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Morocco and Eastern Atlantis

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Bianca
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« Reply #1260 on: January 29, 2009, 04:34:36 pm »









                                                             The Naval base






1. Enforcement of the Warning -- the Naval base at Carteia.



The allegorical warning could have been supported by enforcement, since the Phoenician city of Carteia, now the site of archaeological research, is situated strategically at the sheltered Northern head of the Bay of Gibraltar, and had a population of 4,000 at a time, when Athens, one of the world's largest cities, had 20,000, so it can be considered a sizable city for its time.

Recent excavations and topographical data shows that Carteia had a sheltered harbour capable of berthing up to 40 biremes of 80 feet in length at any one time.

It is not excessive speculation that a craft seeking to go through the Straits into the Atlantic without first "reporting" and "receiving clearance" from Gorham's Cave would have received the immediate attention of a fleet of enforcers from the Bay, and if the intruders were missed by that sortie, there is the possibility of naval attacks emanating from a further settlement at the exit of the Straits, known to the Romans as Baelo Claudia from which it is possible the Phoenicians also operated at this time in addition to Tangier, (ancient Tingis) on the south side of the Straits of Gibraltar at the Atlantic exit.

There are suitable locations along the coast of Gibraltar for a small settlement capable of supporting a "caretaker" group at Gorham's Cave, including a village which is still inhabited about a one mile row along the East Coast of Gibraltar Northwards from Gorham's or this could easily have been carried out on a daily basis directly from Carteia which is a 5-mile walk on level ground along sand dunes and beaches from Gorham's Cave, albeit requiring a row for the last mile, which would have made the cave of difficult access and a serene place.
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« Reply #1261 on: January 29, 2009, 04:35:56 pm »








2. The Bronze Blockade

This hypothesis implies a blockade of the Mediterranean over an extended period perhaps of several centuries, and a level of organisation and cooperation amongst Phoenician settlements, including perhaps Regal direction from Tyre, with which many Archaeological authorities will not agree, since this is not at present supported by any other Archaeological evidence than the existence of an important Phoenician port at Carteia and (thousands) of votive offerings at Gorham's Cave, mainly the several thousand personalised Scarabs from the signet rings of visiting sailors, traders, or other worshipers and small clay oil lamps, or incense burners. In addition a large number of glass teardrop vases two or three inches high are beginning to appear. It would be interesting to see DNA tests of any residue of tears left in these small bottles.

The reports of the archaeologists so far indicate all these items were made at Tyre.

*The presence of scarabs as an offering at this place is interesting. The Egyptians appear to have regarded the scarab with some awe. The scarab as the dung-beetle rolled before it a mass the shape of the Sun, which was sacred to them as the giver of Life, Ra. At one point the beetle's larva would appear as young as if magically from this ball, providing the beetle with the properties of Kherib (whence skherib/scarab?), who in Egyptian mythology was said to assist Ra on his passage across the heavens each day.

There is evidence, moreover, that the Greeks were restricted by the Phoenicians to the Aegean Sea for a period of many centuries from 1200 BC onwards, and Naval Historians attribute this to the availability exclusively to the Phoenicians of two elements in ship construction, namely long straight cedar timbers (compared to short sinuous olive timbers available to the Greeks) and Bronze for fixings, claddings and battering rams, which were used in battle to perforate hulls, sinking the enemy.
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« Reply #1262 on: January 29, 2009, 04:37:21 pm »









Archaeological Note:



The Phoenician levels of Gorham's Cave which cover an area about 60 feet deep into the Rock of Gibraltar just above sea level, Gibraltar, Europe, are at present still the subject of a minute scientific seasonal archaeological investigation, and the Phoenician historical community should await with great interest the findings there, which are being carried out and organised by Professor Francisco Giles Pacheco, curator of the Museum of Archaeology of Puerto de Santa Maria in Spain and are under the aegis of the Gibraltar Museum's "Gibraltar Caves Project".

The Curator of the Gibraltar Museum is Dr. Clive Finlayson who is responsible for the direction of the excavations and the restoration, display, and dating of all artefacts recovered and for the subsequent publication of works on the archaeological works at this and all protected sites in Gibraltar.



The Author: William Serfaty, dip.Arch.(Leics.)

serfatyw@yahoo.com
Gibraltar


http://phoenicia.org/gibraltar.html
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« Reply #1263 on: January 29, 2009, 04:38:36 pm »








Europa

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   posted 09-17-2006 08:26 PM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------







                 Life on the edge: was a Gibraltar cave last outpost of the lost neanderthal?





Ian Sample,
Science correspondent
Thursday September 14, 2006
The Guardian

The final resting place of the last neanderthals may have been unearthed by fossil-hunters excavating deep inside a cave in Gibraltar.
Primitive stone tools and remnants from wood fires recovered from the vast Gorham's cave on the easternmost face of the Rock suggest neanderthals found refuge there, and clung to life for thousands of years after they had died out elsewhere.

Carbon dating of charcoal fragments excavated alongside spear points and basic cutting tools indicates the cave was home to a group of around 15 neanderthals at least 28,000 years ago, and possibly as recently as 24,000 years ago. Previously uncovered remains lead scientists to believe the neanderthals died out in Europe and elsewhere some 35,000 years ago.

The discovery marks more clearly than ever before the time of death of our closest relative, and completes one of the most dramatic chapters in human evolution.

Today, Gorham's cave is perched on a cliff face lapped by the Mediterranean, but the view from the east-facing entrance was once of rolling sand dunes pocked with vegetation. A freshwater stream running down from the north led to the sea three miles away.

"For the neanderthals, this was a great place to be. The view would have been breathtaking, and they would have literally been able to see where their next meal was coming from," said Chris Stringer, a scientist on the project at the Natural History Museum in London. "The evidence supports the idea that this was one of their last survival spots, one of their final outposts."

The sea level was around 100m lower in neanderthal times as vast quantities of water were locked up in glaciers that encroached from the poles and smothered Scotland in sheets of ice two miles thick.

Clive Finlayson at the Gibraltar Museum said the neanderthals probably survived in the region because of the stabilising influence of the Atlantic on the local climate.

Elsewhere, glaciation caused violent lurches in climate that turned fertile pastures into barren wastelands.

But at Gorham's cave, and along the nearby coast, the climate would have been calmer, maintaining what Prof Finlayson calls a "Mediterranean Serengeti", with red deer, leopards and hyenas roaming between watering holes.

The discovery throws into doubt the theory that the arrival of modern humans was solely responsible for the demise of the neanderthals, by outcompeting them for food or even engaging in the earliest acts of genocide. More likely, the neanderthals were already struggling to adapt to rapid changes in crucial food resources such as vegetation and wild animals.

Modern humans and neanderthals split from a common ancestor, Homo heidelbergensis, around 500,000 years ago when the power of fire was first harnessed.

From a foothold north of the Mediterranean, Homo heidelbergensis steadily evolved into the neanderthals, while in Africa, the same species embarked on a different evolutionary path, one that ultimately gave rise to modern-day Homo sapiens. Remains of neanderthals dating back as far as 400,000 years suggest a reasonably sophisticated species which crafted handtools and weapons and buried its dead.

The stone tools unearthed from Gorham's cave were discovered 2.5 metres beneath the soil towards the back of the 40m long cave where the neanderthals had created a hearth. The collection includes basic knife edges used for butchering carcasses and scraping tools for working skins and hides, according to the journal Nature today.

Many of the tools were preserved impeccably. "I saw one flake and went to touch it, knowing it was a tool left by a neanderthal, and it drew blood," said Prof Finlayson. "It can be very powerful being in the cave. You can get that feeling that a neanderthal was sitting in exactly the same spot, that the only thing separating us is time. It's like a connection over tens of thousands of years and it makes you want to know more. We're humans studying humans."

Gorham's cave is likely to yield yet more insights into the life and death of the neanderthal. The archaeologists have uncovered a low, narrow passageway at the rear of the cave that they discovered, by crawling along, stretches a further 30m back into the rock. They believe it may lead to another chamber, and speculate it may even be a burial site.

Exploration of the region has moved into the sea beneath the cave, to examine the now submerged land that once stretched out in front of the cave. Divers working with the team have recently identified nine further caves 20m beneath the sea surface. "We are going to attempt underwater excavations. We will go into it knowing the chances of finding anything are slim, but what if we were to find tools? That would be amazing," said Prof Finlayson.
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« Reply #1264 on: January 29, 2009, 04:41:13 pm »









The neanderthals



The neanderthals were short and powerfully-built, with huge noses and receding foreheads, but there is no evidence that they had less brainpower than modern humans. Their brains were at least as big as ours, although there were differences: the frontal lobes were smaller, suggesting they may not have been as adept at planning, while the rear of the brain was larger, suggesting keener sight than modern humans.

Many scientists believe their stocky stature was chiefly an adaptation to the cold, a useful trait considering they lived through the last Ice Age. Being squat reduces a creature's surface area, and so less heat is lost from the body.

Climate may have played only a part though. Some scientists believe the Neanderthal's squat form favoured their lifestyle, of limited roaming with regular and physical wrestles with the animals that would become their prey.

The spear points and cutting edges unearthed in Gorham's cave in Gibraltar are known as Mousterian tools, named after the Le Moustier site in Dordogne, where the best examples of neanderthal archeaology were first uncovered.

Gibraltar has proved a treasure trove for modern neanderthal hunters. The first neanderthal bones discovered were those of a woman, found in a quarry in Gibraltar in 1848. And in 1997, archaeologists working in a cave on the Rock discovered the remains of what they believe was a neanderthal meal of mussels, pistachio and tortoise cooked up more than 30,000 years ago.

More recent findings have suggested neanderthals brought shellfish and other food to their caves before crafting simple tools to break them apart and prepare them.



http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/story/0,,1871842,00.html?gusrc=rss&feed=1




http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php/topic,2334.15.html
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« Reply #1265 on: February 16, 2009, 09:12:06 am »








Mathilda’s Anthropology Blog.


http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2009/01/07/prehistoric-contacts-over-the-straits-of-gibraltar-indicated-by-genetic-analysis-of-iberian-bronze-age-cattle/


 




The Spread of Agro-Pastoral Economies across Mediterranean Europe: A View from the Far West Iberian Y chromosomes, mark II. →



Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle






January 7, 2009 ·

Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle


The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia’s prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African–Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula.

Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain.

Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African–Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures.

It seems they were moving cattle across the straits about 4,000 years ago.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941827
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« Reply #1266 on: February 16, 2009, 09:26:49 am »









The New York Times
Search All NYTimes.com
 
Monday, February 16, 2009





           WOMAN 600,000 YEARS AGO.; Famous Gibraltar Skull Was Hers, Says British Scientist.




E-MAIL
Special Cable to THE NEW YORK TIMES.

March 11, 1910, Friday

Page 1, 398 words

LONDON, March 10

-- Prof. Arthur Keith, curator of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, who has been engaged in an examination of the famous prehistoric skull unearthed at Gibraltar some years ago, to-day announced his conclusions in the matter. The chief of these conclusions is that the skull is that of a woman who must have lived at least 600,000 years ago. [ END OF FIRST PARAGRAPH ]

Note: This article will open in PDF format



http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=980CEFDA1E30E333A25752C1A9659C946196D6CF
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« Reply #1267 on: February 16, 2009, 10:45:38 am »








                                         Gibraltar woman and Neanderthal Man






Authors: ROSE, EDWARD P.F.1; STRINGER, CHRISTOPHER B.2

Source: Geology Today, Volume 13, Number 5, September 1997 , pp. 179-184(6)

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing



 

 Abstract:



Forbes' Quarry, on the Rock of Gibraltar, yielded a human skull in 1848, one of the earliest Neanderthal skeletal remains known to science. Fragments of a second Gibraltar skull, that of a child, were described from Devil's Tower rock shelter in 1928 and have recently been reconstructed and reinterpreted to emphasize the distinction of Homo neanderthalensis from H. sapiens. Neanderthal skeletal remains are confined to Europe, the Middle East and central Asia, their most recent occurrence arguably a refugium in southern Iberia. The race seemingly became extinct about 30 000 years Before Present, for reasons as yet unknown, but a programme of excavations in Gorham's and Vanguard caves on Gibraltar is in progress to elucidate palaeoenvironmental and behavioural changes as some of the last Neanderthals were succeeded stratigraphically by anatomically modern humans with an Upper Palaeolithic culture.
Document Type: Original article

DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2451.1997.00010.x

Affiliations: 1: Royal Holloway, University of London., 2: Human Origins Group, Department of Palaeontology, The Natural History Museum, London.,


The full text electronic article is available for purchase. You will be able to download the full text electronic article after payment.

$42.40 plus tax



http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/gday/1997/00000013/00000005/art00010
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« Reply #1268 on: February 16, 2009, 11:07:23 am »








                                                             The First Europeans
 


                                       Two sites in Spain yield traces of the first men in Europe.






On March 3 1848 the skull of woman was discovered in a quarry in Gibraltar. It was known to be very old and it was shaped somewhat differently from a "normal" skull, but not much attention was paid to it at the time.

Then, eight years later, a team of quarry workers in the Neander Valley of Germany unearthed a similar skull. This time, experts began to suspect that it could have belonged to a hitherto unknown race of humans, or perhaps even be the "missing link" between apes and modern man. In any case, the Neander find got all the credit, for the race was to be known henceforth as Neanderthal Man.

Excavations during the intervening century-and-a-half have taught us more about this race of prehistoric humans which roamed Europe between 250,000 and 30,000 BC, when they mysteriously vanished, probably crowded out by our own ancestors. Gibraltar and southern Iberia were their final refuge. Today, paleontologists are delving into two of their last dwelling places, the caves of Zafarraya in Málaga and Gorham’s Cave in Gibraltar (named after one Captain Gorham, who discovered the site in 1907), to find out more about the twilight years of the Neanderthals and perhaps explain the mystery of their disappearance.

These early humans had short limbs and thick bodies adapted to a colder climate, but they were by no means grunting brutes. The Neanderthals, whose brains were larger than ours, moved in groups of up to thirty individuals. They were hunters, which implies team work, which in turn implies some form of communication. They used fire for heat, they made crafted tools, they looked after the sick or weak members of the clan, and they observed ceremonies for their dead. On the other hand, on occasion they practiced cannibalism.

But they were to prove no match for the predecessors of modern man (sometimes called Cromagnons), who made their appearance in Europe around 40,000 years ago. These upstarts were more efficient at organizing hunts, communicating, seeking shelter, they were better craftsman and they wore textile clothes in addition to animal skins.



http://www.spainview.com/prehist.html
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« Reply #1269 on: February 21, 2009, 10:54:40 am »

               

                GIBRALTAR
                 
                by PIRI REIS
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« Reply #1270 on: February 21, 2009, 10:57:13 am »









The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain from Morocco.

The name comes from Gibraltar, which in turn originates from the Arabic Jebel Tariq (جبل طارق) meaning mountain of Tariq.

It refers to the Umayyad Berber general Tariq ibn-Ziyad who led the Islamic conquest of Hispania in 711.

There is a possibility that Jebel Tariq (جبل طارق) may derive from "Mountain of the Path" in reference to Gibraltar as the path of Islam into Europe. Tāriq (طارق) has three meanings in Arabic, two of which relate to "the path" or "pathfinder".

Despite its origins, the Arab name for the Strait is Bab el-Zakat or "Gate of Charity". It is also known as the Straits of Gibraltar or STROG (Strait Of Gibraltar), in naval use.

Europe and Africa are separated by 14.24 km (7.7 nautical miles) of ocean at the strait's narrowest point. The strait depth ranges between 300 and 900 metres (980 and 3,000 ft). A ferry commutes between the two continents. The Spanish part of the strait is protected under the El Estrecho Natural Park.
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« Reply #1271 on: February 21, 2009, 10:58:47 am »



Europe and Africa from Gibraltar






On the northern side of the Strait is Spain and Gibraltar, while on the southern side is Morocco and Ceuta, a Spanish exclave in North Africa.

Its boundaries were known in antiquity as the Pillars of Hercules.

There are several small islands, such as the disputed Isla Perejil, that are claimed by Morocco from Spain.
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« Reply #1272 on: February 21, 2009, 11:17:58 am »




               









There are also four Spanish enclaves on the Mediterranean coast:


Ceuta,

Melilla,

Peńón de Vélez de la Gomera,

Peńón de Alhucemas and

the Chafarinas islands, as well as

the disputed islet Perejil.


Off the Atlantic coast the Canary Islands belong to Spain, whereas Madeira to the north is Portuguese.  (see map BELOW)

To the north, Morocco is bordered by and controls part of the Strait of Gibraltar, giving it power over the waterways in and out of the Mediterranean sea.

The Rif mountains occupy the region bordering the Mediterranean from the north-west to the north-east.

The Atlas Mountains run down the backbone of the country, from the south west to the north east.



RETRIEVED FROM

wikipedia.org
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« Reply #1273 on: February 21, 2009, 11:21:37 am »

 
« Last Edit: February 21, 2009, 11:41:02 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #1274 on: February 21, 2009, 11:39:10 am »




             
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