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Boxer Rebellion

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Shaiking
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« Reply #15 on: September 07, 2007, 06:04:27 am »



Battle scene between Chinese forces and the Eight-Nation Alliance (front: British and Japanese troops).
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Shaiking
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« Reply #16 on: September 07, 2007, 06:05:56 am »

The end of rebellion

A large international expeditionary force under the command of German general Alfred Graf von Waldersee arrived too late to take part in the main fighting, but undertook several punitive expeditions against the Boxers. Troops from most nations engaged in plunder, looting and occasionally ****. German troops in particular were criticized for their enthusiasm in carrying out Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany's July 27 order.

“ make the name German remembered in China for a thousand years so that no Chinaman will ever again dare to even squint at a German." ”

The speech, in which Wilhelm invoked the memory of the 5th century Huns, gave rise to the British derogatory name "Hun" for their German enemy during World War I and World War II.

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Shaiking
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« Reply #17 on: September 07, 2007, 06:07:06 am »



Parade of the foreign armies in Beijing.
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« Reply #18 on: September 07, 2007, 06:10:10 am »

Reparations

On September 7, 1901, the Qing court was compelled to sign the "Boxer Protocol" also known as Peace Agreement between the Eight-Nation Alliance and China. The protocol ordered the execution of ten high-ranking officials linked to the outbreak, and other officials who were found guilty for the slaughter of Westerners in China.

China was fined war reparations of 450,000,000 tael of fine silver (around 67.5 million pounds/333 million US dollars) for the loss that it caused. The reparation would be paid within 39 years, and would be 982,238,150 taels with interests (4% per year) included. To help meet the payment, it was agreed to increase the existing tariff from an actual 3.18% to 5%, and to tax hitherto duty-free mechandise. The sum of reparation was estimated by the Chinese population (roughly 450 million in 1900), to let each Chinese pay one tael. Chinese custom income and salt tax were enlisted as guarantee of the reparation. Russia got 30% of the reparation, Germany 20%, France 15.75%, Britain 11.25%, Japan 7.7% and the US share was 7%.

China paid 668,661,220 taels of silver from 1901 to 1939. Some of the reparation was later earmarked by both Britain and the U.S. for the education of Chinese students at overseas institutions, subsequently forming the basis of Tsinghua University. The British signatory of the Protocol was Sir Ernest Satow.

The China Inland Mission lost more members than any other missionary agency: 58 adults and 21 children were killed. However, in 1901, when the allied nations were demanding compensation from the Chinese government, Hudson Taylor refused to accept payment for loss of property or life in order to demonstrate the meekness of Christ to the Chinese
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Shaiking
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« Reply #19 on: September 07, 2007, 06:11:20 am »



Russian troops in Beijing during the Boxer rebellion.
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« Reply #20 on: September 07, 2007, 06:12:17 am »

Aftermath

The imperial government's humiliating failure to defend China against the foreign powers contributed to the growth of nationalist resentment against the "foreigner" Qing dynasty (who were descendant of the Manchu conquerors of China) and an increasing feeling for modernization, which was to culminate a decade later in the dynasty's overthrow and the establishment of the Republic of China. The foreign privileges which had angered Chinese people were largely cancelled in the 1930s and 1940s.

In October 1900, Russia was busy occupying much of the northeastern province of Manchuria, a move which threatened Anglo-American hopes of maintaining what remained of China's territorial integrity and an openness to commerce under the Open Door Policy. This behavior led ultimately to the Russo-Japanese War, where Russia was defeated at the hands of an increasingly confident Japan.

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« Reply #21 on: September 07, 2007, 06:13:47 am »



American troops in China during the Boxer Rebellion.
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Shaiking
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« Reply #22 on: September 07, 2007, 06:16:13 am »

Results

During the incident, 48 Catholic missionaries and 18,000 Chinese Catholics were murdered. 222 Chinese Eastern Orthodox Christians were also murdered, along with 182 Protestant missionaries and 500 Chinese Protestants known as the China Martyrs of 1900.

The effect on China was a weakening of the dynasty as well as a weakened national defense. The structure was temporarily sustained by the Europeans who were under the impression that the Boxer Rebellion was anti-Qing. Besides the compensation, Empress Dowager Cixi realized that in order to survive, China had to reform despite her previous view of European opposition. Among the Imperial powers, Japan gained prestige due to its military aid in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion and was first seen as a power. Its clash with Russia over the Liaodong and other provinces in eastern Manchuria, long considered by the Japanese as part of their sphere of influence, led to the Russo-Japanese War when two years of negotiations broke down in February 1904. Germany, as mentioned above, earned itself the nickname "Hun" and occupied Qingdao bay, consequently fortifying it to serve as Germany's primary naval base in East Asia. The Russian Lease of the Liaodong (1898) was confirmed. The American U.S. 9th Infantry Regiment earned the nickname "Manchus" for its actions during this campaign. Current members of the regiment (stationed in Camp Casey, South Korea) still do a commemorative 25-mile (40 km) foot march every quarter in remembrance of the brutal fighting. Soldiers who complete this march are authorized to wear a special belt buckle that features a Chinese imperial dragon on their uniforms. Likewise both the U.S. 14th Infantry Regiment, which calls itself "The Golden Dragons"; the 15th Infantry Regiment (United States); and the U.S. 6th Cavalry Regiment also have a Golden Dragon on their coat of Arms respectfully. Other US Units were involved in the rebellion were Battery F of the "U.S. 5th Artillery" and US Marine Corps detachments.

The impact on China was immense. Soon after the rebellion the Imperial examination system for government service was eliminated. As a result, the classical system of education was replaced with a Westernized system that led to a university degree. Eventually the spirit of revolution sparked a new nationalist revolution, led by a baptized Christian Sun Yat-sen, which overthrew the Manchu (Qing) Dynasty.

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« Reply #23 on: September 07, 2007, 06:17:59 am »



Murdered China Inland Mission missionaries Duncan, Caroline and Jennie Kay.
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« Reply #24 on: September 07, 2007, 06:19:09 am »

Controversy in modern China

Cohen (1997) considers the ways in which the Boxer Rebellion has been mythologized within modern memories, pointing out not only the foundations for the myths but also those occasions when the myth had to be modified so as to fit in with changing intellectual, political, and cultural currents. He looks at mythologizing in the New Culture Movement from 1915 to 1925, which showed the Boxers as irrational and backward; in the anti-imperialist struggles of the 1920's, which depicted the Boxers as true patriots; and in the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, which insisted on a monolithic interpretation of the Boxers, not only stressing the Boxers' patriotic character but also drawing attention to the numbers of women associated with them.

Though the reaction of the Boxers against foreign imperialism in China is regarded by some as patriotic, the violence that they caused in committing acts of murder, robbery, vandalism and arson cannot be considered much different from the events of other rebellions in China, if not worse. Some people in China considered this movement as a rebellion (亂; disorder; Mandarin Pinyin: luàn), a negative term in Chinese language, when described by commentators during the years of the Qing dynasty and Republic of China. However, the Chinese Communists have shifted the perception of the rebellion by referring to it as an uprising (起義; being upright; qǐyì), a more positive term in the Chinese language. It is frequently referred to as a "patriotic movement" in the People's Republic of China by Communist politicians.

In January 2006, Freezing Point, a weekly supplement to the China Youth Daily newspaper, was closed partly due to its running of an essay by Yuan Weishi, a history professor at Zhongshan University, who claimed modern Chinese history textbooks were glossing over the atrocities committed by the Boxer rebels
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« Reply #25 on: September 07, 2007, 06:20:34 am »



Signature page of the Boxer Protocol.
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« Reply #26 on: September 07, 2007, 06:24:49 am »



Lobby Card for 55 Days at Peking

In fiction

•   The 1963 film 55 Days at Peking was a dramatization of the Boxer rebellion. Shot in Spain, it needed thousands of extras, and the company sent scouts throughout Spain to hire as many as they could find.
•   In 1975, Hong Kong's Shaw Brothers studio produced the film Boxer Rebellion(八国联军, Pa kuo lien chun) under director Chang Cheh with one of the highest budget to tell a sweeping story of disillusionment and revenge. It depicted followers of the Boxer clan being duped into believing they were impervious to attacks by firearms. The film starred Alexander Fu Sheng, Chi Kuan Chun and Wang Lung-Wei.
•   The popular film series Once Upon a Time in China, starred Jet Li as the legendary martial artist/Chinese doctor Wong Fei Hung. The film conveyed the ambiance and tumult of the time period with many historic events woven into the plotlines, though it is mostly an entertainment, non-historical piece.
•   In the movie, Shanghai Knights, which takes place before the actual Boxer rebellion, the Boxers, led by Wu Chow and backed by British Lord Nelson Rathbone, killed Chon Wang and Chon Lin's father, attempt to assassinate Queen Victoria, and unite the Emperor's enemies and storm the Forbidden City in order for their leaders to become King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of China, but they fail.
•   The novel, Moment In Peking by Lin Yutang, opens during the Boxer Rebellion, and provides a child's-eye view of the turmoil through the eyes of the protagonist.
•   The novel, The Palace of Heavenly Pleasure, by Adam Williams, describes the experiences of a small group of western missionaries, traders and railway engineers in a fictional town in Northern China shortly before and during the Boxer Rebellion.
•   Neal Stephenson, in his award-winning sci-fi novel The Diamond Age, refers to Boxers' Rebellion in many ways, including "Fists of Righteous Harmony" as the name of uprising Chinese xenophobic faction.
•   The novel for teenagers Tulku, by Peter Dickinson begins with a missionary from the United States being killed in the destruction of a village in China.
•   In the cult television series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, vampires Spike, Darla, Drusilla, and Angelus wreak havoc during the Boxer Rebellion.
•   The science fiction novel, For More Than Glory, by William C. Dietz, was inspired by and loosely based on the Boxer Rebellion.
•   The adventure/romance novel Monraker's Bride, by Madeleine Brent includes a spirited defence of a mission station towards the end of the Boxer Rebellion.
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Shaiking
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« Reply #27 on: September 07, 2007, 06:29:24 am »



Scene Of Von Ketteler's Murder, Peking
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Shaiking
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« Reply #28 on: September 07, 2007, 06:31:26 am »



Boxer rebels, 1900 photograph. From Tōgō Shrine and Tōgō Association (東郷神社・東郷会), Togo Heihachiro in images, illustrated Meiji Navy (図説東郷平八郎、目で見る明治の海軍), (Japanese), "Photograph of Boxer relels" (義和団).
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Shaiking
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« Reply #29 on: September 07, 2007, 06:34:39 am »



Theodor Rocholl Kampf um die Bergfeste Hophu
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