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Egyptian mummification started much earlier than previously thought

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Bacardi
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« on: August 17, 2014, 04:35:05 pm »


Egyptian mummification started much earlier than previously thought, say researchers

Wed, Aug 13, 2014

Research results push back origins of mummification in ancient Egypt by 1,500 years.
Egyptian mummification started much earlier than previously thought, say researchers

Researchers from the Universities of York, Macquarie and Oxford have discovered new evidence to suggest that the origins of mummification started in ancient Egypt 1,500 years earlier than previously thought.

Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification suggest that in prehistory -- the Late Neolithic and Predynastic periods between c. 4500 and 3100 B.C. -- bodies were desiccated naturally through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has, until now, been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 BC). Their use became more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC).

But an 11-year study by the York, Macquarie and Oxford team identified the presence of complex embalming agents in linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs in one of the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda, in the region of Upper Egypt.

"For over a decade I have been intrigued by early and cryptic reports of the methods of wrapping bodies at the Neolithic cemeteries at Badari and Mostagedda," said Dr Jana Jones of Macquarie University, Sydney. "In 2002, I examined samples of funerary textiles from these sites that had been sent to various museums in the United Kingdom through the 1930s from Egypt. Microscopic analysis with my colleague Mr Ron Oldfield revealed resins were likely to have been used, but I wasn't able to confirm my theories, or their full significance, without tapping into my York colleague's unique knowledge of ancient organic compounds."

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mummification4

Graves at Mostagedda. Late Neolithic/Tasian. Mostagedda and the Tasian Culture (London 1937) Courtesy G. Brunton

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Dr Jones initiated the research and led the study jointly with Dr Stephen Buckley, a Research Fellow at the University of York.

"Such controversial inferences challenge traditional beliefs on the beginnings of mummification," said Dr Jones. "They could only be proven conclusively through biochemical analysis, which Dr Buckley agreed to undertake after a number of aborted attempts by others. His knowledge includes many organic compounds present in an archaeological context, yet which are often not in the literature or mass spectra libraries."

Dr Buckley, who is also a corresponding author of the published study on the research, used a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sequential thermal desorption/pyrolysis to identify a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in the funerary wrappings.

Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those employed at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later.

Dr Buckley, who designed the experimental research and conducted the chemical analyses, said: "The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localised soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the mummification practice of the Pharaonic period."

Dr Buckley added: "Having previously led research on embalming agents employed in mummification during Egypt's Pharaonic period it was notable that the relative abundances of the constituents are typical of those used in mummification throughout much of ancient Egypt's 3000 year Pharaonic history. Moreover, these resinous recipes applied to the prehistoric linen wrapped bodies contained antibacterial agents, used in the same proportions employed by the Egyptian embalmers when their skill was at its peak, some 2500-3000 years later."

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mummification1

From Mostagedda, Late Neolithic. Flax yarn from wrappings, heavily impregnated with resin. Courtesy Ron Oldfield and Jana Jones

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mummification2

From Mostagedda, Tomb No. 1215, Late Neolithic. Funerary textile with 'resin', fragments of bone and reed matting. Courtesy Ron Oldfield and Jana Jones


http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/06052014/article/egyptian-mummification-started-much-earlier-than-previously-thought-say-researchers
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Bacardi
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« Reply #1 on: August 17, 2014, 04:38:48 pm »





Graves at Mostagedda. Late Neolithic/Tasian. Mostagedda and the Tasian Culture (London 1937) Courtesy G. Brunton
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Bacardi
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« Reply #2 on: August 17, 2014, 04:39:24 pm »



From Mostagedda, Late Neolithic. Flax yarn from wrappings, heavily impregnated with resin. Courtesy Ron Oldfield and Jana Jones
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Bacardi
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« Reply #3 on: August 17, 2014, 04:39:51 pm »



From Mostagedda, Tomb No. 1215, Late Neolithic. Funerary textile with 'resin', fragments of bone and reed matting. Courtesy Ron Oldfield and Jana Jones

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Bacardi
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« Reply #4 on: August 17, 2014, 04:40:18 pm »



From Mostagedda, Early Predynastic. Two layers of textile, the inner impregnated with embalming substances. Courtesy Ron Oldfield and Jana Jones
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Bacardi
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« Reply #5 on: August 17, 2014, 04:40:47 pm »



From Mostagedda, Early Predynastic. Multiple layers of wrappings with 'resins'. Courtesy Ron Oldfield and Jana Jones
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