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the Pre-Raphaelites

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Dawn Moline
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« on: February 20, 2007, 02:31:57 am »

I would like to devote a topic to my favorite movement in all of art, the Pre-Raphaelites

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt.

The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach adopted by the Mannerist artists who followed Raphael and Michelangelo. They believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on academic teaching of art. Hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite". In particular they objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, the founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts. They called him "Sir Sloshua", believing that his broad technique was a sloppy and formulaic form of academic Mannerism. In contrast they wanted to return to the abundant detail, intense colours, and complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian and Flemish art.

The Pre-Raphaelites have been considered the first avant-garde movement in art, though they have also been denied that status, because they continued to accept both the concepts of history painting and of "mimesis", or imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art. However, the Pre-Raphaelites undoubtedly defined themselves as a reform movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, and published a periodical, The Germ, to promote their ideas. Their debates were recorded in the "Pre-Raphaelite Journal".

Early doctrines
The Brotherhood's early doctrines were expressed in four declarations:

To have genuine ideas to express;
To study Nature attentively, so as to know how to express them;
To sympathise with what is direct and serious and heartfelt in previous art, to the exclusion of what is conventional and self-parading and learned by rote;
And, most indispensable of all, to produce thoroughly good pictures and statues.


These principles are deliberately undogmatic, since the Brotherhood wished to emphasise the personal responsibility of individual artists to determine their own ideas and method of depiction. Influenced by Romanticism, they thought that freedom and responsibility were inseparable. Nevertheless, they were particularly fascinated by Medieval culture, believing it to possess a spiritual and creative integrity lost in later eras. This emphasis on medieval culture was to clash with the realism promoted by the stress on independent observation of nature. In its early stages the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood believed that the two interests were consistent with one another, but in later years the movement divided in two directions. The realist side was led by Hunt and Millais, while the medievalist side was led by Rossetti and his followers, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris. This split was never absolute, since both factions believed that art was essentially spiritual in character, opposing their idealism to the materialist realism associated with Courbet and Impressionism.

In their attempts to revive the brilliance of colour found in Quattrocento art, Hunt and Millais developed a technique of painting in thin glazes of pigment over a wet white ground. In this way they hoped that their colours would retain jewel-like transparency and clarity. This emphasis of brilliance of colour was in reaction to the excessive use of bitumen by earlier British artists such as Reynolds, David Wilkie and Benjamin Robert Haydon. Bitumen produces unstable areas of muddy darkness, an effect which the Pre-Raphaelies despised.
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Dawn Moline
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« Reply #1 on: February 20, 2007, 02:33:57 am »



"Persephone", by Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
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Dawn Moline
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« Reply #2 on: February 20, 2007, 02:35:05 am »



« Last Edit: June 24, 2007, 09:58:45 pm by Dawn Moline » Report Spam   Logged

"The unexamined life is one not worth leading."
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Dawn Moline
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« Reply #3 on: February 20, 2007, 02:40:17 am »



Fazio's Mistress, 1863.D.G.Rossetti 
(loose, luxuriant hair was an emblem of female sexuality in Pre-Raphaelite painting...[Here] we may well have a clue to the rippling effect of so much Pre-Raphaelite hair.  After washing, the tresses were plaited while still wet--as Fanny is shown doing--and then allowwed to dry, creating a naturally crimped look Marsh 23.)

V. Important Dates related to Dante Gabriel Rossetti and the three women
  1848 the formation of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
 
1849 met Elizabeth Siddal and used her as the main model (not to be used by the others)
 
1856 met Fanny Cornforth and used her as the main model
 
1857 met Jane Morris
 
1860 married Siddal
 
1862 Siddal died
 
1863 Fanny Cornforth became somebody else's housekeeper.
 
1865 used J. Morris as the main model
 
1871 Dante Gabriel Rossetti criticized as "the Fleshly School of Poetry"
 
1882 Dante Gabriel Rossetti died 

www.eng.fju.edu.tw/crit.97/PRwomen/final.htm
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Dawn Moline
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« Reply #4 on: February 20, 2007, 02:47:40 am »

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« Reply #5 on: February 20, 2007, 02:53:52 am »

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« Reply #6 on: June 24, 2007, 09:52:57 pm »

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« Reply #7 on: June 24, 2007, 09:54:09 pm »

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« Reply #8 on: June 24, 2007, 09:55:10 pm »

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« Reply #9 on: June 24, 2007, 09:56:54 pm »

 
« Last Edit: June 24, 2007, 10:00:15 pm by Dawn Moline » Report Spam   Logged

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Dawn Moline
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« Reply #10 on: June 24, 2007, 10:01:25 pm »

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« Reply #11 on: June 24, 2007, 10:02:10 pm »

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Dawn Moline
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« Reply #12 on: June 24, 2007, 10:04:22 pm »

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« Reply #13 on: June 24, 2007, 10:05:56 pm »

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« Reply #14 on: June 24, 2007, 10:06:46 pm »

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