Atlantis Online
February 23, 2024, 08:16:22 am
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: THE SEARCH FOR ATLANTIS IN CUBA
A Report by Andrew Collins
http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/atlantiscuba.htm
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt

Pages: [1] 2 3   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt  (Read 11256 times)
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« on: August 28, 2007, 07:43:55 am »


Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC – 12 August 30 BC) was a Hellenistic co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes) and later with her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. She later became the supreme ruler of Egypt, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesar's assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. In all, Cleopatra had four children, one by Caesar (Caesarion) and three by Antony (Cleopatra Selene II, Alexander Helios, and Ptolemy Philadelphus). Her unions with her brothers produced no children. It is possible that they were never consummated; in any case, they were not close. Her reign marks the final end of the Hellenistic Era and the beginning of the Roman Era in the eastern Mediterranean. She was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, ruled in name only before Augustus had him executed). Even though she still bore the ancient Egyptian title Pharaoh, one should bear in mind that her society's language was Greek and its culture was Hellenistic, and that when Cleopatra was born, the Great Pyramid was already at least 2,500 years old, if not older. Her society's understanding of the Ancient hieroglyphic language and culture of Egypt already was spotty. It was at best already a reconstruction, not first hand knowledge.


« Last Edit: August 28, 2007, 07:46:00 am by Tiffany Rossette » Report Spam   Logged

Share on Facebook Share on Twitter

Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #1 on: August 28, 2007, 07:45:05 am »



After Antony's rival and Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian (who later became the first Roman Emperor, Augustus), brought the might of Rome against Egypt, it is said that Cleopatra took her own life on 12 August 30 BC, allegedly by means of an asp. Her legacy survives in the form of numerous dramatizations of her story, including William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, Bernard Shaw's Caesar & Cleopatra, several films and the recent HBO/BBC series Rome.

Her mother was Cleopatra V of Egypt—who co-ruled Egypt with another daughter, Berenice IV, for a year before her death—yet Cleopatra, borne of the union with Ptolemy XII Auletes, was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great's general, Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lacus, both of Macedon. A Greek by language and culture, Cleopatra is reputed to have been the first member of her family in their 300-year reign in Egypt—to have learned the Egyptian language.
Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #2 on: August 28, 2007, 07:47:00 am »



Coin of Cleopatra VII, depicting Cleopatra in profile.
Reign 51 BC–12 August 30 BC
Ptolemy XIII (51 BC–47 BC)
Ptolemy XIV (47 BC–44 BC)
Caesarion (44 BC–30 BC)
Born January 69 BC
 Alexandria
Died 12 August 30 BC
 Alexandria
Predecessor Ptolemy XII
Successor None (Roman province)
Consort Ptolemy XIII
Julius Caesar
Mark Antony
Issue Caesarion, Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II, Ptolemy Philadelphus
Dynasty Ptolemaic
Father Ptolemy XII
Mother Cleopatra V of Egypt
Report Spam   Logged
rockessence
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 1688


Using rocks and minerals to heal the earth and us.


WWW
« Reply #3 on: August 28, 2007, 11:48:15 am »







Report Spam   Logged

ILLIGITIMI NON CARBORUNDUM

Thus ye may find in thy mental and spiritual self, ye can make thyself just as happy or just as miserable as ye like. How miserable do ye want to be?......For you GROW to heaven, you don't GO to heaven. It is within thine own conscience that ye grow there.

Edgar Cayce
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #4 on: August 28, 2007, 01:03:36 pm »

Thanks for the nice images, Rockessence.  Thursday is the anniversary of when Cleopatra died, and I thought it would be nice to pay her some kind of tribute.
Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #5 on: August 28, 2007, 01:13:52 pm »


Childhood

Little is known about Cleopatra's childhood, but she would have observed the disordered events and loss of public affection for the Ptolemaic dynasty under the reign of her father. It is said that her father survived two assassination attempts when a servant found a deadly puff adder in his bed, and a servant who tasted his wine died afterward. Her eldest sister Tryphaena also tried to poison her, so she began using food-tasting servants. This disloyalty occurred for many reasons, including the physical and moral degeneration of the sovereigns, centralization of power and corruption. This led to uprising in and loss of Cyprus and of Cyrenaica, making Ptolemy's reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. When Ptolemy made a journey to Rome with Cleopatra, Tryphaena seized the Crown of Egypt. Shortly after arrangements for Roman assistance in Egypt, Ptolemy's followers assassinated Tryphaena and killed her guard. Berenice's guards in turn killed those followers.

In 58 BC Cleopatra's older sister, Berenice IV seized power from her father. With the assistance of the Roman governor of Syria, Aulus Gabinius, Ptolemy XII overturned his eldest daughter in 55 BC and had her executed. Cleopatra's other older sister Tryphaena took over shortly after that. She was killed as well, which left Cleopatra with her husband and younger brother, Ptolemy XIII, joint heirs to the throne.
Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #6 on: August 28, 2007, 01:15:27 pm »


Accession to the throne

Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC,making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 12-year-old Ptolemy XIII joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult, due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of the Nile, and political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly showed indications that she had no intentions of sharing power with him.

In August 51 BC, relations between the sovereigns completely broke down. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents and her face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. This resulted in a cabal of courtiers, led by the eunuch Pothinus, removing Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48 BC (or possibly earlier, as a decree exists from 51 BC with Ptolemy's name alone). She tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium, but she was soon forced to flee Egypt with her only surviving sister, Arsinoë
Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #7 on: August 28, 2007, 01:17:09 pm »



Cleopatra and Julius Caesar

Assassination of Pompey

While Cleopatra was in exile, Ptolemy became embroiled in the Roman civil war. In the autumn of 48 BC, Pompey fled from the forces of Julius Caesar to Alexandria, seeking sanctuary. Ptolemy, only fifteen years old at that time, had set up a throne for himself on the harbour from where he watched as on September 28, 48 BC Pompey was murdered by one of his former officers, now in Ptolemaic service. He was beheaded in front of his wife and children, who were on the ship he had just disembarked from. Ptolemy is thought to have ordered the death as a way of pleasing Julius Caesar and thus become an ally of Rome, to which Egypt was in debt. This was a catastrophic miscalculation on Ptolemy's part. When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy presented him with Pompey's severed, pickled head. Caesar was enraged. This was probably due to the fact that, although he was Caesar's political enemy, Pompey was a Consul of Rome and the widower of Caesar's only legitimate daughter, Julia (who died in childbirth with their son). Caesar seized the Egyptian capital and imposed himself as arbiter between the rival claims of Ptolemy and Cleopatra.

Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #8 on: August 28, 2007, 01:18:55 pm »



Bust of Cleopatra, with her hair straightened with a iron style bun

Caesar and Caesarion

Eager to take advantage of Julius Caesar's anger with Ptolemy, Queen Cleopatra returned to the palace rolled into a Persian carpet and had it presented to Caesar by her servants: when it was unrolled, Cleopatra tumbled out. It is believed that Caesar was charmed by the gesture, and she became his mistress. Nine months after their first meeting, Cleopatra gave birth to their baby. It was at this point that Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After a short civil war, Ptolemy XIII was drowned in the Nile and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV as new co-ruler.

Despite the thirty year age difference, Cleopatra and Caesar became lovers during his stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. They met when they were 21 (Cleopatra) and 50 (Caesar). On 23 June 47 BC Cleopatra gave birth to a child, Ptolemy Caesar (nicknamed "Caesarion" which means "little Caesar"). Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father and wished him to name the boy his heir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grand-nephew Octavian instead. Caesarion was the intended inheritor of Egypt and Rome, uniting the East and the West.

Cleopatra and Caesarion visited Rome between 47 BC and 44 BC and were probably present when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March 44 BC. Before or just after the assassination she returned to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died due to deteriorating health, Cleopatra made Caesarion her co-regent and successor. To safeguard herself and Caesarion she also had her sister Arsinoe killed, a common practice of the times.

Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #9 on: August 28, 2007, 01:20:27 pm »



Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.

Cleopatra and Mark Antony

In 42 BC, Mark Antony, one of the triumvirs who ruled Rome in the power vacuum following Caesar's death, summoned Cleopatra to meet him in Tarsus to answer questions about her loyalty. Cleopatra arrived in great state, and so charmed Antony that he chose to spend the winter of 41 BC–40 BC with her in Alexandria. On 25 December 40 BC she gave birth to two children Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II.

Four years later, in 37 BC, Antony visited Alexandria again en route to make war with the Parthians. He renewed his relationship with Cleopatra, and from this point on Alexandria would be his home. He married Cleopatra according to the Egyptian rite (a letter quoted in Suetonius suggests this), although he was at the time married to Octavia Minor, sister of his fellow triumvir Octavian. He and Cleopatra had another child, Ptolemy Philadelphus.

At the Donations of Alexandria in late 34 BC, following Antony's conquest of Armenia, Cleopatra and Caesarion were crowned co-rulers of Egypt and Cyprus; Alexander Helios was crowned ruler of Armenia, Media, and Parthia; Cleopatra Selene II was crowned ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya; and Ptolemy Philadelphus was crowned ruler of Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia. Cleopatra also took the title of Queen of Kings.

Antony's behavior was considered outrageous by the Romans, and Octavian convinced the Senate to levy war against Egypt. In 31 BC Antony's forces faced the Romans in a naval action off the coast of Actium. Cleopatra was present with a fleet of her own. Popular legend tells us that when she saw that Antony's poorly equipped and manned ships were losing to the Romans' superior vessels, she took flight and that Antony abandoned the battle to follow her, but no contemporary evidence states this was the case.

Following the Battle of Actium, Octavian invaded Egypt. As he approached Alexandria, Antony's armies deserted to Octavian on August 12, 30 BC

There are a number of unverifiable but famous stories about Cleopatra, of which one of the best known is that, at one of the lavish dinners she shared with Antony, she playfully bet him that she could spend ten million sesterces on a dinner. He accepted the bet. The next night, she had a conventional, unspectacular meal served; he was ridiculing this, when she ordered the second course — only a cup of strong vinegar. She then removed one of her priceless pearl earrings, dropped it into the vinegar, allowed it to dissolve, and drank the mixture. The earliest report of this story comes from Pliny the Elder and dates to about 100 years after the banquet described would have happened. The calcium carbonate in pearls does dissolve in vinegar, but slowly unless the pearl is first crushed.
Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #10 on: August 28, 2007, 01:21:45 pm »



a fictionalized depiction by Reginald Arthur (circa 1914)

Suicide

Mark Antony committed suicide, having been told Cleopatra was dead. According to the doctor Olympus (an eye-witness), he was brought to Cleopatra's tomb and died in her arms. A few days later, on 12 August, Cleopatra also died by snakebite. The ancient sources generally agree that she had two asps hidden in a fig basket so as she was eating she would never know when she would die. Her two handmaidens died with her. Octavian, waiting in a building nearby, was informed of her death, and went to see for himself.

Cleopatra's son by Caesar, Caesarion, was proclaimed pharaoh by the Egyptians, but Octavian had already won. Caesarion was captured and executed, his fate reportedly sealed by Octavian's famous phrase: "Two Caesars are one too many." This ended not just the Hellenistic line of Egyptian pharaohs, but the line of all Egyptian pharaohs. The three children of Cleopatra and Antony were spared and taken back to Rome where they were taken care of by Antony's wife, Octavia Minor, who was also Octavian's sister.

Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #11 on: August 28, 2007, 01:23:39 pm »




Poster for the 1917 film

Cleopatra in art, film, TV, and literature
Cleopatra's story has fascinated scores of writers and artists through the centuries. While she was a powerful political figure in her own right, it is likely that much of her appeal lay in her legend as a great seductress who was able to ally herself with two of the most powerful men (Julius Caesar and Mark Antony) of her time.
Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #12 on: August 28, 2007, 01:25:20 pm »





Poster for the 1934 film

Literature: Drama
Among the more famous works on her:

•   Antony and Cleopatra (c. 1609) by William Shakespeare
•   All for Love (1678) by John Dryden
•   Caesar and Cleopatra (1901) by George Bernard Shaw
•   The Death of Cleopatre by Ahmed Shawqi
•   Cleopatra by Samuel Daniel
Literature: Other
•   Cléopâtre by Jules-Émile-Frédéric Massenet
•   Incipit Legenda Cleopatrie Martiris, Egipti Regine from Geoffrey Chaucer's The Legend of Good Women
•   Cléopatre by Victorien Sardou
•   Cleopatra (1889) by H. Rider Haggard
•   The Memoirs of Cleopatra by Margaret George
•   Kleopatra and Pharaoh by Karen Essex
•   Many Asterix books, particularly Asterix and Cleopatra, with a Cleopatra inspired by Elizabeth Taylor.
•   Sheba, a comic book by Walter S. Crane IV
•   In the satirical newspaper column archy and mehitabel, the cat mehitabel claims to be the reincarnation of Cleopatra.
•   The Royal Diaries: Cleopatra VII: Daughter of the Nile, Egypt, 57 B.C. by Kristiana Gregory, a fictionalized story of Cleopatra's childhood and adolescence beginning from about 1 year before her sister, Tryphaena seizes the crown and ending a few months before she herself is crowned.
•   Ides of March an epistolatory novel by Thornton Wilder. This describes Cleopatra's visit to Rome just before the assassination of Julius Caesar and includes an imagined correspondence between the two characters.

Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #13 on: August 30, 2007, 11:00:08 pm »



Elizabeth Taylor as the title character in 1963's Cleopatra
Films


The earliest Cleopatra-related motion picture was Antony and Cleopatra (1908) with Florence Lawrence as Cleopatra. The earliest film on Cleopatra as the main subject was Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, starring Helen Gardner (1912).

Other films and TV movies inspired by the Queen of the Nile include:

Cleopatra (1917) 
Based on Émile Moreau's play Cléopatre, Sardou's play Cléopatre, and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Starred Theda Bara (Cleopatra), Fritz Leiber (Caesar), Thurston Hall (Antony); directed by J. Gordon Edwards.
Cleopatra (1934) 
Oscar-winning Cecil B. DeMille epic. Starred Claudette Colbert (Cleopatra), Warren William (Caesar), Henry Wilcoxon (Antony).
Caesar and Cleopatra (1945) 
Oscar-nominated version of George Bernard Shaw's play of the same name. Starred Vivien Leigh (Cleopatra), Claude Rains (Caesar), Stewart Granger, Flora Robson; Leigh also played Cleopatra opposite then-husband's Laurence Olivier's Caesar in a later London stage version.
Serpent of the Nile (1953) 
Starred Rhonda Fleming (Cleopatra), Raymond Burr (Mark Antony), Michael Fox (Octavian).
Cléo de 5 à 7 (1961) 
French New Wave Feminist film by Agnes Varda about a contemporary beautiful Parisian, symbolizing Cleopatra, in the last 2 hours of her death.
Cleopatra (1963) 
Oscar-winning blockbuster most (in)famously remembered for the off-screen affair between Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton and the at-the-time massive $44 million cost — today just under $270 million —, making it the second most expensive film ever made (after War and Peace (1968)). Starred Elizabeth Taylor (Cleopatra), Rex Harrison (Caesar), Richard Burton (Antony).
Totò e Cleopatra (1963) 
An Italian comedy movie about Cleopatra and Mark Antony, who was played by the Italian actor Totò.
Carry On Cleo (1964) 
A parody of the American 1963 film, with Amanda Barrie as Cleopatra, Sid James as Mark Antony, and Kenneth Williams as Caesar.
Kureopatora (Cleopatra: Queen of Sex) (1970) 
A Japanese animated film by Osamu Tezuka. When released in the United States, the film was promoted as being X-rated in an attempt to cash in on the success of Fritz the Cat. In actuality, Cleopatra had not been submitted to the MPAA, and it is considered to be highly unlikely that it would have received an X rating if it had been submitted. The English subtitled version is said to be lost, but a clip from the dubbed version is available on YouTube.
The Notorious Cleopatra (1970) 
A grossly inaccurate sexploitation film by Harry Novak. In this version Cleopatra is stabbed to death in her tub by Mark Anthony.
Antony & Cleopatra (1974) 
Television production performed by London's Royal Shakespeare Company, shown in the US in 1975 to great critical acclaim. Starred Janet Suzman (Cleopatra), Richard Johnson (Antony), and Patrick Stewart (Enobarbus).
Miss Cleopatra (1990) 
A Pakistani movie in Punjabi starring the Babra Sharif.
Cleopatra (1999) 
Based on the book Memoirs of Cleopatra by Margaret George, it is less faithful to history than the earlier versions. Starred Leonor Varela (Cleopatra), Timothy Dalton (Caesar), Billy Zane (Antony).
Mission Cleopatra (2000) 
French film based on the comic book Astérix et Cléopatre by René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo. Starred Monica Bellucci (Cleopatra), Alain Chabat (Caesar), Christian Clavier, Gerard Depardieu.
Scooby-Doo! in Where's My Mummy? (2005) 
Scooby-Doo and the gang investigate the curse of Cleopatra.
Report Spam   Logged
Tiffany Rossette
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 3188



« Reply #14 on: August 30, 2007, 11:27:16 pm »



Cleopatra (Lyndsey Marshal) and the snake from HBO's Rome

Television

•   (1993): An Animaniacs short featuring Rita and Runt also portrayed as sly, seductive Cleopatra dominating over a cowardly Mark Antony. The cartoon also pointed out the use of animal sacrifices in Ancient Egypt.
•   (1993–1995) in Legends of the Hidden Temple, one of the artifacts was the Snake Bracelet of Cleopatra.
•   (1998): Histeria! frequently featured Cleopatra, usually portrayed by a tanned World's Oldest Woman or, if she were being portrayed as attractive, Pepper Mills.
•   (2002–2003): Clone High, Cleopatra was featured on Clone High as one of the main characters. In the show, Cleopatra is portrayed as beautiful and popular.
•   (2005/2007): A version of Cleopatra appears in the HBO/BBC series Rome, portrayed by Lyndsey Marshal. She is introduced (along with brother Ptolemy XIII) in the Season 1 episode Caesarion, which begins with Pompey's assassination and ends with the birth of Caesarion. Cleopatra also appears in four episodes in Season 2, in which she makes an enemy of Atia of the Julii (Polly Walker) and later allies with Mark Antony (James Purefoy). The series finale features Antony and Cleopatra's deaths, and Octavia taking in the twins (Ptolemy Philadelphus is not acknowledged in the series). Rome also invents a subplot in which Caesarion is eventually revealed to actually be Cleopatra's son with lowly Roman soldier Titus Pullo, who saves the boy from execution by telling Octavian that he murdered Caesarion.
•   Cleopatra was featured twice in Xena: Warrior Princess. She was played by Gina Torres in her first appearance then by Josephine Davison in her second.
Report Spam   Logged
Pages: [1] 2 3   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy