 years of our own past. This amnesia covers the entire period from the emergence of anatomically modern humans until the first 'historical records' began to be written down in Sumer and in Egypt in the third millenium BC.
"Out of that long period of amnesia, and from its borders with history, a number of mighty monuments have come down to us. These include rock-hewn temples, circles of megaliths, and sacred sites arranged in dead straight lines over vast distances, such as the avenues of standing stones at Carnac in northern France. One earthern mound there, which contains a megalithic passageway orientated to the winter solstice sunrise, has been carbon-dated to 4.700 BC. [Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, by Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, pp. x-xi]


4,641 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

4,530 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

4,522 - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -

4,500 B.C. - Elephants / China - "A sacrificial dump [4,500 - 2,000 B.C.] in Guanghan, Sichuan Province, in China was uncovered in 1976. Large quantities of elephants tusks reveal that elephants roamed the area. Human figures, monster masks, and tree fragments made of bronze tubes were also found."

4,500 B.C. - Cities / Assyria - "Between 4,500 and 2,400 B.C., complex societies appear in the form of cities, with craft specialization and writing. These features were associated with the Sumerians, but they quickly spread to other parts of Mesopotamia, including Assyria. In Assyria, settlements had become large and guarded by fortifications walls, which implies the risk of attack from outside, and hence the need for defense and warfare.

4,500 B.C. - Burial Cave / Galilee - "A 6,500-year-old burial cave full of clay ossuaries, ceramic and stone vessels, figurines thought to have been ritual objects, and piles of human skulls and bones has been discovered in Galilee in northern Israel. Until now, archaeologists believed that Chalcolithic cultures in different parts of Israel were more or less self-sufficient. But clay jugs found at the new site are similar to those uncovered in the Golan Heights, and bronze ax heads are like those from the Judean Desert, suggesting some interaction between cultures. The ossuaries, however, are unique. 'Decorated ossuary facades characteristic of this period that depict human faces are flat, with protruding noses,' says Zvi Gal, director of the Israel Antiquities Authority Northern Region. 'Here we found three-dimensional sculpted heads, with distinct eyes, noses, and ears, unlike any ever found.' "

4,468 B.C. - Narmer Plate - "The original sky chart of the remote Ancient Egyptians was incorporated into the Narmer Plate in 4,468 B.C."

4,387 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction"

4,380 B.C. - Equinox at Taurus - "The immediate predecessor of the Age of Aries was the Age of Taurus - the Bull - which spanned the period between 4,380 B.C. and 2,200 B.C. It was during this precessional epoch [when the sun on the vernal equinox rose in the constellation of Taurus] that the Bull-cult of Minoan Crete flourished. It is interesting to note that at the very beginning of the dynastic period, the Egyptians were already venerating the Apis and Mnevis Bulls. Furthermore, the Sumerians represented the Bull of Heaven with human head and bull's body. The Greek representations of the Minotaur, depict him with human body and bull's head." Links: 1

4,276 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto conjunction."

4,241 B.C. - Egyptian Calendar - "A date believed to indicate the earliest recorded date in the Egyptian calendar."

4,200 B.C. - Rise of Patriarchy - " The Great Cycle of the Mayan calendar definitely has relevance to something, but what? If we look back into the past we will rediscover that the event which coincides with the beginning of the Great Cycle is none other than the birth of written language. This time in the evolution of our species represents the commencement of history itself. The period from 4200 to 3000 BC also coincides with the rise of patriarchy which ended the peaceful goddess culture that existed before history during the Early Neolithic."

4,133 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto conjunction."

4,029 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto conjunction -

4,022 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

*Interlude: "Did orthodox church dogma for many years suggest Earth was created about 4,000 B.C.? Apparently, it did. Unfortunately, this long-held popular paradigm has seriously warped our modern view of the ancient world by attributing post-4,000 B.C. dates to the oldest civilizations and world cultures on the planet today. If we believe that the world had not been created until 4,000 B.C., then we might also believe that no ancient civilizations or Earth history existed prior to that date. Knowing about this pathetic paradigm, however, will help us to understand why we find for ancient history - even today - many of the same retarded dates concocted hundreds of years ago by people who didn't know any better. Not only the first people, the first civilizations, the first languages, the first calendars, the first monuments, the first governments and religions, but after about 4,000 B.C. we find all of the Biblical events. We still find things this way, apparently because it was the way that some people once believed. Apparently, some still do!" [Etznab Mathers]

4,004 B.C. - Biblical Creation - "Reported date for the creation of the world according to Bishop Ussher [1581-1656]. Based on O.T. Chronology, according to Ussher, Adam and Eve were driven from Paradise on Monday 10 November 4,004 B.C. Ussher was Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland, and Vice-Chancellor of Trinity College in Dublin. According to John Lightfoot [1602-1675], Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University and a contemporary of Ussher, man was created on October 23, 4,004 B.C., at nine o'clock in the morning. Other dates for the beginning of the world include: August 21st, 4004 B.C. and March 21st, 4004 B.C."

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« Reply #6 on: February 21, 2007, 01:12:57 pm »

4,000 B.C. - Stone Age - "The entire period of hominid history prior to 4,000 B.C. might be termed the Stone Age."
4,000 B.C. - Mesopotamian Flood - "Among some 20,000 preserved clay tablets, excavated from the world's most famous library at Nineveh [old Ninua] in Mesopotamian Assyria, are twelve which tell the story of the Flood. According to these texts, the hero of the epic, who was commanded by the gods to 'build a ship', was King Uta-napishtim of Shuruppak, who reigned around 4,000 BC. His story even states that when the waters had abated, 'All mankind had turned to clay; the ground was flat like a roof'." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]

*Trivia: "Flood strata of Mesopotamia has been scientifically dated to about 4,000 B.C."

4,000 B.C. - Ancient Scythians - "The ancient Scythians [a transient kingly tribe who first domesticated the horse before 4000 BC] were indeed the early occupiers of Akkad in pre-Sumerian times." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, p. 46]

4,000 B.C. - Megoliths / Malta - Reportedly: "Malta is the site of the world's most ancient temple complexes: recent dendrochronological dating has put the age of these monuments at just short of 6,000 years."

4,000 B.C. - Human Occupation / Indus Valley - "The Indus Valley encompasses a large floodplain of rich alluvial soils that supported human occupation sites with irrigation based agriculture as early as 6,000 BP." [use link number 10]

4,000 B.C. - Human Advancement / Sumer - "Although Mesopotamia was a world leader in numerous aspects from around 10,000 B.C., there appears to have been a very marked further advancement from about 4,000 B.C. when southern Mesopotamia became identified as Sumer and the truly municipal cities flourished. By that time they were formally recognized as city-states which operated as individual kingdoms, and it is the story of the amazing rise of Sumer which provides the very thrust of the patriarchal narrative in Genesis. This sudden cultural expansion was not simply a matter of general evolvement; it was a mighty technical and academic revolution which has long baffled scholars and historians worldwide."

*Trivia: "To this day, the majority are baffled by the sudden, extraordinary emergence of the Sumerians, seemingly from nowhere. But there is no doubt that, upon their advent in southern Mesopotamia, they were already highly advanced to a level far beyond that recorded or sustained from anyplace where logically they could have emanated. Nowhere on earth was there a culture like that of the Sumerians, who appeared soon after 4000 BC - at least that is what is generally supposed." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, p. 45]

4,000 B.C. - Temple of Ur - "In the early 1900's, the builders of the Baghdad railway placed a station about 120 miles north of Basra because the landmarked site was a recognized travellers' rest. Here, an enormous solitary hill rose above the desert - a hill known to the Bedouins as Tell al Muqayyar [Mound of Pitch]. But some thousands of years ago this desert waste was a lush, fertile valley with cornfields and date groves. As was soon to be discovered, within this great mound was the towering multi-levelled Temple of Ur, along with the rest of the ancient city.
"In 1923 , the archaeologist Sir Charles Leonard Wooley, with a joint team from the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania, set out to excavate the mound because some years earlier a collection of very old texts, engraved on stone cylinders, had been unearthed near the summit. One of these cylinder-seals [as they became known] had revealed the name of Ur-nammu, King of Ur in about 2,010 BC, and so it was determined that this was probably the location of Abraham's home." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]
"When the Wooley team investigated beneath the foundations of the 4,000-year-old ziggurat and its confines, they fiound the remains of another great ziggurat and a buried city from even more ancient times, with courtyard bricks dating back to the 4th millennium BC. Also there were graves and artifacts from 3,700 BC, around the time of Adam, along with numerous archaeologically valuable items from a far more distant era. They even discovered a kingly burial ground, together with documentary records and cultural treasures unsurpassed in all Egypt." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]

4,000 B.C. - Set [the "Devil"] / Egypt - "About ten thousand years after the time of Thoth [about 14,000 B.C.], the vile, unscrupolous Egyptian priesthood, to bring fear and dread into the hearts of people and to enslave them for their priestly purposes, turned Set into the devil of today. Before a devil was invented by the Egyptians, a devil was unknown. Before that it was a fight between the Soul or Divine Force and the material affinities for control of man's mind and, through his mind, his bodily actions. The Soul's endeavor was to raise the material man to a higher plane. This the material affinities fought against and tried to keep him down to their own level." [Col. James Churchward]

4,000 B.C. - Hittite Settlements / Cappadocia - "The Hittites settled around Cappadocia in present day Turkey. According to reports: 'Sumerian as well as Akkadian words were borrowed into the Hittite language. Wherever Akkadian influence spread [among the Hurrians, Hittites, Elamites, Canaanites and still farther afield into the Aegean and Egypt], the Sumerian impact was felt. 'Cuneiform Hittite texts are not only written in the script of Mesopotamia, but are full of Sumero-Akkadian logograms and loan-words; so much so that the interpretation of Hittite texts comes more easily to Assyriologists than to Indo-Europeanists.' "

4,000 B.C. - Bulgarian Inscriptions - "Epigraphers remain perplexed concerning such ancient European inscriptions as the Azillian signary c.8000 B.C.E. from southern France, the Tartaria tablets from Romania and the 'proto-writing' from Gradeshnitsa, Bulgaria dated before 4,000 B.C."

4,000 B.C. - Human Settlement / Poland - "In Poland the archeological site at Oslonki uncovered some 30 longhouses and 80 graves."

4,000 B.C. - Amber Trade / Europe - "Chiefdoms of northern Europe were trading in amber."

4,000 B.C. - Olmec's / South America - "The roots of the Mayan civilization can be traced back thousands of years to the Olmecs, an earlier civilization that inhabited an area along the Gulf of Mexico. The Olmec, which means 'rubber people,' date back to at least 4000 BC. They began their rise to civilization around 1500 BC, and are considered to have reached the first advanced stages of high civilization around 550 BC."

*Trivia: "According to popular belief, the Olmecs were a culture of ancient peoples of the East Mexico lowlands. Other reports suggest a much older culture was responsible for the ancient sites which the Olmecs ['their descendants'] later inherited. It was at San Lorenzo that the earliest carbon-dates for an Olmec site [around 1,500 B.C.] had been recorded by archaeologists. However, Olmec culture appeared to have been fully evolved by that epoch and there was no evidence that the evolution had taken place in the vicinity of San Lorenzo. Not a single, solitary sign of anything that could be described as the 'developmental phase' of Olmec society had been unearthed anywhere in Mexico [or, for that matter, anywhere in the New World]." Links: 1, 2 [number 12]

4,000 B.C. - Teotihuacan / South America - "Neither the Street of the Dead, nor the temple of Quetzalcoatl, nor the Pyramids of the Sun and the Moon had ever been definately dated. The majority of scholars believed that the city of Teotihuacan ['place of the gods'] had flourished between 100 B.C. and 600 A.D., but others argued strongly that it must have risen to prominence much earlier, between 1,500 and 1,000 B.C. There were others still who sought, largely on geological grounds, to push the foundation back to 4,000 B.C. before the eruption of the nearby volcano Xitli. Still other reports push the date back well beyond 10,000 B.C. Incidentally, the architects who had planned Teotihuacan had deliberately chosen to incline the Street of the Dead 15 degrees 30' east of north."

4,000 B.C. - Ice-Free Antarctica - "The Piri Reis Map, which is a genuine document, not a hoax of any kind, was made at Constantinople in A.D. 1513. The ice-free coast of Queen Maud Land shown in the map is a colossal puzzle because geological evidence confirms that the latest date it could have been surveyed and charted in an ice-free condition is 4,000 B.C. The true enigma of this 1513 map is not so much its inclusion of a continent not discovered until 1,818 but its portrayal of part of a coastline of that continent under ice-free conditions which came to an end 6,000 years ago and have not since recurred. Piri Reis tells us that he was not responsible for the original surveying and cartography, but he admitts that his role was merly that of compiler and copyist and that the map was derived from a large number of source maps. In 1963 professor Hapgood argued that some of the source maps the admiral had made use of, in particular those said to date back to the fourth century B.C., had themselves been based on even older sources, which in turn had been bassed on sources originating in the furthest antiquity. There was, he asserted, irrefutable evidence that the earth had been comprehensively mapped before 4,000 B.C. by a hitherto unknown and undiscovered civilization which had achieved a high level of technological advancement."

4,000 B.C.

4,000 B.C. - Pa Kua / China - "According to Chinese legend, in the 4th millenium B.C. a dragon delivered the eight mystic trigrams, the Pa Kua, to a legendary emperor."

4,000 B.C. - Chinese Writing - "In many pots, jades, and bronzes ranging from the late third millenium B.C. to as late as Shang and Chou dynasties, bird and sun motifs appear together, often joined, and possibly can be read as yang niao, or 'sun birds', the name of a local eastern Yi group which had settled in the Lower Yangtze valley. This could be an example of the precursor to Chinese writing."

4,000 B.C. - Copper - "Copper was in use by this time."

4,000 B.C. - Utah Villiages - "Archaeologists led reporters into a remote canyon Wednesday [06/30/04] to reveal an almost perfectly preserved picture of ancient life: stone pit houses, granaries and a bounty of artifacts kept secret for more than a half century [since about 1950].... Archaeologists said the villiages were occupied more than 1,000 years ago and may be as old as 4,500 years.... Hundreds of granaries, ranging from cupboard-sized to several yards across, are in some cases hundreds of feet up nearly inaccessible cliffs.... Waldo Wilcox, the rancher who sold the land and returned Wednesday [06/30/04], kept the archaeological sites a closely guarded secret for more than 50 years." [By Paul Foy, A.P., 07/01/04]

*Trivia: "Hidden deep inside Utah's nearly inaccessible Book Cliffs region, 130 miles from Salt Lake City, the prehistoric villages run for 12 miles and include hundreds of rock art panels, cliffside granaries, stone houses built halfway underground, rock shelters, and the mummified remains of long-ago inhabitants. The site was occupied for at least 3,000 years until it was abandoned more than 1,000 years ago, when the Fremont people mysteriously vanished.... The secret is coming to light after the federal and state governments paid Wilcox $2.5 million for the 4,200-acre ranch, which is surrounded by wilderness study lands. The state took ownership this year but has not decided how to control public access.... Metcalfe said a team of researchers has documented about 200 pristine sites occupied as long as 4,500 years ago, 'and we've only looked in a few places.' .... Archaeologists think the sites may have been occupied as long as 7,000 years ago; they could shed light on the earliest inhabitants of North America, who are believed to have arrived by way of the Bering Strait 10,000 years ago.... 'I didn't let people go in there to destroy it,' said Wilcox, whose parents bought the ranch in 1951 and threw up a gate to the rugged canyon. 'The less people know about this, the better.' Over the years, Wilcox occasionally welcomed archaeologists to inspect part of the canyon, 'but we'd watch 'em.' When one Kent State researcher used a pick ax to take a pigment sample from a pictograph, Wilcox 'took the pick from him and took him out of the gate.' .... He [Wilcox] said he gave up the land after the San Francisco-based Trust for Public Land, which transferred the ranch to public ownership, promised to protect it.... Archaeologists didn't realize the full significance of Range Creek until 2002. While many structures are standing or visible, others could be buried. Archaeologists have not done any excavations, simply because 'we have too big a task just to document' sites in plain view, Jones said. After The Associated Press started inquiring, Metcalfe decided to hasten an announcement. Next week, he plans to take news organizations to the ranch, 30 miles off the nearest paved highway over rough, mountainous terrain. A gate inside Range Creek Canyon blocks access; a dirt road continues from there about 14 miles down the canyon to a ranch house,now a hub of archaeological activity." [Paul Foy, A.P., 06/25/2004]

3,879 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

3,768 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

3,761 B.C. - Jewish Creation - "The Jewish era in use today is dated from the supposed year of the Creation, with its epoch or beginning in what is 3,761 B.C. on the Gregorian calendar. According to Jewish tradition, the year 1 of the Jewish calendar was the time of 'waste and void,' referred to in Genesis 1.1. Nothing was yet created, and only a virtual clock started to tick on the first day of that year, heard, as it were, only by the Creator."

3,625 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

3,600 B.C. - Sumer / Iraq - "Soon after 4,000 B.C., southern Mesopotamia was identified as Sumer [pronounced 'Shumer'], and it was here that the early patriarchs prevailed. One of the foremost cities of ancient Sumer was Uruk [modern-day Warka], from which derived the country's eventual name of Iraq." Other Links: 1

3,600 B.C. - Malta Temple - "A temple on the Medeterranian island of Malta was reportedly constructed around 3,600 B.C. [Note: Since Carbon 14 dating measures the age of organic materials only, nearly all of the stone ruins [composed of inorganic rock] have not been Carbon 14 dated. Rather, what have been Carbon 14 dated are so many organic materials lying with, next to, or around those stone ruins.]

3,536 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -

3,514 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

3,500 B.C. - Mesopotamian Pottery - "Early Mesopotamian pottery, from about 3,500 B.C., has links as far afield as peninsular Greece, via Anatolia. Cultural links between Mesopotamia and Greece have persisted, in varying degree, from period to period, ever since."

3,500 B.C. - Qumran Relics - "The excavations at Qumran have produced relics dating back about 3,500 BC, at which time [during the Bronze Age] the settlement was a Bedouin camp."

3,500 B.C. - Bronze Age - "According to popular history, the Sumerians began to use bronze tools and about 3,500 B.C., entered the Bronze Age."

3,500 B.C. - Temple of Ur - "Six years after beginning their excavations at Ur, Woolley's archaeologists found an intriguing complex of ancient graves dating to about 3,500 BC, including a stone-built tomb of unusual significance. It was significant because stone has never existed in this desert area; barely a pebble can be found within 30 miles of Ur."

3,500 B.C. - Wheeled Carts / Sumeria - "According to popular history, about 3,500 B.C., animal-drawn wheeled carts were in use in Sumeria."

3,500 B.C. - Sumerian Writing - "Reportedly, the earliest attested documents in cuneiform were written in Sumerian, the language of the inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia and Chaldea from the 4th until the 2nd millennium B.C. According to popular belief, the original Sumerian script consisted of pictographs. It later became linear and then evolved into the cuneiform script."

3,500 B.C. - Semites / Egypt - "According to popular history, about 3,700 years ago, West Semitic-speaking people of the Sinai became workers or slaves under the sway of Egyptian rule. The Egyptian hieroglyphic symbols these Semitic speakers saw made an impression on them, and encouraged the adoption of a limited number of hieroglyphics to write down sounds in their language."

3,500 B.C. - Burial Sites / Ireland - "In Ireland, burial sites have been dated to at least 3,500 B.C."

3,400 B.C. - Gezer - "Creamware was found at bedrock."

3,371 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

3,300 B.C. - Stonehenge - "Stonehenge in Britain has long been a site of celebration of the summer solstice, June 21. But there are more than 1,000 other prehistoric stone circles in the British Isles. Not much is known about them, except that they appear to be giant sundials and astronomical clocks. What is known is that between 3300 and 900 B.C. there were three phases of stone-circle building. During the first phase, before 3000 B.C., impressive circles, more than 30 meters [33 yards] across, were built on hillsides around the Irish Sea. They usually had one wider gap to serve as an entrance. Sometimes they had one single standing stone outside the ring, like a signpost proclaiming the land was occupied. Many perfectly constructed rings of stones were created around 2600 B.C., perhaps because metal was then available. These include the circles of Stanton Drew, in Somerset, and the Ring of Brodgar, in the Orkneys, each more than 90 metres [98 yards] across. Certain areas seemed to adopt a preferred number of stones. They show a wide range of styles, from plain and concentric rings to rings with avenues, like that at Avebury. From 2000 to 900 B.C., the tradition of building stone circles declined. By 900 B.C. stone circles, including Stonehenge, were abandoned." [Note: Since Carbon 14 dating measures the age of organic materials only, nearly all of the stone ruins [composed of inorganic rock] have not been Carbon 14 dated. Rather, what have been Carbon 14 dated are so many organic materials lying with, next to, or around those stone ruins." More Links: 1

3,260 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

3,200 B.C. - Indus Valley Civilization - "Traditional date when the Indus Valley civilization [3,200-1,600 B.C.] grew grew up along the banks of the Indus River in what is now Pakistan."

3,200 B.C. - Semites / Lebanon - "Semitic people come to the area around Byblos, Lebanon. It was then called Gebal and the people Giblites, who with flat axes cut timber from the mountains."

3,117 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

3,114 B.C. - Mayan Fifth Sun - "Central American cultures believed that prior to the fifth epoch [Fifth 'Sun'] there had been four previous 'Suns,' each of which had ended in a cataclysm that had wiped the face of the earth clean. The fifth epoch was said to have begun in darkness on 4 Ahau 8 Cumku, a date in the Mayan calendar corresponding to 13 August 3114 BC, and was expected to come to a catastrophic end as the result of a 'great movement of the earth' on 4 Ahau 3 Kankin - which corresponds in the modern calendar to 23 December AD 2012."

Trivia: "This cycle, also called the Great Cycle, lasts exactly 1,872,000 kin, 260 katun, 5200 tun, or approximately 5125.36 years. After years of considering data from archeology, ethnography, iconography, and astronomy, Mayanologists have determined that the date 0.0.0.0.0 corresponds to the Julian date 854283, which equates to August 11, 3114 BC in the Gregorian calendar.... The end date, 13.0.0.0.0 corresponds to the date December 21, 2012 AD.... The Maya considered the period of this Great Cycle to be equivalent to a World Age, or Sun, and thus the 5200 tun Long Count reflects a creation epoch.... The purpose of this cycle, which the Maya calibrated and mapped as the Long Count, was specially engineered to raise the frequency of vibration of humanity, the planet, and the solar system through a quickening and transformation of matter. This cycle climaxes when the entire historic process converges in the direction of the now, beyond the third dimension. As the Earth moves into a higher vibrational state, our collective reality will phase into synchronization with the larger galactic frame of reference."

3,102 B.C. - Kali Yuga - "According to Vedic tradition, we are in the fourth World Age, or Kali Yuga [Iron Age], furthest from the celestial seat of Brahma, an age when humans are capable of understanding only gross material reality. The traditional date in India for the beginning of the Kali Yuga is February 18, 3,102 B.C. The duration for the Kali Yuga is believed to be 432,000 years."

*Trivia: "According to Hesiod, the present race of man [the iron race] had been preceded by three earlier races – the golden race, the silver race, and the bronze race respectively. Each of these three peoples had been destroyed by cataclysms, at the command of the gods, the most recent of which had been the flood of Deucalion. The disappearance of Atlantis, rather intriguingly, was dated by Plato to the third cataclysm before this flood of Deucalion."

3,100 B.C. - "Scorpion" / Egypt - "In the protodynastic period of Egypt 'Scorpion' ruled and was followed by Narmer."

3,100 B.C. - 1st Egyptian Dynasty - "Traditional date when the two regions of Egypt were believed to have been united under the rule of Narmer [known as Menes, to the Greeks] and the First Egyptian Dynasty was founded. Incidentally, the number of years credited to some kings of the 1st and 2nd Dynasty is so high, that, in those particular cases, they are most likely not correct. It has sometimes been postulated that this high number of years does not reflect the length of a reign but the age at which the king died. Such high numbers for reigning kings also appear in the Sumerian King Lists."

3,100 B.C. - Important Period - "Historically, the date of 3,100 B.C. has proven to be one of the most important periods, if not the most important period, regarding three of the world’s most ancient civilizations: Sumer, Egypt and India."

3,100 B.C. - History Begins - "Reportedly, a society that possesses writing is 'historic'. One that does not is 'prehistoric'. By 3,100 B.C., the Sumerians had a system of writing that could communicate anything they wanted to say. In other words, human history begins with Sumeria not long before 3,000 B.C." [Asimov]

3,043 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -

Note: "This date represents an approximation only. Most likely the calculation is off by several years." [Etznab Mathers]

3,006 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

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« Reply #7 on: February 21, 2007, 01:13:40 pm »

4,000 B.C.

"Did orthodox church dogma for many years assert the Earth was created about 4,000 B.C.? Unfortunately, it did. Unfortunately, this long-held popular paradigm has seriously warped our modern view of the ancient world by attributing post-4,000 B.C. dates to the oldest civilizations and world cultures on the planet. If we believe that the world was not created until about 4,000 B.C., then we are inclined to accept that no ancient civilizations or Earth history existed prior to that date. Knowing about this pathetic paradigm, however, will help us understand why we find for ancient history - even today - many of the same retarded dates concocted hundreds of years ago by people who didn't know any better. Not only the first people, the first civilizations, the first languages, the first calendars, the first monuments, the first governments and religions, but after about 4,000 B.C. we find all of the Biblical events. We still find things this way, because this is what some people once believed. And apparently, some still do!" [Etznab Mathers]

3,000 B.C. - Pole Star / Alpha Draconis - "In the 3rd millenium B.C, the north pole star was not the present Polaris in Ursa Minor, the Little Bear. It was Alpha Draconis, the Head of the Dragon."

3,000 B.C. - Altithermal - "It is suspected by Earth scientists that the sun shone particularly brightly about this time. This episode is called the Altithermal, and may have contributed to the rise of the early civilizations. Another similar high heat episode occurs around 1,000 A.D."

3,000 B.C. - Ancient Ships / Egypt - "A fleet of twelve 5,000 year old royal wooden ships were found buried under the sand at Abydos, approximately eight miles from the Nile river."

3,000 B. C. - Ship Transport / Byblos to Egypt - "Ships transported timber from Byblos to Egypt."

3,000 B.C. - Circulation / Gilgamesh Epic - "The interesting fact for Sumer is that pictorial representations of the Mesopotamian classics appear many centuries before our earliest texts thereof. For example, the greatest Mesopotamian classic is the Gilgamesh Epic. Seals depicting scenes from the Gilgamesh Epic are exceedingly common, and begin about 1,000 years before the earliest cuneiform tablets dealing with those scenes. Accordingly, the materials out of which the Gilgamesh Epic was fashioned by the second millennium B.C. were circulating orally, and pictorally, around 3,000 B.C."

3,000 B.C. - Cuneiform - "It is estimated that 99 percent of the Babylonian tablets have yet to be dug. The oldest ones reportedly go back to 3,000 B.C. In tablets almost 5,000 years old, and others less than 3,000 years old - the 'Noah figure' of Utnapishtim is known variously as Zisudra, Xisuthros or Atrahasis."


3,000 B.C. - Akkadians - "According to popular history, beginning in 3,000 B.C. a group of people called Akkadians drifted into the Tigris-Euphrates valley along the northern fringes of Sumeria. They spoke a language entirely unrelated to Sumerian, one of a group we call 'Semitic' today, because the people who speak it are described, in the Bible, as having been descended from Shem, the oldest son of Noah." Links: 1

3,000 B.C. - Canaanites Enter Canaan - "A traditional date when the Canaanites entered Canaan."

*Trivia "An alternate name for Canaan, especially for cities along the shore, was Phoenicia. This was used by the Greeks from their word for purple, because in later centuries a purple dye was manufactured there. The northern portion of Canaan came to be called Syria in later times; this again being a Greek name, taken from that of a tribe that lived in the region." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, p. 34]

*Trivia: "The basic situation described in the Exodus saga - the phenomenon of immigrants coming down to Egypt from Canaan and settling in the eastern border regions of the delta - is abundantly verified in the archaeological finds and historical texts. From earliest recorded times throughout antiquity, Egypt beckoned as a place of shelter and security for the people of Canaan at times when drought, famine, or warfare made life unbearable or even difficult." [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein, pp. 52-53.]

3,000 B.C. - Minoa - "Bronze Age civilization, centring on the island of Crete. It was named after the legendary king Minos. It is divided into three periods: the early Minoan period [c.3000-2200 B.C.], the Middle Minoan period [c.2200-1500 B.C.] and the Late Minoan period [c.1500-1000 B.C.]. According to Mythology, Crete was the place where Zeus grew up. He was especially worshipped on the island, and king Minos was considered his son.The island has many myths surrounding it: here, the Minotaur was defeated by Theseus, Daedalus and Icarus worked here. The first great civilization of Greece started on Crete. It is called the Minoan, after its most famous king, Minos. There is a theory that Minos actually was several kings. The Minoan period started sometime around the 3rd Millennium B.C. and ended in the 15th century, probably because of natural disasters like earthquakes. Reportedly, Minoan cities were unwalled."

3,000 B.C. - Commercial Capital / Elba, Syria - "Ebla, Syria, was a commercial capital of this era [3,000-2,000 B.C.]. In 1975 tens of thousands of cuneiform tablets were found that supported Ebla's role."

3,000 B.C. - Archaic Indians / Newfoundland - "More than 5,000 years ago, this barren, sea-lashed coast [Labrador & Newfoundland] was home to the Maritime Archaic Indians [MAI], who hunted and fished the coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland for more than 2,000 years. The first evidence of the Maritime Archaic culture was discovered more than 30 years ago when James A. Tuck of Memorial University of Newfoundland excavated 56 elaborate burials exposed during housing construction on a small promontory at Port au Choix, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence just south of the Strait of Belle Isle. Buried between 4,400 and 3,300 B.P., the dead - along with offerings of tools, animal bones, carved animal effigies, and small, white quartz pebbles - were covered in red ochre, earning them the moniker the 'Red Paint People.' Tool kits contained woodworking implements for building dwellings and watercraft; finely wrought bone and ivory fishhooks, harpoons, and harpoon heads, bone foreshafts; and long, narrow ground slate lances for hunting whale and walrus; and fragments of fish spears, all of which pointed to a lifeway dependent on the deep sea."

3,000 B.C. - Old English - "Old English is spawned from a common Germanic language group in the Elbe river region."

3,000 B.C.

2,953 B.C. - I Ching - "The I Ching, or Book of Changes, is the most widely read of the five Chinese Classics. The book was traditionally written by the legendary Chinese Emperor Fu Hsi [2,953-2,838 B.C.]. It is possible that the the I Ching originated from a prehistoric divination technique which dates back as far as 5,000 B.C. Futher commentaries were added by King Wen and the Duke of Chou in the eleventh century B.C."

2,900 B.C. - Sumerian King Lists - "On Sumerian clay tablets dated around 2,900-2,800 B.C. found in Fara, Semitic [Akkadian] names are attested for the first time. It concerns the names of kings in the city of Kish. Kish is in the north of Babylonia where according to the Sumerian King Lists 'kingship descended again from heaven' after the great flood." Links: 1

2,890 B.C. - Second Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the beginning of the Second Egyptian Dynasty [2,890 B.C.-2,650 B.C.]. The fifth king of the 2nd Dynasty, Khasekhemwy ['The Two Powerful Ones Appear'], was probably responsible for the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. As he ascended the throne he had to put down a Northern rebellion. The rebels reached as far south as Nekheb and Nekhen, the ancient southern capital. His victory is described on two statues. Both portraits show the king with northerners cringing at his feet wearing the White Crown symbolizing the South. It is recorded that there were more than 47,000 casualties. A statue of him, which resides in the Cairo Museum, is the first example of the use of hard stone. He married Nemathap, a woman of royal Northern lineage. The marriage consolidated the kings rule in both regions. Nemathap is documented as being a 'King Bearing Mother'. She is also credited with being the ancestor of the 3rd Dynasty."

2,863 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

2,800 B.C. - Avebury - "Avebury, constructed between 2,800 and 2,700 B.C., includes the world's largest stone circle [1,401 feet in diameter], numerous barrows, and the 130-foot-tall Silbury Hill, the largest man-made mound in Europe. Silbury Hill, located just south of the village of Avebury in Wiltshire, is a massive artificial mound with a flat top. Silbury Hill is the tallest man-made prehistoric mound in Europe. It was built in three stages, the first believed to have begun around 2,660 B.C."

2,800 B.C.

2,799 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -

Note: "This date represents a progressive estimation arrived at by subtracting multiples of 171 years from the date 576 B.C." [Etznab Mathers]

2,772 B.C. - Egyptian Calendar - "Reportedly, the date in Egypt when the 365 day calendar was introduced."

2,752 B.C. - Configuration - "Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

2,700 B.C. - Gilgamesh Rules / Uruk - "A reported date when the Sumerian King, Gilgamesh, ruled the city of Uruk."

2,700 B.C.

2,698 B.C. - Chinese Calendar - "Reported date for the beginning of the Chinese calendar. Other dates associated with the beginning of the Chinese calendar include: 2,637 B.C."

2,686 B.C. - Third Egyptian Dynasty - "A Traditional date for the beginning of the Third Egyptian Dynasty [2,686 B.C.-2,575 B.C.]. According to popular history, the Pharaohs of the Third Dynasty were the first to have actual pyramids constructed as shrines to their deaths. Although crude, these step pyramids were the predecessors to the later Pyramids of Giza and others. The first of these pyramids was designed by Imhotep for Dzoser. Prior to, and during the construction of the step pyramids, rulers were buried in a structure called Mastaba. The Mastaba were non-pyramidal shaped structures which did not contain walls or stone art and closely resembled burial mounds, with long shafts leading down into the tomb area. Sanakhte and Dzoser, the first two Pharaohs of this Dynasty, began exploitation of the Sinai Peninsula, which was rich in turquoise and copper. Little else was done by the kings during this dynasty."

2,650 B.C. - Step Pyramid / Egypt - "According to some reports, the Step Pyramid [reportedly built as a tribute to Zoser's greatness] is the oldest human-made structure in the world today. Zoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara was an imposing edifice [200 feet tall], but it was built with relatively small, manageable blocks that five or six men working together could carry, and its internal chambers were structurally unsound." [Note: Since Carbon 14 dating measures the age of organic materials only, nearly all of the stone ruins [composed of inorganic rock] have not been Carbon 14 dated. Rather, what have been Carbon 14 dated are so many organic materials lying with, next to, or around those stone ruins."

2,609 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

2,600 B.C. - "Heaven's Mirror" - "There is no doubt that the Pyramids of Giza, the best known of all the Egyptian monuments, have a strong connection to the epoch 2,600 to 2,300 BC, the same dates as Stonehenge. There is also no doubt that they show many signs of a far earlier genesis - again like Stonehenge. Indeed, the same geometrical and astronomical concerns that the megaliths express, linked to the same quest for immortality [and frequently to the number 72], are found not only in Egypt but in a great band of cultures encircling the globe and extending back in time to the remotest antiquity." [Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, p. xvi]

2,600 B.C. - Indus Valley Script - "Reportedly, the Indus Valley Civilization was the first major urban culture of South Asia. It reached its peak from 2,600 B.C. to 1,900 B.C."

2,600 B.C. - Stone Structures / Caral Peru - "The ancient Peruvian site of Caral may have been one of the first urban centers in the Americas, thriving more than a thousand years before other known cities, according to a study in the April 27, 2001 issue of the international journal Science. New radiocarbon dating analysis indicates that Caral's immense stone structures were built between 2,600 and 2,000 B.C."

2,600 B.C.

2,575 B.C. - Fourth Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the beginning of the Egyptian Old Kingdom [2,575 B.C.- 2,134 B.C.] period, or the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty [2,575 B.C.- 2,551 B.C.]. Unlike the pyramids before [3rd Dynasty] and after [5th and 6th Dynasties], the pyramids at Giza [attributed to the 4th Dynasty] were wonderfully well made and have endured the passage of thousands of years more or less intact. For this very reason scholars are beginning to see the light - that these structures may in fact be tens of thousands of years older than previously expected."

2,550 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction -

2,540 B.C. - Sphinx / Egypt - "The Sphinx is supposed to have been built by Khafre around 2,500 B.C., but since the beginning of dynastic times - say 3,000 B.C. onwards - there just hasn't been enough rain on the Giza plateau to have caused the very extensive erosion that we see all overe the Sphinx's body. You really have to go back to before 10,000 B.C. to find a wet enough climate in Egypt to account for weathering of this type and on this scale. It therefore follows that the Sphinx must have been built before 10,000 B.C. and since it's a massive, sophisticated work of art it also follows that it must have been built by a high civilization."

2,530 B.C. - Great Pyramid / Egypt - "According to popular history, this was the date when King Khufu [Cheops] completed construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza. At its uppermost point the whole structure reached a height of 481 feet. According to another report, the Giza pyramids were already ancient at the time of Khufu's restoration. On a scale of 1:43,200 the Great Pyramid serves as a model, and map projection, of the northern hemisphere of the earth. During all the centuries of darkness experienced by Western civilization when knowledge of our planet's dimensions was lost to us, all we ever needed to do to rediscover that knowledge was to measure the height and base perimeter of the great Pyramid and multiply by 43,200."

2,500 B.C. - Sea-Going Vessels / Egypt - "At least two large high-prowed sea-going vessels were discovered buried [in pits] beside the Great Pyramid in Egypt. One of the pits, although still sealed, had been investigated with fiber-optic cameras and was found to contain a vessel more than 100 feet long. In the other pit was an even larger vessel, a full 141 feet in length. Made of cedarwood, the ship was still in perfect condition 4,500 years after it had been built. With a displacement of around 40 tons, it's design was particularly thought-provoking, with a prow and stern soaring higher than in a Viking ship."

2,500 B.C. - Established Cities / Assyria - "In 1932, Sir Max Mallowan, the eminent British archaeologist, dug a deep sounding which reached virgin soil ninety feet below the top of the mound of Nineveh; this gave a pottery sequence back to prehistoric times and showed that the site was already inhabited by 5,000 B.C. Very soon after that, the two other great Assyrian cities were settled, Ashur and Arbel, although an exact date has yet to be determined. Arbel is the oldest extant city, and remains largely unexcavated, its archaeological treasures waiting to be discovered. The same holds for Ashur. It is clear that by 2,500 B.C., these three cities were well established and were thriving metropoli." Links: 1, 2

2,500 BC - Clava Cairns / Scotland - "Neolithic tombs in Northern Scotland."

2,500 B.C. - Walled City / India - "In India excavations in 2,000 A.D. revealed a walled city of the middle 3rd millennium at the Dholavira site in Gujarat state."

2,500 B.C. - Troy II Settlement / Turkey - "Troy II, the second oldest discernible settlement on the site of the mound of Hissarlik in northwest Turkey, a good 1,200 years before the estimated date of the Trojan War."

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« Reply #8 on: February 21, 2007, 01:14:36 pm »

2,500 B.C. - Destruction / Gezer - "The site was destroyed approximately in the 25th century, based on finds of Khirbet Kerak ware."
2,500 B.C. - Chinese Pyramids - "Hartwig Hausdorf, a researcher in Germany, sent over these photographs from his collection, taken during his 1994 trip to the Forbidden Zone in The Shensi Province in China. Estimates for an age are 4,500 years old, but Hausdorf mentions the diaries of two Australian traders who, in 1912, met an old Buddhist monk who told them these pyramids are mentioned in the 5,000 year old records of his monastery as being 'very old'."

2,500 B.C. - Bronze Age / Canaan - "A traditional date when the Bronze age reached Canaan."

2,496 B.C. - Utah Villiages - "Archaeologists led reporters into a remote canyon Wednesday [06/30/04] to reveal an almost perfectly preserved picture of ancient life: stone pit houses, granaries and a bounty of artifacts kept secret for more than a half century [since about 1950].... Archaeologists said the villiages were occupied more than 1,000 years ago and may be as old as 4,500 years.... Hundreds of granaries, ranging from cupboard-sized to several yards across, are in some cases hundreds of feet up nearly inaccessible cliffs.... Waldo Wilcox, the rancher who sold the land and returned Wednesday [06/30/04], kept the archaeological sites a closely guarded secret for more than 50 years." [By Paul Foy, A.P., 07/01/04]

*Trivia: "Hidden deep inside Utah's nearly inaccessible Book Cliffs region, 130 miles from Salt Lake City, the prehistoric villages run for 12 miles and include hundreds of rock art panels, cliffside granaries, stone houses built halfway underground, rock shelters, and the mummified remains of long-ago inhabitants. The site was occupied for at least 3,000 years until it was abandoned more than 1,000 years ago, when the Fremont people mysteriously vanished.... The secret is coming to light after the federal and state governments paid Wilcox $2.5 million for the 4,200-acre ranch, which is surrounded by wilderness study lands. The state took ownership this year but has not decided how to control public access.... Metcalfe said a team of researchers has documented about 200 pristine sites occupied as long as 4,500 years ago, 'and we've only looked in a few places.' .... Archaeologists think the sites may have been occupied as long as 7,000 years ago; they could shed light on the earliest inhabitants of North America, who are believed to have arrived by way of the Bering Strait 10,000 years ago.... 'I didn't let people go in there to destroy it,' said Wilcox, whose parents bought the ranch in 1951 and threw up a gate to the rugged canyon. 'The less people know about this, the better.' Over the years, Wilcox occasionally welcomed archaeologists to inspect part of the canyon, 'but we'd watch 'em.' When one Kent State researcher used a pick ax to take a pigment sample from a pictograph, Wilcox 'took the pick from him and took him out of the gate.' .... He [Wilcox] said he gave up the land after the San Francisco-based Trust for Public Land, which transferred the ranch to public ownership, promised to protect it.... Archaeologists didn't realize the full significance of Range Creek until 2002. While many structures are standing or visible, others could be buried. Archaeologists have not done any excavations, simply because 'we have too big a task just to document' sites in plain view, Jones said. After The Associated Press started inquiring, Metcalfe decided to hasten an announcement. Next week, he plans to take news organizations to the ranch, 30 miles off the nearest paved highway over rough, mountainous terrain. A gate inside Range Creek Canyon blocks access; a dirt road continues from there about 14 miles down the canyon to a ranch house, now a hub of archaeological activity." [Paul Foy, A.P., 06/25/2004]

2,465 B.C. - Fifth Egyptian Dynasty - "Traditional date for the beginning of the Fifth Egyptian Dynasty [2,465 B.C.- 2,325 B.C.]."

2,450 B.C. - Akkadian Inscriptions - "Reportedly, the earliest Akkadian cuneiform inscriptions date from the Old Akkadian or Early Akkadian period [2,450 to 1,850 B.C.], during which the inscriptions of Sargon were written. Since the Akkadian records start around the middle of the third millennium B.C., the formation of the Akkadian language in linguistic alliance with Indo-Europeans in Anatolia must have taken place still earlier. The western connections of the Akkad Dynasty are indicated in yet other ways. Only one western God, Dagan, obtained an important place in the old Mesopotamian pantheon, and he significantly is the patron god of the Akkad dynasty. This western god appears in the Linear A tablets of Hagia Triada; he is Baal's father according to the Epic of Kret from Ugarit; and he is chief god of the Biblical Plilistines.' Dagan was popularly depicted with the head and hands of a man, and the body and tail of a fish."

2,400 B.C.

2,400 B.C. - Walled City / Gezer - "The site was a Canaanite walled city. A 6 foot high wall, made of small uncarved stones was found from this time."

2,375 B.C. - Lugalzaggisi / Sumeria - "Reportedly, after 2,375 B.C., Lugalzaggisi took over the cities of Kish and Lagash."

2,355 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

2,350 B.C. - Lugalzaggisi / Sumeria - "Reportedly, 'By 2,350 B.C. all of Sumeria was under the control of Lugalzaggasi.' "

2,350 B.C. - Akkad Dynasty - According to popular belief: "In the 24th century B.C., a new dynasty got hold of Mesopotamia. Sargon, of the city of Akkad, established a Semitic Empire that reached out into the Mediterranian. From his time on, southern Mesopotamia came to be known as Sumer and Akkad; Sumer designating the more Sumerian south, and Akkad the more Semitic north. His success marked a turning point in history. From his time down to the present, Mesopotamia became a predominately Semitic land. Sargon claimed dominion over the entire world; a concept that has plagued mankind ever since." Links: 1

2,350 B.C. - Cythera - "According to one report: 'Cythera began to attract foreigners as early as the Pyramid age. A stone cup, with the name of a Fifth Dynasty solar temple [sp-r] inscribed in Egyptian hieroglyphs, has been found on Cythera. Early in the second quarter of the second millennium, a Babylonian inscription of Naram-Sin, King of Eshnunna, was dedicated on Cythera 'for the life' of that Mesopotamian monarch. The interesting thing is that both of these texts found on Cythera are religious in character. Herodotus [1:105] relates that the Phoenicians erected a temple on Cythera to the goddess of the heavens. Finally in classical times, Cythera was a great center of the cult of Aphrodite. The ancient temples were built in the vicinity of Palaiopolis around the middle of the eastern shore.' Today, Cythera is a small island situated at the northeastern edge of the Mediterranian Sea. "

2,348 B.C. - Noah's Flood - "As mentioned, the standard reckoning for the Flood is 2,348 BC, as given by Archbishop Ussher. But the fact is that there was no possible way prior to the 1920's for Ussher or anyone else to have known the date of the Flood - nor even if there actually was a flood in the region. Not for nearly three centuries after Ussher's lifetime did any noteworthy archaeological excavations begin in Mesopotamia." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings]

*Trivia: "The Flood was chronologically moved in Genesis to the time of Noah, whereas it actually occured before the time of Adam." [Laurence Gardner, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, p. 60]

2,340 B.C. - United / Sumer & Akkad - "Sargon of Agade [the leading city of Akkad] defeats Lugalzaggisi and gains control of Kish and later unites all of Sumer and Akkad. Sargon of Agade has been called the first great conqueror of history."

2,323 B.C. - Sixth Egyptian Dynasty - "Traditional date for the beginning of the Sixth Egyptian Dynasty [2,323 B.C.-2,152 B.C.]. Manetho considered Teti as the founder of a new dynasty, a tradition which may go back at least as far as the composition of the Turin King-list, where Teti is listed as the first of a new group of kings. His wife, Queen Ipwet, is the daughter of King Unas who was the last king of the 5th Dynasty. She was the mother of Teti's heir, King Pepi I. Historians believe that she is the one that gave him the royal power. Almost all the major court officials of King Wenis remained in power during Teti's reign."

2,320 B.C. - Sargon / Sumeria - "Sargon conquered the independent city-states of Sumer and instituted a central government."

2,308 B.C. - Sumerian Sky Chart - "Reportedly, in 2,308 B.C. the Sumerians developed their equivalent of the 11:57 pm July 3rd 14,000 B.C. sky chart and Narmer Plate combined. It comes in the form of a royal cylinder-seal depicting 'The Sun is Risen'. The purpose of the seal is to celebrate the Dawn of the Age of Aries."

2,300 B.C. - Cultural Exchange / Indus Valley & Mesopotamia - "Cultural exchange between the Indus Valley civilization and Mesopotamia [present day Iraq] is especially prominent."

2,300 B.C. - Phoenicians / Levantine Coast - "Phoenicians, a seafaring people, began living along the Levantine coast."

2,300 B.C. - British Archer / Stonehenge - "A 4,000-year-old grave found near Stonehenge contains the remains of an archer and a trove of artifacts that make it one of the richest early Bronze Age sites in Europe. The burial, in about 2,300 B.C., occurred at 'the very brink of the Bronze Age,' where Neolithic and metal-using societies met, said one report. About 100 objects were found in the grave three miles east of Stonehenge, which is about 75 miles southwest of London. The grave was found May 3, 2002 A.D."

2,300 B.C.

2,289 B.C. - Pepi I / Egypt - "Traditional date when Pepi I ruled in Egypt 2,289 - 2255 B.C."

2,279 B.C. - Fatality / Sargon of Agade - "According to popular history, Sargon of Agade died in 2,279 B.C."

2,254 B.C. - Naramsin / Akkad - "Traditional date when Sargon's grandson, Naramsin, reigned 2,254 - 2,218 B.C. Reportedly: 'Kings of the Akkad Dynasty, notably Naram-Sin, often place the sign for divinity before their names, and are depicted in art as wearing the horned crown of godhood.' "

2,244 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

2,200 B.C. - Equinox at Aries - "The advent of the Age of Aries, shortly before the beginning of the second millennium B.C., was accompanied in Ancient Egypt by an upsurge in the worship of the god Amon whose symbol was a ram with curled horns. Work on the principal sanctuary of Amon - the Temple of Karnak at Luxor in upper Egypt - was begun at around 2,000 B.C. and, as those who have visited the temple will recall, its principal icons are rams, long rows of which guard its entrances. The period of a complete cycle of the vernal point around the celestial sphere is approximately 25,800 years. In other words, after 25,800 years, the vernal point is back at the starting point or fiduciary vernal point [zero degrees sidereal Aries]. For the same reason that astrologers have allowed for twelve signs as the sun passes through its annual orbit, this 25,800 years cycle is also divided into twelve signs, with each of these twelve signs averaging some 2,150 years each."

2,200 B.C. - Indo-European Invaders / Greece - "Reportedly, 'In Greece Indo-European invaders, speaking the earliest form of Greek, entered the mainland.' "

2,200 B.C.


2,180 B.C. - End / Akkad Empire - "According to popular history, the Akkadian empire came to an end about this time, less than 40 years after the death of Naramsin." Links: 1

2,152 B.C. - 7th & 8th Egyptian Dynasties - "Traditional date for the Seventh and Eighth Egyptian Dynasties [2,152 B.C.-2,130 B.C.]."

2,144 B.C. - Gudea / Sumeria - "Gudea of Lagash, a prominent Sumerian leader ruled from 2,144 -2,124 B.C."

2,137 B.C. - Eclipse - "Reported date [October 22nd, 2,137 B.C.] for the earliest recorded eclipse according to the Shu King, the book of historical documents of ancient China."

2,135 B.C. - 9th & 10th Egyptian Dynasties - "A traditional date for the Ninth and Tenth Egyptian Dynasties [2,135 B.C.-2,074 B.C.]."

2,125 B.C. - Sumerian King Lists - "Reportedly, 'From the Sumerian King Lists an important caesure becomes apparent, the great Flood or Deluge. Names and events are either antediluvial or post diluvial. In later epics the flood signals the end of mythological times, when things were formed, and inaugerates the beginning of historical times. About eight [in other versions ten] antediluvial kings are mentioned with their periods of government. Extremely large areas were attributed to the kings before the flood. Added together they would have ruled for 241,200 years. Composed centuries after the times they refer to, the Sumerian King Lists were copied by generations of scribes and standardized in the process until the cononical version appeared in Old Babylonian times with kings extending up to that period. Reportedly, the surviving clay tablet was dated by the scribe who wrote it in the reign of King Utukhegal of Erech [Uruk], which places it around 2,125 B.C. After kingship had descended from heaven, Eridu became the seat of kingship. In Eridu Aululim reigned 28,800 years as king. Alalgar reigned 36,000 years. Two kings, reigned 64,800 years. Eridu was abandoned and its kingship was carried off to Bad-tabira. . . . Total: Five Cities, eight kings, reigned 241,200 years. The FLOOD then swept over. After the Flood had swept over, and kingship had descended from heaven, Kish became the seat of Kingship. In Kish .... Total: twenty-three kings, reigned 24,510 years, 3 months, 3 1/2 days. Kish was defeated; its kingship was carried off to Eanna. In Eanna, Meskiaggasher, the son of [the sun god] Utu reigned as En [Priest] and Lugal [King] 324 years - Meskiaggasher entered the sea, ascended the mountains. Enmerkar, the son of Meskiaggasher, the king of erech who had built Erech, reigned 420 years as king. Lugalbanda, the shepherd, reigned 1,200 years. Dumuzi the fisherman, whose city was Kua, reigned 100 years. Gilgamesh, whose father was a nomad (?) reigned 126 years. Urnungal, the son of Gilgamesh, reigned 30 years. Labasher reigned 9 years. Ennundaranna reigned 8 years. Meshede reigned 36 years. Melamanna reigned 6 years. Lugalkidul reigned 36 years. Total: twelve kings, reigned 2,130 years. Erech was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Ur...." Links: 1

2,115 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -

2,101 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjuction -

2,100 B.C. - Egyptian Palestine - Reportedly: "During The Middle Bronze Age, Palestine became a part of the Egyptian empire. This was around 2100 B.C."

2,100 B.C. - Amorites / Damascus - "According to one report, Amorites came from the Arabian peninsula and were the first important Semitic settlers in the area of Damascus. They established many small states." Links: 1, 2, 3

2,100 B.C.

2,074 B.C. - 11th Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the Eleventh Egyptian Dynasty [2074 B.C.-2064 B.C.]."

2,057 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune."

Note: "Neptune-Pluto configurations later than 600 B.C. represent estimated projections only caluclated by subtracting alternating multiples of 493 years." [Etznab Mathers]

2,040 B.C. - Egyptian Middle Kingdom - "Traditional date for the beginning of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom period 2,040 B.C.-1,640 B.C."

2,010 B.C. - Ur-nammu / Ur - "In the early 1900's, the builders of the Baghdad railway placed a station about 120 miles north of Basra because the landmarked site was a recognized travellers' rest. Here, an enormous solitary hill rose above the desert - a hill known to the Bedouins as Tell al Muqayyar [Mound of Pitch]. But some thousands of years ago this desert waste was a lush, fertile valley with cornfields and date groves. As was soon to be discovered, within this great mound was the towering multi-levelled Temple of Ur, along with the rest of the ancient city.
"In 1923 , the archaeologist Sir Charles Leonard Wooley, with a joint team from the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania, set out to excavate the mound because some years earlier a collection of very old texts, engraved on stone cylinders, had been unearthed near the summit. One of these cylinder-seals [as they became known] had revealed the name of Ur-nammu, King of Ur in about 2,010 BC, and so it was determined that this was probably the location of Abraham's home." [Genesis Of The Grail Kings, Laurence Gardner]

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« Reply #9 on: February 21, 2007, 01:15:05 pm »

The purpose of this thread shall be to add more knowledge of the human past, be that knowledge from the ancient texts, archaeological finds, even the mythologies of the world. As of right now, of course, the experts only accept a small fragment of the story.
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« Reply #10 on: February 21, 2007, 01:16:33 pm »

ATLANTIS TIME LINE

560 BC: according to Plato, a famous Greek statesman, Solon, visits Egypt and hears from the priests at Sais, then the capital of Egypt, the story of an ancient civilization that was destroyed 9000 years earlier.

360 BC: Plato first writes Solon’s story and calls the civilization “Atlantis.”

300 BC-100 AD: various classical Mediterranean authors such as Crantor, Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Pliny the Elder, and Plutarch mention Atlantis. Belief in the lost continent is divided.

1553: a Spaniard, Francesco Lopez de Gomara, makes the suggestion that Atlantis was in America. However, in many ways America does not match the description given by Plato.

1860: Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg, a French scholar, travels through Middle America for many years. He feels that Mayan glyphs document the volcanic destruction of Atlantis. I think Brasseur was partly right about the Mayan glyphs documenting destruction, but I do not feel that this was the destruction of Atlantis. I feel it was the destruction of local villages and cities in Mayan America.

1879: famous Mayan archeologist, Edward Herbert Thompson, defends the idea that the Maya were descendants of an Atlantean race. (Of course, if Atlantis was the first civilization, or first place that Homo sapiens evolved, then all civilizations would be descendants of Atlantis.)

1880s-1890s: Augustus Le Plongeon publishes Sacred Mysteries Among the Mayans and Quiches (1886) and Queen Moo and the Egyptian Sphinx (1896) after ten years of study in the Yucatan with his wife. He claims that Egyptian civilization, as well as all other civilizations, came from the Mayan. He states that Queen Moo was originally from Atlantis (which Le Plongeon calls Mu and situates in the Atlantic Ocean), but when Queen Moo seeks refuge there, she finds it gone, and goes on to Egypt were she was known as Isis and founded the Egyptian civilization. Le Plongeon’s work is interesting, but he made some fundamental errors. We shall see that Atlantis was probably not in the Atlantic. Although there may have been limited contact between Egyptian and Mayan cultures, a point that has yet to be proved, it appears that the two cultures evolved largely separately.


1883: Ignatius Donnelly, a former member of the US Congress writes Atlantis: the Antediluvian World, a popular book which went through fifty editions and is still in print after 100 years. He claims Atlantis was the source of all cultures of the world. Many scientists call his approach slanted and find technical errors in his work. Donnelly was a lawyer and took a lawyer’s approach to his writing. Instead of presenting the pros and cons, he stated all the pros only. We shall see that his location for Atlantis was probably wrong. Whether different cultures developed independently or by diffusion is a hotly debated question. I tend to think there were minute amounts of communication.

1880s: Madam Blavatsky, sometimes called the Grandmother of the “New Age” movement, includes Atlantis in her occult and bizarre reconstruction of history. For example, because of humanities widespread preoccupation with dragons, she believes that humans existed at the time of the dinosaurs. In 1908, Rudolf Steiner, a cohort of Blavatsky, continues with his bizarre version of Atlantis. He eventually breaks away from Blavatsky, and forms his own schools. Today, they are known as Waldorf schools.


1909: In an anonymous letter to the London Times, classical scholar K. T. Frost points out similarities between the Mediterranean culture of Crete (also known as Minoan after King Minos who lived on Crete) and Plato’s “Atlantis.” Although there are similarities, Plato’s description of Atlantis does not match well that of ancient Crete.

1930s: Edgar Cayce becomes famous in the US for going into a trance and then prescribing remedies for ill people. During these trance states he sometimes mentions living in Atlantis in a past life. He predicts that a mysterious “Hall of Records” will be found near the Sphinx describing Atlantis. He also predicts Atlantis would rise again from the ocean. He makes mostly bizarre guesses that are often interpreted by followers as somehow correct. For example when certain symmetrical rocks, probably natural formations called “beach rocks,” were found near Bihimi Island in the Bahamas, followers claimed that these were evidence of Atlantis “rising again.”


1931: author James Churchward writes, The Lost Continent of Mu. He claims to have seen “sacred” tablets in India, which described the creation of the world and the lost continent, which he calls Mu. He places Mu in the Pacific. His work seems to be largely derived from that of Le Plongeon. No one ever saw these ancient tablets, and people wonder if they really ever existed. Although interesting to read, his work remains in the category of questionable speculation.

1939: a Greek archeologist, Spyridon Marinatos, suggests that the destruction of the island of Thera (near Crete and now part of Greece), in 1500 BC, and the resulting tsunami was what caused the collapse of the Minoan civilization. In 1950, he suggests the Atlantis myth derives from this event. His paper is not published in English until 1969. Many modern scientists accept Thera as a possible Atlantis; however, we shall see that Plato’s description is not a good match with Thera.

1954: L. Sprague de Camp first publishes Lost Continents, a Dover classic. However, De Camp is probably better known for his science fiction writing about “Conan: the Barbarian.” De Camp is a firm skeptic when it comes to Atlantis. He flatly states that Plato made up the story. Interestingly, he also says that Wagner’s Continental Drift Theory is “very doubtful.” (A 1970 edition, however, corrected this statement.)


1973: Geologist Dorothy Vitaliano writes Legends of the Earth and includes a chapter on Atlantis. She correctly points out that there is nowhere in the Atlantic Ocean that Atlantis could have existed. An excellent scientific book, even though somewhat dated geologically.

1974: James Bramwell writes Lost Atlantis, perhaps one of the most rational and balanced accounts of the controversy ever published. Though parts of it are dated, his book often amazes one with in its insight and depth.

1975: Indiana University hosts a panel discussion “Atlantis: Fact or Fiction,” including several notable scholars. While most of them dismiss the Atlantis story as pure fiction, John V. Luce (Professor of Classics, Dublin University) presents the view that Plato’s Atlantis story is part fiction, part fact, and based on ancient legends.

1960s-1970s: seismologist A. G. Galanopoulos, another Greek, also tries to link “Atlantis” to the volcano on the island of Thera. He claims that an error in translation made all numbers in Plato’s text multiplied by 10, and that this is why Thera is ten times smaller than Plato described. This “ten error” has been effectively refuted by scholars (Vitaliano, Luce). Also, there are many other mismatches between Thera and Atlantis (Vitaliano).


1992-present: William Lauritzen, the author of this text, based on his study of oceanography, geology, mythology, and religion, develops and presents the idea that periodic massive explosion-eruptions of the volcano Krakatau, on the Sunda Shelf between Sumatra and Java, may have developed into the legend that eventually became the Atlantis story. Mr. Lauritzen first publicly stated his hypothesis on a newsgroup in 1995.


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« Reply #11 on: February 21, 2007, 01:17:58 pm »

Time Line of Space Exploration


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October 4, 1957 - Sputnik 1, the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, is launched by the U.S.S.R., and remains in orbit until January 4, 1958.
November 3, 1957 - Sputnik 2, carrying the dog Laika for 7 days in orbit, is launched by the U.S.S.R., and remains in orbit until April 13, 1958.

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January 31, 1958 - Explorer 1, the first U.S. satellite in orbit, lifts off at Cape Canaveral using a modified ABMA-JPL Jupiter-C rocket. It carries a scientific experiment of James A. Van Allen, and discovers the Earth's radiation belt.
March 5, 1958 - Explorer 2 is launched by a Jupiter-C rocket, and fails to reach orbit.
March 17, 1958 - Vanguard 1 satellite is launched into orbit, and continues to transmit for 3 years.
May 15, 1958 - Sputnik 3 is launched by the U.S.S.R.
October 1, 1958 - N.A.S.A. is founded, taking over existing National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics.
October 11, 1958 - Pioneer 1, U.S. - IGY space probe, launched to a height of 70,700 miles.

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January 2, 1959 - Luna 1, first man-made satellite to orbit the sun, is launched by the U.S.S.R.
March 3, 1959 - Pioneer 4, fourth U.S.-IGY space probe was launched by a Juno II rocket, and achieved an earth-moon trajectory, passing within 37,000 miles of the moon. It then fell into a solar orbit, becoming the first U.S. sun orbiter.
September 12, 1959 - Luna 2 is launched, impacting on the moon on September 13 carrying a copy of the Soviet coat of arms, and becoming the first man-made object to hit the moon.
October 4, 1959 - Luna 3 translunar satellite is launched, orbiting the moon and photographing 70 percent of the far side of the moon.

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April 1, 1960 - Tiros 1, the first successful weather satellite, is launched by the U.S.
August 18, 1960 - Discoverer XIV launches the first U.S. camera-equipped Corona spy satellite.
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April 12, 1961 - Vostok 1 is launched by the U.S.S.R., carrying Cosmonaut Yuri A. Gargarin, the first man in space. He orbits the Earth once.
May 5, 1961 - Mercury Freedom 7 carries Alan B. Shepard,Jr., the first U.S. Astronaut into space, in a suborbital flight.
August 6, 1961 - Vostok 2 is launched by the U.S.S.R., carrying Cosmonaut Gherman Titov, the first day-long Soviet space flight.

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February 20, 1962 - Mercury Friendship 7 lifts off with John H. Glenn, Jr., the first American in orbit, and orbits the Earth three times.
May 24, 1962 - Mercury Aurora 7 is launched with M. Scott Carpenter, making three orbits.
July 10, 1962 - Telstar 1, U.S. satellite, beams the first live transatlantic telecast.
December 14, 1962 - U.S. Mariner 2, the first successful planetary spacecraft, flies past Venus, and enters a solar orbit.

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June 16, 1963 - Vostok 6 carries Soviet Cosmonaut Valentia Tereshkova, the first woman in space and orbits the Earth 48 times.
June, 1963 - Martin Schmidt interprets the behavior of 3C 273 - the first known quasar.

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July 31, 1964 - U.S. Ranger 7 relays the first close-range photographs of the Moon.

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March 18, 1965 - The first space walk is made from Soviet Voskhod 2 by Cosmonaut Alexei A. Leonov. Duration is 12 minutes.
March 23, 1965 - First manned flight of the Gemini program, Gemini 3 carrying Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young. Made three orbits around the earth.
March 24, 1965 - Ranger 9 transmits high-quality images of the moon, many of which were shown live in the first television spectacular about the moon.
June 3, 1965 - Edward White II makes the first U.S. space walk from Gemini 4. Duration is 22 minutes.
July 14, 1965 - U.S. Mariner 4 returns the first close-range images about Mars.
November 16, 1965 - Soviet Venus 3 is launched, becoming the first craft to impact Venus on March 1, 1966.
December 4, 1965 - Gemini 7 is launched carrying Frank Borman and James A. Lovell, Jr., making 206 orbits around Earth and proving a trip to the Moon possible.
December 15, 1965 - American astronauts Walter Schirra, Jr. and Thomas Stafford in Gemini 6 make the first space rendezvous with Gemini 7.

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February 3, 1966 - Soviet Luna 9 is the first spacecraft to soft-land on the moon.
March 1, 1966 - Soviet Venera 3 impacts on Venus, the first spacecraft to reach another planet. It fails to return data.
March, 1966 - Soviet Luna 10 is the first spacecraft to orbit the moon.
June 2, 1966 - Surveyor 1 is the first U.S. spacecraft to soft-land on the Moon.
August 14, 1966 - U.S. Lunar Orbiter 1 enters moon orbit, and takes the first picture of the Earth from the distance of the moon.

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April 23, 1967 - Soviet Soyuz 1 is launched, carrying Vladimir M. Komarov. On April 24 it crashed, killing Komarov, the first spaceflight fatality.
October 18, 1967 - Venera 4 sends a descent capsule into the Venusian atmosphere, returning data about its composition.

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September 15, 1968 - Soviet Zond 5 is launched, the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon and return.
October 11, 1968 - Apollo 7 is the first manned Apollo mission with Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Donn F. Eisele, and Walter Cunningham. It orbited the earth once.
December 21, 1968 - Apollo 8 is launched with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr. and William A. Anders, the first Apollo to use the Saturn V rocket, and the first manned spacecraft to orbit the Moon, making 10 orbits on its 6-day mission.

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January, 1969 - Soyuz 4 & 5 perform the first Soviet spaceship docking, transferring Cosmonauts between vehicles.
July 20, 1969 - Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, Jr. make the first manned soft landing on the Moon, and the first moonwalk, using Apollo 11.
July 31, 1969 - Mariner 6 returns high-resolution images of the Martian surface, concentrating on the equatorial region.
August 5, 1969 - Mariner 7 returns high-resolution images of the Martian surface, concentrating on the southern hemisphere.

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April 11, 1970 - Apollo 13 is launched, suffering an explosion in its SM oxygen tanks. Its Moon landing is aborted, and the crew, James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr. and Fred W. Haise, Jr., return safely.
September 12, 1970 - Soviet Luna 16 is launched, conducting the first successful return of lunar soil samples by an automatic spacecraft.
November 17, 1970 - Luna 17 lands on the moon, with the first automatic robot, Lunokhod 1. Driven by a five-man team on earth, traveled over surface for 11 days.
December 15, 1970 - Soviet Venera 7 is the first probe to soft-land on Venus, transmitting for 23 minutes.

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January 31, 1971 - Apollo 14 moon mission is launched by the U.S. with the legendary Alan Shepard, along with Stuart Roosa and Edgar Mitchell on board. They land in the planned Apollo 13 site, the Fra Mauro highlands, which they explore with the help of a two-wheeled cart that permits the transport of a significantly greater quantity of lunar material than previous missions. Shepard becomes the first man to hit a golf ball on the moon.
April 19, 1971 - Salyut 1 space station is launched by the U.S.S.R. It remains in orbit until May 28, 1973.
May 30, 1971 - The United States launches Mariner 9, which becomes the first spacecraft to survey Mars from orbit.
June 6, 1971 - Soyuz 11 carried Cosmonauts G.T. Dobrovolsky, V.N. Volkov, and V.I. Patsayev to Salyut 1, the first manned occupancy of an orbital station. However, on June 29, the Cosmonauts died upon Soyuz 11's reentry.
July 30, 1971 - Apollo 15 astronauts David Scott and James Irwin drive the first moon rover. The next year, Apollo 17 astronaut Harrison Schmitt drives a similar rover.
November 13, 1971 - American Mariner 9 (launched May 30, 1971) is the first spacecraft to orbit another planet, Mars. Over the next year, it maps 100 percent of the Martian surface.

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March 2, 1972 - Pioneer 10 is launched on an Atlas/Centaur/TE364-4 towards Jupiter by the U.S., designed to familiarize alien life with humans. It returns the first close-up images of Jupiter in 1973.
July 15, 1972 - Pioneer 10 becomes the first man-made object to travel through the asteroid belt.
December, 1972 - Scientists designate Cignus X-1 as the first probable black hole.

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April 5, 1973 - Pioneer 11 is launched on an Atlas/Centaur/TE364-4, flying past Jupiter in 1974, and Saturn in 1979, where it discovers new rings.
May 14, 1973 - Skylab Workshop is launched by the U.S., and maintained by three crews.
May 25, 1973 - First crew to Skylab, Skylab 2, are launched, repairing damage incurred to Skylab during its launch.
November 3, 1973 - American Mariner 10 is launched, on the first dual-planet mission. Over the next year, it returned photographs of Venus and Mercury.

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May 17, 1974 - NASA launches the first Synchronous Meteorological Satellite, SMS-1.
June 24, 1974 - Soviet Salyut 3, their first military space station, is launched. It remains in orbit until January 1975.
December 26, 1974 - Soviet Salyut 4, civilian space station, is launched. It remains in orbit until February 2, 1977.

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July, 1975 - American Apollo (18) and Soviet Soyuz 19 dock, the first international spacecraft rendezvous.
October, 1975 - Soviet Venera 9 and 10 send the first pictures of the Venusian surface to Earth.

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June 22, 1976 - Soviet military space station Salyut 5 is launched, remaining in orbit until August 8, 1977.
July 20, 1976 - Pictures of the Martian surface are taken by Viking 1, the first U.S. attempt to soft land a spacecraft on another planet.
September 3, 1976 - Viking 2 lands on Mars on the Plain of Utopia, where it discovered water frost.

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August-September, 1977 - Voyagers 1 and 2 leave Earth to meet with Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980.
September 29, 1977 - Soviet Salyut 6 space station is launched. Its crews include members from Czechoslovakia, Poland, GDR, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Cuba, Mongolia, and Romania.

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November, 1978 - The Einstein Observatory begins its 30-day mission.
December, 1978 - Two Pioneer spacecraft reach Venus. One drops four probes into the atmosphere, while the other maps the surface.

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September 1, 1979 - Pioneer 11 reaches Saturn, flying to within 13,000 miles and taking the first close-up photographs.

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April 12, 1981 - The first manned mission of the Space Transportation System (STS-1), Columbia , is launched.
June 19, 1981 - The European Space Agency launches its third Ariane rocket.
December 20, 1981 - The ESA launches a fourth Ariane rocket.

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March 1, 1982 - Venera 13 lands on Venus, and provides the first Venusian soil analysis.
April 19, 1982 - Soviet Salyut 7 space station is launched.
May 13, 1982 - Soviet Cosmonauts Anatoly N. Berezovoi and Valentin V. Lebedev are launched in Soyuz-T 5 to rendezvous with Salyut 7, the first team to inhabit the space station. They return to Earth in Soyuz-T 7, setting a (then) duration record of 211 days.
August, 1982 - Voyager 2 completes its flyby of Saturn.
November 11, 1982 - The space shuttle Columbia's fifth mission, its first operational one, begins, deploying two satellites. Crew: Vance Brand, Robert Overmyer, Joseph Allen, and William Lenoir.

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April 4, 1983 - The space shuttle Challenger lifts off for its first mission (STS-6) and has the first American space walk in nine years. Crew: Paul Weitz, Karol Bobko, Donald Peterson, and Story Musgrave.
June 19, 1983 - Sally K. Ride is the first U.S. woman to travel in space, on Challenger mission STS-7.
October 10, 1983 - Soviet Venera 15 returns the first high-resolution images of the Venus polar area, and compiled a thermal map of most of the northern hemisphere.
November 28, 1983 - The space shuttle Columbia carries the ESA Spacelab-1 into orbit (STS-9). Its crew includes Ulf Merbold, A German and first ESA member in space..
January-November, 1983 - The Infrared Astronomical Satellite finds new comets, asteroids, galaxies, and a dust ring around the star Vega that may be new planets.

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February 3, 1984 - Bruce McCandless takes the first untethered space walk using MMU from the space shuttle Challenger (STS-41B).
July 17, 1984 - launch of Soyuz-T 12 carrying Svetlana Savitskaya, who becomes the first woman to walk in space.
August 30, 1984 - The third space shuttle, Discovery, lifts off on it's maiden voyage (STS-41D). Crew: Henry W. Hartsfield, Michael L. Coats, Richard Mullane, Steven Hawley, Judith A. Resnik, and Charles D. Walker.
October, 1984 - Salyut 7's cosmonauts L. D. Kizim, V. A. Solovyov, and O. Y. Atkov set a (then) 237-day record in space. They arrive at Salyut 7 in Soyuz-T 10 and depart in Soyuz-T 11
October 5, 1984 - launch of space shuttle Challenger mission STS-41G carrying the first crew with two women aboard - Sally Ride and Katherine Sullivan. Sullivan becomes the first American woman to walk in space.
December, 1984 - Soviet/International Vega 1 & 2 are launched, dropping probes into Venus' atmosphere before continuing to Halley's Comet.

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January 8, 1985 - The Sakigake probe is launched by Japan's Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, becoming the first interplanetary probe as it rendezvous with Halley's Comet.
April 29, 1985 - The Challenger carries the ESA Spacelab-3 into orbit (STS-51B).
July 2, 1985 - The European Space Agency launches the Giotto spacecraft from an Ariane rocket. It encounters Halley's Comet in 1986, and Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup in 1992.
October 3, 1985 - The fourth space shuttle Atlantis takes off on its first mission (STS-51J). Crew: Karol J. Bobko, Ronald J. Grabe, Robert A. Stewart, David C. Hilmers, and William A. Pailes.
October 1985 - Spacelab D1, the first joint German/ESA mission, is flown. Its crew consists of two German DARA astronauts, and Danish Wubbo Ockels of the ESA.

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January, 1986 - Voyager 2 flies past Uranus.
January 28, 1986 - The space shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after liftoff of mission STS-51L.
February 20, 1986 - The core unit of Soviet space station Mir is launched.
March, 1986 - Spacecraft from the U.S.S.R, Japan, and Western Europe fly by Halley's Comet on it's 30th recorded appearance.
March, 1986 - Astronomers discover an invisible gravity source that splits a quasar's light.
April, 1986 - Astronomers find that our galaxy is smaller than they thought and the Sun is 23,000 light-years from it's center.

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February 25, 1987 - Supernova 1987A blazes into view.
December 1987 - Cosmonaut Yuri V. Romanenko returns from space station Mir, having arrived there from Soyuz-TM 2, and sets a (then) space endurance record of 326 days.

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May 4, 1989 - Space Shuttle Atlantis is launched (STS-30), deploying the spacecraft Magellan.
July 12, 1989 - Soviet/International Phobos 2 launched, which orbits Mars to study its surface, atmosphere and magnetic field.
October 18, 1989 - U.S. launches the Galileo spacecraft from Shuttle Atlantis flight STS-34, which took infrared images of Venus, and images of the asteroid Ida, before continuing to Jupiter.

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April 5, 1990 - U.S. Pegasus rocket is deployed from a B-52 bomber, and launched the Pegsat satellite in the first demonstration of the Pegasus launch vehicle.
April 24, 1990 - Space Shuttle Discovery launches on STS-31, deploying the Edwin P. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) astronomical observatory.
August, 1990 - U.S. spacecraft Magellan arrives at Venus, where for the next year it took radar images of the surface.
October 6, 1990 - Space Shuttle Discovery launches the Ulysses spacecraft with two upper stages, on mission STS-41. Ulysses flies toward Jupiter, to be slingshot towards the sun, to obtain data from high solar latitudes.

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February 7, 1991 - Salyut 7 falls from orbit and burns up over Argentina.
April 5, 1991 - Space Shuttle Atlantis carries the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory into orbit. This new space telescope, built by NASA, was the first to provide an all-sky continuous survey in the gamma-ray and X-ray spectra.
June 5, 1991 - Shuttle Columbia carries the Spacelab SLS-1 into orbit, to conduct investigations into the effects of weightlessness on humans. (STS-40)

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February 8, 1992 - Spacecraft Ulysses flies around Jupiter, on its way to the sun.
May 2, 1992 - Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off on its first mission (STS-49), repairing the Intelsat VI satellite. Crew: Daniel C. Brandenstein, Kevin P. Chilton, Richard J. Hieb, Bruce E. Melnick, Pierre J. Thout, Kathryn C. Thornton, and Thomas D. Akers.
September 25, 1992 - Mars Observer lifts off, the first American probe to Mars in 17 years, since Viking 2. This probe is intended as an orbital mapper to study the red planet's atmosphere, surface, and geological make-up. The spacecraft functions well during its cruise to Mars, then all contact was lost on August 21, 1993, three days before orbital insertion.

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December 2, 1993 - Space Shuttle Endeavour launches on STS-61, making the first on-orbit service of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
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January 25, 1994 - U.S. launches Clementine, a new DOD satellite that performs a lunar mapping mission using advanced ballistic missile defense technologies. It suffers a malfunction on May 10, 1994, ending its mission.
February, 1994 - A Russian Cosmonaut, Sergei Krikalev, flies on board the U.S. space shuttle Discovery for the first time (STS-60).
September 13, 1994 - Spacecraft Ulysses reaches a maximum Southern latitude of 80.2 degrees at the sun, proceeding towards the Northern latitudes, maintaining an orbital period of six years.
October 12, 1994 - Spacecraft Magellan enters the atmosphere of Venus, burning up following the completion of its mapping mission.
December 9, 1994 - Asteroid XM1 passes within 65,000 miles of Earth.

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February 6, 1995 - Space shuttle Discovery maneuvers to within 37 feet of Russian space station Mir, in preparation for a shuttle-Mir docking (STS-63). This is the first shuttle mission to be flown by a female pilot.
March 22, 1995 - Cosmonaut Valeriy Polyakov returns to Earth after a 438-day mission aboard Russian space station Mir, setting a new space endurance record.
June 26, 1995 - Space Shuttle Atlantis rendezvous with Russian space station Mir during a ten-day mission on STS-71. Cosmonauts are transferred to and from Atlantis, and Astronaut Norman Thagard is returned from Mir, having arrived on Soyuz-TM 21, and making a new American space endurance record of 115 days.
September 1995 - Pioneer 11 ceases making scientific observations, its power source nearly depleted.
November 12, 1995 - Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off on mission STS-74, making the second docking with Russian space station Mir. It delivers two solar arrays, and a docking module for future Shuttle dockings.
December 7, 1995 - The Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter, performing an orbit while dropping a probe into the atmosphere, and putting a satellite into orbit, which will spend the next two years orbiting the planet.

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February 8, 1996 - Thomas Reiter becomes the first European Space Agency astronaut to make two spacewalks (both from the Russian Mir space station). His previous spacewalk was on October 21, 1995, and lasted 5 hours 11 minutes.
February 17, 1996 - NASA launches the first in the Discovery series of spacecraft, the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft, aboard a Delta II-7925-8 rocket.
March 22, 1996 - Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off on STS-76, performing the third docking with Space Station Mir. Astronaut Shannon Lucid was left on Mir, becoming the first female Astronaut to crew a Space Station.
September 26, 1996 - Space Shuttle Atlantis touches down after mission STS-79. It brings back Shannon Lucid, who becomes the longest US astronaut in space, and the longest female astronaut in space.
November 19, 1996 - Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off on its 21st space flight, setting a new shuttle in-space endurance record of almost 18 days. This flight carries Story Musgrave, at that time the oldest man to fly in space at 61 years of age.

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January 12, 1997 - Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off for the fifth docking with the Mir space station, and Jerry Linenger replaces John Blaha as the American crew member.
February 10, 1997 - Soyuz TM25 lifts off to dock with the Mir space station. New Russian crew members Vasily Tsibliyev and Alexander Lazutkin relieve Russians Korzun and Kaleri for the beginning of an eventful and difficult tour of duty. Before the resident crew leaves, a fierce fire breaks out on board which is contained and put out before serious damage is done. After the old crew leaves, an attempt to re-dock with the Progress supply freighter fails, with the freighter just missing collision with Mir. These events are followed by failures of the electrolysis oxygen generators and the station's attitude control system.
February 11, 1997 - Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off on the second maintenance mission for the Hubble Space Telescope, installing a new spectrograph, infrared camera, new guidance sensors, a new computer and data recorder, and repairing the telescope's insulation.
March 31, 1997 - After 25 years of operation, routine telemetry and ground control with Pioneer 10 is terminated. The probe at that moment is 6.7 billion miles from Earth, traveling at 28,000 miles per hour. In two million years, it will reach the red giant Aldeberan in the constellation of Taurus.
April 4, 1997 - Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off for the shortest shuttle flight in 12 years (four days). The flight is cut short due to a failure of one of the spacecraft's three fuel cells.
May 17, 1997 - Space Shuttle Atlantis performs its sixth docking with Mir. Jerry Linenger is relieved by Michael Foale as the American crewmember on Mir. Atlantis returned to Earth on May 24th and Mir continued with its troubles. On June 24th, the crew attempts a test with a new docking system to dock with a Progress freighter. The failure of the new system results in the collision of the freighter into Mir, causing a serious air leak and damage to the electrical power of the station.
June 27, 1997 - NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) probe passes the asteroid Mathilde on its way to meeting up with 433 Eros.
July 1, 1997 - Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off again to complete the flight aborted in April. The shuttle is outfitted with Spacelab, set up as a microgravity science laboratory, with 33 different experiments, that fills the cargo bay.
July 4, 1997 - Mars Pathfinder becomes the first probe to successfully land on Mars since Viking 2 in 1976. It is also the first planetary probe to include a separate roving robot probe (Sojourner) since the Soviet Union's Luna 21 in 1973.
August 7, 1997 - Soyuz TM26 arrives at Mir with a relief crew. The fresh Russian crew, along with Michael Foale, undertake seven internal and external spacewalk missions over a six month period in order to repair the crippled station. During the repairs, the station has a near collision with an abandoned satellite (MSTI 2), which speeds past to within 500 meters of Mir.
August 7, 1997 - Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off for a 12-day mission to deploy and retrieve the Crista-Spas 2 satellite, which studied the Earth's middle atmosphere. This flight also tested various infra-red and ultraviolet instrumentation, and tested the Japanese robot-arm to be used for the International Space Station.
September 12, 1997 - Mars Global Surveyor arrives at Mars and begins the process of adjusting its highly elliptical orbit into a circular one using aerobraking - friction with the top of the Martian atmosphere to slow the craft down. Taking about 2,000 images of the planet, this probe shows the entire life of a dust storm, evidence of Martian streams, ponds, oceans, and underground water drainage systems.
September 27, 1997 - Space Shuttle Atlantis performs its seventh docking with Mir to support the repair & upgrade process, and bringing additional experiments for the space station.
October 15, 1997 - launch of the double probe Cassini/Huygens, aimed at Saturn. This is probably the most ambitious and complex unmanned planetary project ever attempted, costing more than $2.5 billion and involving 17 nations and hundreds of scientists from the U.S. and Europe. It carries a sophisticated camera package and 11 other instruments aimed at performing 19 experiments on the ringed planet. It will arrive at Saturn in 2004, will orbit Saturn up to 60 times sending back close-up photographs of Saturn's rings and its 18 moons. Cassini also carries a separate probe, Huygens. This probe will be dropped through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.
November 19, 1997 - Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off with three American astronauts, one Japanese, and the first Ukrainian astronaut, Leonid Kadenyuk. This mission, mostly dedicated to science and the testing of new space technologies, releases one free-flying satellite.

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January 7, 1998 - Lunar Prospector is the first NASA mission to the Moon in 25 years, and the first dedicated to lunar research since Apollo 17 in 1972. The spacecraft is placed in lunar orbit to make a careful spectroscopic analysis of the entire lunar surface, including its North and South poles, and soon confirms what the Department of Defense Clementine mission had found in 1994 - that trapped within some of the craters at the Moon's two poles is about 6.6 trillion tons of permanently frozen water ice.
January 22, 1998 - Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off to rendezvous with Mir, the eight U.S. docking with the Russian space station and the first by a shuttle other than Atlantis.
February 14, 1998 - The four satellites Globalstar 1, 2, 3, and 4 are the first in Globalstar's planned 44-satellite constellation of medium-Earth-orbit (~900 miles altitude) communications satellites for providing voice and data links worldwide from both remote and home telephones. This system is planned as a direct competitor to Iridium's cluster, which began launching in May of 1997.
April 17, 1998 - Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off on a 16-day mission, its 25th. The mission is dedicated to the study of the effects of weightlessness on the human neurological system, with the astronauts serving as both researchers and experimental subjects.
June 2, 1998 - Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off on a 10-day mission, its 24th and the last shuttle docking with Mir.
July 3, 1998 - Japan launches the Nozomi probe to Mars, the first planetary mission by a country other than the U.S. or the Soviet Union/Russia. Using a combination of lunar gravity, Earth gravity, and rocket burns, Nozomi is scheduled to arrive at Mars in December 2003.
October 3, 1998 - Launched by the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office, the Space Technology EXperiment (STEX) satellite tests 29 new spacecraft designs, including an almost four-mile-long tether, advanced solar panels, and an ion engine test.
October 24, 1998 - NASA launches Deep Space 1, a technology test spacecraft which evaluates a dozen advanced spacecraft engineering designs, from mirror-enhanced solar panels to the first use of an ion engine to leave Earth orbit and rendezvous with the asteroid Braille.
October 29, 1998 - Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off with John Glenn aboard, first American to orbit Earth and at 77, the oldest man to fly in space. The flight is the last purely scientific shuttle flight, focusing on astronomy, life sciences, and materials. One satellite is deployed, one is released and retrieved. Most subsequent shuttle flights are ferry and construction flights for the International Space Station.
November 20, 1998 - the first component of the International Space Station, Zarya, is launched on a Russian rocket. This Russian built, U.S. financed module provides communications, electrical power, and attitude control for the station until the arrival of the third module (Zvezda, in July 2000).
December 4, 1998 - Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off on its thirteenth space flight, with the International Space Station's second module, Unity. This module provides the docking ports and connections for every other docked module.
December 11, 1998 - Mars Climate Orbiter is launched by NASA, with the objective of studying Martian weather. The probe is lost as it approaches Mars on September 23, 1999, due to an error in propulsion software, using English instead of metric units. The probe passes too close to Mars and burns up in the atmosphere.
December 23, 1998 - NEAR space probe flies to within 2400 miles of the asteroid 433 Eros, taking 222 photographs of nearly two-thirds of its surface. A software problem prevents the spacecraft from going into orbit around the asteroid, but a second engine burn on January 3, 1999 brings the spacecraft back to Eros in February of 2000.

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January 3, 1999 - Mars Polar Lander lifts off on its ill-fated mission to Mars. This NASA probe is to land within about 600 miles of the Martian South Pole, along with dropping two surface-penetrating darts. Contact with the probe is lost on December 3, 1999 as it is descending through the Martian atmosphere and it is never heard from again, the first failure of a U.S. planetary soft landing in 30 years.
February 7, 1999 - The NASA satellite Stardust lifts off for a rendezvous with the Comet Wild-2 in January of 2004.
February 20, 1999 - the Russian Soyuz TM29 lifts off for the Mir space station. This is scheduled to be the final mission to Mir, and when the crew of TM29 departs Mir in August of 1999, they leave the space station empty for the first time in almost exactly 10 years.
May 27, 1999 - Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off for the International Space Station. They bring supplies and perform a spacewalk of nearly eight hours to install two exterior cranes, along with a variety of tools and equipment for future astronaut use. They deploy the satellite Starshine for studying atmospheric density changes.
July 23, 1999 - Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off, carrying the Chandra X-Ray Observatory into orbit.
July 28, 1999 - Deep Space 1 flies to within 16 miles of the asteroid Braille and continues on its course to rendezvous with Comet Wilson-Harrington in January 2001.
November 19, 1999 - China launches Shenzhou, the first unmanned test of their manned capsule.
December 19, 1999 - Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off for the third maintenance mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. They perform three space walks, installing six new gyroscopes, a new guidance sensor, a new computer, a voltage/temperature kit for the spacecraft's batteries, a new transmitter, a new solid state recorder, and thermal insulation blankets.

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January 3, 2000 - the Galileo space probe safely completes its encounter with Jupiter's ice moon, Europa, at an altitude of 343 km. Later in the year, on May 30, Galileo flies by Jupiter's largest moon Ganymede at an altitude of 808 km.
February 11, 2000 - Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off to carry out the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, cosponsored by NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency. A large radar antenna in the payload bay and a smaller element deployed on a 60-meter boom work together in the synthetic-aperture mode to produce the effect of a much larger antenna. The mission produces a three-dimensional map of about 80% of the world's landmass.
February 14, 2000 - NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) probe settles into orbit around the asteroid 433 Eros, producing a series of stunning close-up images. Ground controllers start tightening its orbit for an eventual soft impact with the tumbling, potato-shaped asteroid.
April 4, 2000 - Soyuz TM30 lifts off on a return mission to Mir, reversing Russia's actions of the previous year to shut the space station down. The idea is to re-open the space station for commercial operations, including a Mir version of the Survivor TV show. The cosmonauts remain until mid-June, and two Progress freighters are flown up (one in April, one in October) before financial support disappears and the venture falls through.
May 19, 2000 - Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off for the International Space Station for maintenance on the crane and a faulty antenna, installation of a Russian boom arm, handrails and upgrades to the ventilation system, and delivery of new batteries, supplies and equipment.
July 12, 2000 - the Zvezda service module for the International Space Station (ISS) is launched from Russia on a Proton rocket. The automated docking of this unit with the first linked pair of modules already in orbit - Zarya and Unity - allows the U.S. to start a series of space shuttle launches to add American-built components, which will be followed by laboratory modules from Europe and Japan. Zvezda will act as the control center and living quarters for the initial space station crews.
September 8, 2000 - Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off on a 12-day mission to outfit the ISS, completing the installation of the Zvezda module.
October 11, 2000 - Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off on a 14-day mission to install the Z1 segment, the first piece of the space station truss, and a third docking port (PMA-3) for the Unity adapter. They also test the new 'SAFER' spacesuit backpack propulsion units.
October 31, 2000 - the Expedition One crew is launched on a Soyuz transport to become the first crew of the ISS.
December 1, 2000 - Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off on a 12 day mission to the ISS. They install the first set of ISS's solar panels and radiators for removing heat.

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January 9, 2001 - the first launch of the "true" millenium is Chinese, with the second test flight of the manned Shenshou spaceship, reported to be carrying a monkey, a dog, and a rabbit.
February 7, 2001 - Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off for the ISS, carrying the U.S.'s Destiny laboratory module. In three space walks the astronauts install Destiny, a grappler for the station's robotic arm, and radio antennae.
February 14, 2001 - NEAR soft impacts on the asteroid 433 Eros, at 2 m/s. Signals continue to be received from the probe hours after the landing, confirming its survival.
March 8, 2001 - Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on a 14-day ISS construction mission. In two spacewalks the astronauts install new equipment including the Leonardo logistics module, built by the Italian Space Agency to move racks of experimental equipment to the ISS, docking to the station as the equipment is used & transferred, then carrying equipment back in the shuttle after use.
March 23, 2001 - fifteen years after its first launch, and after nearly 10 years of continuous occupation by astronauts, the Mir space station is de-orbited, breaking up in the atmosphere and impacting in the Pacific Ocean.
April 7, 2001 - the 2001 Mars Odyssey probe is launched on a trajectory for Mars orbit to be achieved in October, with a mission similar to that of the Mars Climate Orbiter launched December 1998. Mars Odyssey successfully enters Mars orbit on October 24th.
April 19, 2001 - Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off for the ISS on a construction mission. The crew will install the mobile robotic arm on the station (Canadarm 2) and supply the Destiny laboratory module with new experiments, using the Rafaello logistics module.
April 28, 2001 - Soyuz spacecraft TM-32 lifts off for the ISS with the first space tourist, business executive Dennis Tito, who pays the Russians $20 million for the ride.
June 30, 2001 - NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is launched on a trajectory for a gravity boost past the moon to a position 1.5 million km outside Earth's orbit. From that position it is to measure cosmic background radiation from the dark extragalactic sky.
July 12, 2001 - Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off in the pre-dawn darkness for the ISS with the Joint Airlock which will enable space walks to be performed directly from the space station itself (I am there to watch the launch!).
August 10, 2001 - Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off for the ISS with the Leonardo laboratory module and SimpleSat, an experimental low-cost astronomical telescope.
September 22, 2001 - Deep Space 1 successfully completes its flyby of comet 19P/Borrelly.
October 16, 2001 - Galileo completes another flyby of Jupiter's moon Io, passing only 181 km from Io's south polar region.
December 5, 2001 - Space Shuttle Endeavour is launched carrying the Raffaello logistics module back to the ISS with new supplies.

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Felecia
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« Reply #12 on: February 21, 2007, 01:19:09 pm »

Ancient Aryan civilization achieved incredible technological progress 40 centuries ago
07/16/2005 18:32


Scientists discovered mysterious circles on the area of the ancient Russian town of Arkaim, which is the same age with Egypt and Babylon

President Putin has recently visited one of the most mysterious places on planet Earth - the ruins of the ancient town of Arkaim, which is situated on the outskirts of the city of Chelyabinsk. Historians, archaeologists and ufologists have spent many years trying to unravel the secrets of the town. Which nation was living in Arkaim more than 40 centuries ago? How did people of such ancient civilization manage to accomplish incredible technological progress, which still seems to be unachievable nowadays? A group of Russian researchers, with Vadim Chernobrovy at the head, has recently returned from the mysterious region. The scientist said that specialists and students had built numerous tent camps around Arkaim.

The Arkaim valley in the south of Ural was supposed to be flooded in 1987: local authorities were going to create a water reservoir there to irrigate droughty fields. However, scientists found strange circles in the center of the valley: the authorities gave archaeologists 12 months to explore the area. Scientists were shocked to find out that Arkaim was the same age as Egypt and Babylon, and a little older than Troy and Rome.

Gennady Zdanovich, the chairman of the archaeological expedition in Ural had to prove the scientific significance of Arkaim to regional officials. "We achieved what seemed to be absolutely unreal: the multi-million construction project in the region was shut down," the scientist said.

Archaeological excavations showed that the people, who inhabited Arkaim, represented one of the most ancient Indo-European civilizations, particularly the branch, which is referred to as the Aryan culture. Arkaim turned out to be not only a town, but also a temple and an astronomic observatory.

"A flight above Arkaim on board a helicopter gives you an incredible impression. The huge concentric circles on the valley are clearly visible. The town and its outskirts are all enclosed in the circles. We still do not know, what point the gigantic circles have, whether they were made for defensive, scientific, educational, or ritual purposes. Some researchers say that the circles were actually used as the runway for an ancient spaceport," Vadim Chernobrovy said.

Researchers discovered that the ancient town was equipped with the storm sewage system, which helped Arkaim's residents avoid floods. The people were protected against fires as well: timbered floorings and houses themselves were imbued with fireproof substance. It was a rather strong compound, the remnants of which can still be found in the ruins of the town.

Each house was outfitted with "all modern conveniences," as they would say nowadays. There was a well, an oven and dome-like food storage in every house. The well was branching out into two underground trenches: one of them was directed to the oven and the other one ended in the food storage. The trenches were used to supply chilly air to the oven and to the food storage. The cool air from the trenches was also creating a very powerful traction force in the Aryan oven, which made it possible to smelt bronze there.

The central square in Arkaim was the only object of square shape in the town. Judging upon traces of bonfires that were placed in a specific order on the square, the place was used as a site for certain rituals.

Arkaim was built according to a previously projected plan as a single complicated complex, which also had an acute orientation on astronomic objects. While archaeologists are meticulously brushing dust off ancient stones trying to recreate the lifestyle of Arkaim's residents, ufologists study mysterious phenomena, which they register in the town: inexplicable fluctuations of voltage, magnetic field tension, temperatures and so on.

Natalia Leskova


http://english.pravda.ru/science/19/94/377/15814_Arkaim.html
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« Reply #13 on: February 21, 2007, 01:19:54 pm »

Oldest Hieroglyphs Discovered in China’s Ningxia
Central News Agency Oct 10, 2005


The rock art research center of the Second Northwest Institute for Ethnic Minorities (SNIEM) in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region recently disclosed to the outside world that the most ancient picture writings in China, discovered among the numerous independent cliff painting groups at Ningxia’s Damaidi, are thousands years older than oracle-bone inscriptions. The discovery may change the history of Chinese characters.

According to a report of China’s Xinhua News Agency on Oct. 5, a surprising number of prehistoric cliff paintings were discovered at Damaidi, Beishan Mountain, Weining, Ningxia, which dates back to the late Paleolithic period (Old Stone Age) about 20,000 years ago.

The surveys and studies by cliff painting experts at the SNIEM found that there are 8,453 individual cliff painting figures at Damaidi in 3,172 groups. The figures feature the heavenly bodies (sun, moon and stars), holy spirit of Heaven and Earth, hunting and herding, dancing and sacrificial rites.

These experts determined that the early cliff paintings were 16,000 to 10,000 years old. They have conducted on-sight investigation and in-depth studies on individual figures of the cliff paintings for nearly two years, and their findings have been appraised by Shanghai's ancient Chinese characters expert Liu Jingyun.

The research revealed that the pictures and symbols discovered in Damaidi were Chinese ancient characters, and many of the hieroglyphic and abstract signs have acquired the key elements of ancient writings. Similar hieroglyphic characters can also be found in symbols and signs of the Pottery Writing (5000 to 1600 B.C.) discovered nearly at the same period of time and oracle-bone inscriptions afterward. Moreover, certain compound characters comprised of two or more hieroglyphic signs have also acquired essential elements of hieroglyphic characters, logical aggregates, and self-explanatory characters.

What’s more interesting is that such hieroglyphic signs were not marked sporadically in Damaidi’s cliff paintings; instead, they formed a star-shaped distribution. Li Xiangshi, researcher from the art rock research center of the SNIEM, pointed out that among the 1,500-plus signs of pictures and writings found at Damaidi, only a small quantity of them have been successfully deciphered, yet most remain unknown.

http://english.epochtimes.com/news/5-10-10/33144.html
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« Reply #14 on: February 21, 2007, 01:20:46 pm »

“Ertebølle-Ellerbeck culture”

Definition: The Ertebølle-Ellerbeck culture is the name given to the Late Mesolithic/Early Neolithic communities of northern Europe, dated about 5300 BC, consisting of hunter-gatherers who adopted pottery but not agriculture from their neighbors. In other words, your basic Mesolithic cultural lifestyle, plus pottery. Cemetery sites assigned to the Ertebolle culture near communities as Skateholm and Vedbaek are considered to have the earliest evidence of social ranking in Europe. Preceded by the Kongemose Mesolithic culture.

This glossary entry is part of the Dictionary of Archaeology. Sources for the term include the references listed on the front page of the Dictionary, and the websites listed in the sidebar. Any mistakes are the responsibility of Kris Hirst.

Examples: Skateholm I and II (Sweden), Aggersund, Tybrind Vig, Ertebølle, Vedbaek (all in Denmark),Related Glossary Entries
Vedbaek (Denmark)

Skateholm (Sweden)

Kongemose Culture

Suggested Reading
Mesolithic Archaeology

Scandinavia


http://archaeology.about.com/od/eterms/g/ertebolle.htm
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