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German Invasion of Poland (1939)


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Caleb
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« Reply #75 on: September 03, 2009, 02:07:04 am »



Soviet tanks invading Poland on 17 September
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« Reply #76 on: September 03, 2009, 02:07:48 am »



The Royal Castle in Warsaw on fire after being shelled by the Germans
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« Reply #77 on: September 03, 2009, 02:08:35 am »

Poland never will rise again in the form of the Versailles treaty. That is guaranteed not only by Germany, but also… Russia.
—Adolf Hitler in a public speech in Danzig at the end of September 1939[68]
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« Reply #78 on: September 03, 2009, 02:09:09 am »

Civilian losses

The Polish September Campaign was an instance of total war. Consequently, civilian casualties were high during and after combat. From the start, the Luftwaffe attacked civilian targets and columns of refugees along the roads to wreak havoc, disrupt communications and target Polish morale. Apart from the victims of the battles, the German forces (both SS and the regular Wehrmacht) are credited with the mass murder of several thousands of Polish POWs and civilians. Also, during Operation Tannenberg, nearly 20,000 Poles were shot at 760 mass execution sites by special units, the Einsatzgruppen, in addition to regular Wehrmacht, SS and Selbstschutz.

Altogether, the civilian losses of Polish population amounted to about 150,000–200,000[70] while German civilian losses amounted to roughly 3,250 (including 2,000 who died fighting Polish troops as members of a fifth column).[71]
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« Reply #79 on: September 03, 2009, 02:09:44 am »

Aftermath

Poland was divided among Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Lithuania and Slovakia. On 8 and 13 September 1939, the German military districts of "Posen" (Poznan), commanded by general Alfred von Vollard-Bockelberg, and "Westpreußen" (West Prussia), commanded by general Walter Heitz, were established in conquered Greater Poland and Pomerelia, respectively.[73] Based on laws of 21 May 1935 and 1 June 1938, the German military, Wehrmacht, shared its administrative powers with civilian "chief civil administrators" (Chefs der Zivilverwaltung, CdZ).[74] German dictator Adolf Hitler appointed Arthur Greiser to become the CdZ of the Posen military district, and Danzig's Gauleiter Albert Forster to become the CdZ of the West Prussian military district.[73] On 3 October 1939, the military districts "Lodz" and "Krakau" (Cracow) were set up under command of colonel-generals (generalobersten) Gerd von Rundstedt and Wilhelm List, and Hitler appointed Hans Frank and Arthur Seyß-Inquart as civil heads, respectively.[73] Frank was at the same time appointed "supreme chief administrator" for all occupied territories.[73] On 28 September another secret German-Soviet protocol modified the arrangements of August: all Lithuania was to be a Soviet sphere of influence, not a German one; but the dividing line in Poland was moved in Germany's favour, to the Bug River. On 8 October Nazi Germany formally annexed the western parts of Poland with Greiser and Forster as Reichsstatthalter, while the south-central parts were administered as the so-called General Government led by Frank.
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« Reply #80 on: September 03, 2009, 02:10:04 am »

Even though water barriers separated most of the spheres of interest, the Soviet and German troops met on numerous occasions. The most remarkable event of this kind occurred at Brest-Litovsk on 22 September. The German 19th Panzer Corps under the command of Heinz Guderian had occupied the city, which lay within the Soviet sphere of interest. When the Soviet 29th Tank Brigade under the command of S. M. Krivoshein approached, the commanders negotiated that the German troops would withdraw and the Soviet troops would enter the city saluting each other.[75] At Brest-Litovsk, Soviet and German commanders held a joint victory parade before German forces withdrew westward behind a new demarcation line.[19][20] Just three days earlier, however, the parties had a more hostile encounter near Lwow (Lviv, Lemberg), when the German 137th Gebirgsjägerregimenter (mountain infantry regiment) attacked a reconnaissance detachment of the Soviet 24th Tank Brigade; after a few casualties on both sides, the parties turned to negotiations. The German troops left the area, and the Red Army troops entered Lviv on 22 September. About 65,000 Polish troops were killed in the fighting, with 420,000 others being captured by the Germans and 240,000 more by the Soviets (for a total of 660,000 prisoners). Up to 120,000 Polish troops escaped to neutral Romania (through the Romanian Bridgehead) and Hungary, and another 20,000 to Latvia and Lithuania, with the majority eventually making their way to France or Britain. Most of the Polish Navy succeeded in evacuating to Britain as well. German personnel losses were less than their enemies (~16,000 KIA).
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« Reply #81 on: September 03, 2009, 02:10:20 am »

Neither side—Germany, the Western Allies or the Soviet Union—expected that the German invasion of Poland would lead to a war that would surpass World War I in its scale and cost. It would be months before Hitler would see the futility of his peace negotiation attempts with Great Britain and France, but the culmination of combined European and Pacific conflicts would result in what was truly a "world war". Thus, what was not seen by most politicians and generals in 1939 is clear from the historical perspective: The Polish September Campaign marked the beginning of the Second World War in Europe, which combined with the Japanese invasion of China in 1937 and the Pacific War in 1941, formed the cataclysm known as World War II.

The invasion of Poland led to Britain and France to declare war on Germany on 3 September. However, they did little to affect the outcome of the September Campaign. This lack of direct help led many Poles to believe that they had been betrayed by their Western allies.
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« Reply #82 on: September 03, 2009, 02:10:35 am »

On 23 May 1939, Adolf Hitler explained to his officers that the object of the aggression was not Danzig, but the need to obtain German Lebensraum and details of this concept would be later formulated in the infamous Generalplan Ost.[76][77] The invasion decimated urban residential areas, civilians soon became indistinguishable from combatants, and the forthcoming German occupation (both on the annexed territories and in the General Government) was one of the most brutal episodes of World War II, resulting in more than 6 million Polish deaths (about 20 % of the country's total population, and over 90 % of its Jewish minority) – including the mass murder of 3 million Poles in extermination camps like Auschwitz, in concentration camps, and in numerous ad hoc massacres, where civilians were rounded up, taken to a nearby forest, machine-gunned, and then buried, whether they were dead or not.
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« Reply #83 on: September 03, 2009, 02:12:03 am »



German and Sovient troops shaking hands following the invasion
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« Reply #84 on: September 03, 2009, 02:13:23 am »



German soldiers removing Polish government insignia
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« Reply #85 on: September 03, 2009, 02:14:16 am »

Nazi propaganda

There are several common misconceptions regarding the Polish September Campaign, often resulting from myths perpetrated by Nazi propaganda.

    * Myth: The Polish Army fought German tanks with horse-mounted cavalry wielding lances and swords.
          Although Poland had 11 cavalry brigades and its doctrine emphasized cavalry units as elite units, other armies of that time (including German and Soviet) also fielded and extensively used horse cavalry units. Polish cavalry (equipped with anti tank rifles "UR" and light artillery like the highly effective Bofors 37 mm antitank gun) never charged German tanks or entrenched infantry or artillery directly, but usually acted as mobile infantry (like dragoons) and reconnaissance units and executed cavalry charges only in rare situations against enemy infantry. The myth most likely originated from the German propaganda portrayal of the battle of Krojanty, when Polish cavalry was fired upon by hidden armored vehicles after having mounted a sabre-charge against German infantry. [Note 7]
    * Myth: The Polish air force was destroyed on the ground in the first days of the war.
          The Polish Air Force, though numerically inferior, had been moved from air bases to small camouflaged airfields shortly before the war. Only some trainers and auxiliary aircraft were destroyed on the ground. The Polish Air Force, significantly outnumbered and with its fighters outmatched by more advanced German fighters, remained active up to the second week of the campaign, inflicting significant damage on the Luftwaffe.[78] The Luftwaffe lost, to all operational causes, 285 aircraft, with 279 more damaged, while the Poles lost 333 aircraft.[79]
    * Myth: Poland offered little resistance and surrendered quickly.
          Germany sustained relatively heavy losses, especially in vehicles and planes: Poland cost the Germans approximately the equipment of an entire armored division and 25% of its air strength.[80] As for duration, the September Campaign lasted only about one week less than the Battle of France in 1940, even though the Anglo-French forces were much closer to parity with the Germans in numerical strength and equipment.[Note 8] Furthermore, the Polish Army was preparing the Romanian Bridgehead, which would have prolonged Polish defence, but this plan was cancelled due to the Soviet invasion of Poland on September 17, 1939.[81] Poland also never officially surrendered to the Germans. Under German occupation, the Polish army continued to fight underground, as Armia Krajowa and forest partisans – Leśni. The Polish resistance movement in World War II in German-occupied Poland was the largest resistance movement in all of occupied Europe.[82]
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« Reply #86 on: September 03, 2009, 02:14:52 am »

#
# Myth: Blitzkrieg was first used in Poland.
     It is often assumed that blitzkrieg is the strategy that Germany first used in Poland. Many early postwar histories, such as Barrie Pitt's in The Second World War (BPC Publishing 1966), attribute German victory to "enormous development in military technique which occurred between 1918 and 1940", citing that "Germany, who translated (British inter-war) theories into action… called the result Blitzkrieg." This idea has been repudiated by some authors. Matthew Cooper writes: "Throughout the Polish Campaign, the employment of the mechanized units revealed the idea that they were intended solely to ease the advance and to support the activities of the infantry…. Thus, any strategic exploitation of the armoured idea was still-born. The paralysis of command and the breakdown of morale were not made the ultimate aim of the … German ground and air forces, and were only incidental by-products of the traditional manoeuvers of rapid encirclement and of the supporting activities of the flying artillery of the Luftwaffe, both of which had as their purpose the physical destruction of the enemy troops. Such was the Vernichtungsgedanke of the Polish campaign."[38] Vernichtungsgedanke was a strategy dating back to Frederick the Great, and was applied in the Polish Campaign little changed from the French campaigns in 1870 or 1914. The use of tanks "left much to be desired...Fear of enemy action against the flanks of the advance, fear which was to prove so disastrous to German prospects in the west in 1940 and in the Soviet Union in 1941, was present from the beginning of the war.""[38] John Ellis, writing in Brute Force asserted that "…there is considerable justice in Matthew Cooper's assertion that the panzer divisions were not given the kind of strategic (emphasis in original) mission that was to characterize authentic armoured blitzkrieg, and were almost always closely subordinated to the various mass infantry armies."[83] Zaloga and Madej, in The Polish Campaign 1939, also address the subject of mythical interpretations of Blitzkrieg and the importance of other arms in the campaign. "Whilst Western accounts of the September campaign have stressed the shock value of the panzers and Stuka attacks, they have tended to underestimate the punishing effect of German artillery (emphasis added) on Polish units. Mobile and available in significant quantity, artillery shattered as many units as any other branch of the Wehrmacht."[38] Soviet occupation between 1939 and 1941 resulted in the death or deportation of over a million or former Polish citizens, when all who were deemed dangerous to the Soviet regime were subject to sovietization, forced resettlement, imprisonment in labour camps (the Gulags) or murdered, like the Polish officers in the Katyn massacre.[a]
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« Reply #87 on: September 03, 2009, 02:15:31 am »

Notes

   1. ^ Various sources contradict each other so the figures quoted above should only be taken as a rough indication of the strength estimate. The most common range differences and their brackets are: German personnel 1,500,000 (official figure of the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs) – or 1,800,000. Polish tanks: 100–880, 100 is the number of modern tanks, 880 number includes older IWWs tanks and tankettes.[3][4]
   2. ^ Various sources contradict each other so the figures quoted above should only be taken as a rough indication of losses. The most common range brackets for casualties are: Poland: 63,000 to 66,300 KIA, 134,000 WIA.[7]. The often cited figure of 420,000 Polish prisoners of war represents only those captured by the Germans, as Soviets captured about 250,000 Polish POWs themselves, making the total number of Polish POWs about 660,000–690,000. In terms of equipment the Polish Navy lost 1 destroyer (ORP Wicher), 1 minelayer (ORP Gryf) and several support craft. Equipment loses included 132 Polish tanks and armoured cars 327 Polish planes (118 fighters))[8]
   3. ^ The discrepancy in German casualties can be attributed to the fact that some German statistics still listed soldiers as missing decades after the war. Today the most common and accepted numbers are: 8,082 to 16,343 KIA, 320 to 5,029 MIA, 27,280 to 34,136 WIA.[9]. For comparison, in his 1939 speech following the Polish Campaign Adolf Hitler presented these German casualty figures: 10,576 KIA, 30,222 WIA, and 3,400 MIA.[10]. According to early Allied estimates, including those of the Polish government-in-exile, the number of German KIA casualties was 90,000 and WIA casualties was 200,000.[11][12]. Equipment losses are given as 832 German tanks [13] of with approximately 236[14] to 341 as irrecoverable losses and approximately 319 other armoured vehicles as irrecoverable losses (including 165 Panzer Spahwagen – of them 101 as irrecoverable losses)[15]522–561 German planes (including 246–285 destroyed and 276 damaged), 1 German minelayer (M-85) and 1 German torpedo ship ("Tiger")
   4. ^ Soviet official losses are estimated at 737 to 1,475 KIA or MIA, and 1,859 to 2,383 WIA. The Soviets lost approximately 150 tanks in combat of which 43 as irrecoverable losses, while hundreds more suffered technical failures.
   5. ^ P-11c (+43 reserve), 30 P-7 (+85 reserve), 118 P-23 Karaś light bombers, 36 P-37 Łoś bombers (armed in line, additionally a few of the total number produced were used in combat), 84 reconnaissance RXIII Lublin, RWD14 Czapla (+115 reserve)[48]
   6. ^ Other treaties violated by the Soviet Union were: the 1919 Covenant of the League of Nations (to which the USSR adhered in 1934), the Briand-Kellogg Pact of 1928 and the 1933 London Convention on the Definition of Aggression.[63]
   7. ^ Snidner takes issue here with this contention on at least one occasion. Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland
   8. ^ Polish to Germany forces in the September Campaign: 1,000,000 soldiers 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 435 aircraft (Poland) to 1,800,000 soldiers, 10,000 guns, 2,800 tanks, 3,000 aircraft (Germany). French and participating Allies to German forces in the Battle of France: 2,862,000 soldiers, 13,974 guns, 3,384 tanks, 3,099 aircraft 2 (Allies) to 3,350,000 soldiers, 7,378 guns, 2,445 tanks, 5,446 aircraft (Germany).

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« Reply #88 on: September 03, 2009, 02:15:59 am »

Citations

   1. ^ a b c Переслегин. Вторая мировая: война между реальностями.- М.:Яуза, Эксмо, 2006, с.22; Р. Э. Дюпюи, Т. Н. Дюпюи. Всемирная история войн.—С-П,М: АСТ, кн.4, с.93
   2. ^ a b c Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The 1939 Campaign Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005
   3. ^ Internetowa encyklopedia PWN, article on 'Kampania Wrześniowa 1939'
   4. ^ Website of the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs – the Poles on the Front Lines
   5. ^ E.R Hooton, p85
   6. ^ a b Кривошеев Г. Ф., Россия и СССР в войнах XX века: потери вооруженных сил. Статистическое исследование (Krivosheev G. F., Russia and the USSR in the wars of the 20th century: losses of the Armed Forces. A Statistical Study Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7) (Russian)
   7. ^ Wojna Obronna Polski 1939, page 851
   8. ^ Fritz Hahn, Waffen und Geheimwaffen des deutschen Heeres 1933-1945
   9. ^ Wojna Obronna Polski 1939, page 851
  10. ^ "Polish War, German Losses". The Canberra Times. Oct 13 1939. http://ndpbeta.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/2513833. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
  11. ^ "Nazi Loss in Poland Placed at 290,000". The New York Times. 1941. http://www.freeimagehosting.net/image.php?cdbae543be.jpg. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
  12. ^ "Polish War, German Losses". The Canberra Times. Oct 13 1939. http://ndpbeta.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/2513833. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
  13. ^ Fritz Hahn, Waffen und Geheimwaffen des deutschen Heeres 1933-1945
  14. ^ Fritz Hahn, Waffen und Geheimwaffen des deutschen Heeres 1933-1945
  15. ^ Fritz Hahn, Waffen und Geheimwaffen des deutschen Heeres 1933-1945
  16. ^ "Axis Slovakia: Hitler's Slavic Wedge, 1938-1945", page 81
  17. ^ History Group of the Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Wellington, New Zealand (2005). "Overview – New Zealand and the Second World War". New Zealand's History online. Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Wellington, New Zealand. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/node/2334. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
  18. ^ Baliszewski, Most honoru
  19. ^ a b Kitchen, Martin (1990). A World in Flames: A Short History of the Second World War. Longman. p. 74. ISBN 0582034086. http://books.google.com/books?id=0t-fAAAAMAAJ&q=%22The+joint+invasion+of+Poland+was+celebrated+with+a+parade+by+the+Wehrmacht+and+the+Red+Army+in+Brest+Litovsk%22&dq=%22The+joint+invasion+of+Poland+was+celebrated+with+a+parade+by+the+Wehrmacht+and+the+Red+Army+in+Brest+Litovsk%22&lr=&ei=N0_USde1H5SwMpL1zeQC&pgis=1.
  20. ^ a b Raack, Richard (1995). Stalin's Drive to the West, 1938-1945. Stanford University Press. p. 58. ISBN 0804724156. http://books.google.com/books?id=pAdZMaWn8cIC&pg=PA58&dq.
  21. ^ Cienciala, Anna M. (2004). "The Coming of the War and Eastern Europe in World War II". University of Kansas. http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/hist557/lect16.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-15.
  22. ^ a b c (Sanford 2005, pp. 20–24)
  23. ^ Diemut Majer,, "Non-Germans" under the Third Reich: the Nazi judicial and administrative system in Germany and occupied Eastern Europe with special regard to occupied Poland, 1939-1945JHU Press, 2003, ISBN 0801864933, Google Print, p. 188-189
  24. ^ a b Victor Rothwell, Origins of the Second World War, Manchester University Press, 2001, ISBN 0719059585, Google Print, p.92
  25. ^ a b Andrew J. Crozier, The causes of the Second World War, Wiley-Blackwell, 1997, ISBN 0631186018, Google Print, p.150-151
  26. ^ Louis Leo Snyder, John D Montgomery, The new nationalism, Transaction Publishers, 2003, ISBN 0765805502, Google Print, p.88
  27. ^ Nowa Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN 1997, vol. VI, 981.
  28. ^ "Elbing-Königsberg Autobahn". Euronet.nl. http://www.euronet.nl/~jlemmens/autobahn.html. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
  29. ^ a b "The Avalon Project : Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy". Yale.edu. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/ylbkmenu.asp. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
  30. ^ Text version see also the original document
  31. ^ Documents Concerning the Last Phase of the German-Polish Crisis, Proposal for a settlement of the Danzig and the Polish Corridor Problem as well as of the question concerning the German and Polish Minorities (New York: German Library of Information), p 33–35. See also: Documents Concerning German-Polish Relations and the Outbreak of Hostilities Between Great Britain and Germany on 3 September 1939 (Miscellaneous No. 9) Message which was communicated to H.M. Ambassador in Berlin by the State Secretary on 31 August 1939 at 9:15 p.m. (London: His Majesty's (HM) Stationary Office) p. 149–153.
  32. ^ a b see: Documents Concerning German-Polish Relations, 149–153.
  33. ^ Final Report By the Right Honourable Sir Nevile Henderson (G.C.M.G) on the circumstances leading to the termination of his mission to Berlin 20 September 1939. (London: His Majesty's Stationary Office), p. 24
  34. ^ see: Final Report By the Right Honourable Sir Nevile Henderson, p. 16–18
  35. ^ Seidner, Stanley S. Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland, New York, 1978, ch. 2
  36. ^ Roger Manvell, Heinrich Fraenkel, Heinrich Himmler: The SS, Gestapo, His Life and Career, Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 2007, ISBN 1602391785, Google Print, p.76
  37. ^ B.H.Hart & A.J.P Taylor, p41
  38. ^ a b c d Matthew Cooper, The German Army 1939–1945: Its Political and Military Failure, p. 176
  39. ^ Bombers of the Luftwaffe, Joachim Dressel and Manfred Griehl, Arms and Armour, 1994
  40. ^ The Flying pencil, Heinz J. Nowarra, Schiffer Publishing,1990,p25
  41. ^ A History of World War Two, A.J.P Taylor, OCTOPUS, 1974, p35
  42. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland,162
  43. ^ Seidner, Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland, 177
  44. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland, pages 270–94
  45. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland, pages 135–138
  46. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland,158
  47. ^ Michael Alfred Peszke, Polish Underground Army, the Western Allies, and the Failure of Strategic Unity in World War II, McFarland & Company, 2004, ISBN 0-7864-2009-X, Google Print, p.2
  48. ^ Adam Kurowski 'Lotnictwo Polskie 1939' 129
  49. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland,162–63
  50. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland, pages 122–123
  51. ^ 7TP vol.II,Janusz Magnuski, Militaria 317,Warszawa 2009.
  52. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland,68–72
  53. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland,122–25
  54. ^ (Polish) Henryk Piątkowski (1943). Kampania wrześniowa 1939 roku w Polsce. Jerusalem: Sekcja Wydawnicza APW. p. 39. http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~antora/WYDAW/KAMPANIA/tekst/KAMPANIA1.HTM.
  55. ^ Count Edward Raczyński (1948). The British-Polish Alliance; Its Origin and Meaning. London: Mellville Press.
  56. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland,304–310
  57. ^ a b c Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland,312
  58. ^ a b Peszke, Michael Alfred (February 1999). Poland's Navy, 1918-1945. Hippocrene Books. p. 37. ISBN 0781806720.
  59. ^ a b E.R Hooton, p87
  60. ^ a b c Stanley S.Seidner, "Reflections from Rumania and Beyond: Marshal Śmigły-Rydz Rydz in Exile," The Polish Review vol. xxii, no. 2, 1977, pp. 29–51.
  61. ^ a b E.R Hooton, p91
  62. ^ Telegram: The German Ambassador in the Soviet Union, (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office. Moscow, 10 September 1939 – 9:40 p. m. and Telegram 2: he German Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office. Moscow, 16 September 1939. Source: The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Last. Retrieved 14 November 2006
  63. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide.... McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. http://books.google.com/books?visbn=0786403713&id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA295&lpg=PA295&dq=1939+Soviet+citizenship+Poland&sig=qETeuFX3hbmM0VPSO13o0LmjgEc.
  64. ^ Sanford, p. 23; (Polish) Olszyna-Wilczyński Józef Konstanty, Internetowa encyklopedia PWN. Retrieved 14 November 2006.
  65. ^ (Polish) Śledztwo w sprawie zabójstwa w dniu 22 września 1939 r. w okolicach miejscowości Sopoćkinie generała brygady Wojska Polskiego Józefa Olszyny-Wilczyńskiego i jego adiutanta kapitana Mieczysława Strzemskiego przez żołnierzy b. Związku Radzieckiego. (S 6/02/Zk) Polish Institute of National Remembrance. Internet Archive, 16.10.03. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
  66. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland,226–28
  67. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland,279–80
  68. ^ Seven Years War?, TIME Magazine, October 2, 1939
  69. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland,289–91
  70. ^ Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947 Tadeusz Piotrowski page 301 McFarland, 1998
  71. ^ (Polish) Tomasz Chinciński, Niemiecka dywersja w Polsce w 1939 r. w świetle dokumentów policyjnych i wojskowych II Rzeczypospolitej oraz służb specjalnych III Rzeszy. Część 1 (marzec–sierpień 1939 r.). Pamięć i Sprawiedliwość. nr 2 (Cool/2005
  72. ^ Erich von Manstein, Lost Victories, trans. Anthony G. Powell (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1958), p 46
  73. ^ a b c d Andreas Toppe, Militär und Kriegsvölkerrecht: Rechtsnorm, Fachdiskurs und Kriegspraxis in Deutschland 1899-1940, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2008, p.398, ISBN 3486582062
  74. ^ Andreas Toppe, Militär und Kriegsvölkerrecht: Rechtsnorm, Fachdiskurs und Kriegspraxis in Deutschland 1899-1940, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2008, p.397, ISBN 3486582062
  75. ^ Кривошеин С.М. Междубурье. Воспоминания. Воронеж, 1964. (Krivoshein S. M. Between the Storms. Memoirs. Voronezh, 1964. in Russian); Guderian H. Erinnerungen eines Soldaten Heidelberg, 1951 (in German—Memoirs of a Soldier in English)
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  77. ^ "Justice and the Genesis of War". http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521558689&id=i2Z5blE1KGoC&pg=PA148&lpg=PA148&dq=May+23+Hitler+lebensraum&sig=ljEb7tTkSLQ7eUPjObWawjp4jps.
  78. ^ Steven J. Zaloga, Ramiro Bujeiro, Howard Gerrard, Poland 1939: the birth of blitzkrieg, Osprey Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1841764086, Google Print, p.50
  79. ^ Overy, Richard J., The Air War: 1939-1945, London, Europa Publications, 1980. p. 28
  80. ^ Bekker, Cajus (1964): Angriffshohe – 285 aircraft destroyed, 279 damaged of initial force
  81. ^ Seidner,Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland, ch. 3
  82. ^ Zamoyski, Adam. The Polish Way. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1987
  83. ^ Ellis, John (1999). Brute Force: Allied Strategy and Tactics in the Second World War, p.3–4

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« Reply #89 on: September 03, 2009, 02:17:01 am »

References

    * Cooper, Matthew (1978). The German Army 1939–1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York: Stein and Day. ISBN 0-8128-2468-7.
    * Baliszewski, Dariusz (2004-10-10). "Wojna sukcesów" (in Polish). Wprost (1141). http://www.wprost.pl/ar/?O=68347. Retrieved 2005-03-24.
    * Baliszewski, Dariusz (2004-09-19). "Most honoru" (in Polish). Wprost (1138). http://www.wprost.pl/ar/?O=66711. Retrieved 2005-03-24.
    * Chodakiewicz, Marek Jan (2004). Between Nazis and Soviets: Occupation Politics in Poland, 1939–1947. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0484-5.
    * Ellis, John (1999). Brute Force: Allied Strategy and Tactics in the Second World War (1st American ed.). Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-80773-7.
    * Fischer, Benjamin B. (Winter 1999–2000). "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field". Studies in Intelligence. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/winter99-00/art6.html. Retrieved 2005-12-10.
    * Hooton, E. R. (2007). Luftwaffe at War: Gathering Storm 1933–1939 Volume 1. London: Chervron/Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-903223-71-7.
    * Kennedy, Robert M. (1980). The German Campaign in Poland (1939). Zenger. ISBN 0-89201-064-9.
    * Kushner, Tony; Knox, Katharine (1999). Refugees in an Age of Genocide. London, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0714647837. http://books.google.com/books?visbn=0714647837&id=4iehSAirzqQC&pg=PA219&lpg=PA219&dq=Soviet+genocide+Poland&sig=JUjDTCsgSIuEB2bJi_cNDugaEQY.
    * Lukas, Richard C. (2001). Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1939–1944. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0901-0.
    * Majer, Diemut; et al. (2003). Non-Germans under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied Eastern Europe, with Special Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939–1945. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6493-3.
    * The New York Times (1941-09-28). "Nazi Loss in Poland Placed at 290,000". Press release. http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F50E11F63C5E1A7A93CAAB1782D85F458485F9. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
    * Prazmowska, Anita J. (1995). Britain and Poland 1939–1943: The Betrayed Ally. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48385-9.
    * Sanford, George (2005). Katyn and the Soviet Massacre Of 1940: Truth, Justice And Memory. London, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415338735.
    * Seidner, Stanley S. (1978). Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz Rydz and the Defense of Poland. New York.
    * Taylor, A. J. P.; Mayer, S. L. (eds.) (1974). A History Of World War Two. London: Octopus Books. ISBN 0-70640-399-1.
    * Weinberg, Gerhard (1994). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521443172.
    * Zaloga, Steve; Gerrard, Howard (2002). Poland 1939: The Birth of Blitzkrieg. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-408-6.
    * Zaloga, Steve (1982). The Polish Army 1939–1945. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-417-4.
    * "KAMPANIA WRZEŚNIOWA 1939" (in Polish). Internetowa encyklopedia PWN. http://encyklopedia.pwn.pl/33490_1.html. Retrieved 2005-12-10.
    * Hahn, Fritz. Waffen und Geheimwaffen des deutschen Heeres 1933-1945. pp. olen 1939.

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