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Black Death

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Author Topic: Black Death  (Read 705 times)
Lisa Wolfe
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Posts: 4682

« Reply #30 on: June 24, 2012, 06:19:06 pm »


    ^ Haensch S, Bianucci R, Signoli M, et al. (2010). "Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death". PLoS Pathog. 6 (10): e1001134. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001134. PMC 2951374. PMID 20949072.
    ^ "BBC – History – Black Death". 2011-02-17.
    ^ Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: new world epidemics in a global perspective. University of New Mexico Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-8263-2871-7.
    ^ "Plague, Plague Information, Black Death Facts, News, Photos – National Geographic". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ J. N. Hays (2005). "Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history". p.23. ISBN 1-85109-658-2
    ^ a b c Nicholas Wade (October 31, 2010). "Europe’s Plagues Came From China, Study Finds". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-01.
    ^ "Historical Estimates of World Population". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ "Epidemics of the Past: Bubonic Plague—". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ "Plague – LoveToKnow 1911". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ "A list of National epidemics of plague in England 1348–1665". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ "Plague History Provence, – by Provence Beyond". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC News. December 2, 2008.
    ^ "Boccaccio: The Decameron, "Introduction"". Retrieved 2011-12-10.
    ^ a b c d e f J. M. Bennett and C. W. Hollister, Medieval Europe: A Short History (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 326.
    ^ S. Barry and N. Gualde, "The Biggest Epidemic of History" (La plus grande épidémie de l'histoire), L'Histoire n°310, (2006), p. 38.
    ^ World Regions in Global Context Third Edition
    ^ Ziegler 1998, p. 25
    ^ Raoult; Drancourt (2008). Paleomicrobiology: Past Human Infections. Springer. p. 152.
    ^ The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368, p.585
    ^ Kohn, George C. (2008). Encyclopedia of plague and pestilence: from ancient times to the present. Infobase Publishing. p. 31. ISBN 0-8160-6935-2.
    ^ Sussman GD (2011). Was the black death in India and China? Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 85 (3), 319-55 PMID: 22080795 [1]
    ^ Black Death may have originated in China. Daily Telegraph. 1 Nov 2010.
    ^ Hecker 1859, p. 21 cited by Ziegler, p. 15.
    ^ "Channel 4 – History – The Black Death". Archived from the original on 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ Michael of Piazza (Platiensis) Bibliotheca scriptorum qui res in Sicilia gestas retulere Vol 1, p. 562, cited in Ziegler, 1998, p. 40.
    ^ De Smet, Vol II, Breve Chronicon, p. 15.
    ^ Gunnar Karlsson (2000). Iceland's 1100 years: the history of a marginal society. London:C. Hurst. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-85065-420-9.
    ^ a b c Byrne 2004, pp. 21–9
    ^ Giovanni Boccaccio (1351/3). Decameron.
    ^ Ziegler 1998, p. 18,19
    ^ D. Herlihy, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1997) p. 29.
    ^ Horrox, Rosemary (1994). Black Death. ISBN 978-0-7190-3498-5.
    ^ "Plague Backgrounder". Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ Horrox 1994, p. 159
    ^ Sehdev, Paul S. (2002). "The Origin of Quarantine". Clinical Infectious Diseases 35 (9): 1071–1072. DOI:10.1086/344062. PMID 12398064.
    ^ a b c d e f g h G. Christakos, Interdisciplinary Public Health Reasoning and Epidemic Modelling: the Case of Black Death (シュプリンガー・ジャパン株式会社, 2005), ISBN 3-540-25794-2, pp. 110–14.
    ^ Gasquet 1893
    ^ R. Totaro, Suffering in Paradise: The Bubonic Plague in English Literature from More to Milton (Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2005), p. 26.
    ^ Byrne 2004, p. 8
    ^ Byrne 2004, p. 27 quoting Ann Carmichael (1986). Plague legislation. pp. 515–6.
    ^ Ziegler 1998, p. 233
    ^ Walloe, Lars (2008). Vivian Nutton. ed. Medieval and Modern Bubonic Plague: some clinical continuities. Pestilential Complexities: Understanding Medieval Plague. Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL. p. 69.
    ^ M. Kennedy. "Black Death study lets rats off the hook". (London: The History Press Ltd). ISBN 0-7524-2829-2..
    ^ B. Slone. The Black Death in London. London: The History Press Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-2829-2..
    ^ Drancourt, M., Aboudharam, G., Signoli, M., Dutour, O. & Raoult, D. (1998). "Detection of 400-year-old Yersinia pestis DNA in human dental pulp: an approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S a 95: 12637–12640. see alsoMichel Drancourt; Didier Raoult (2004). "Molecular detection of Yersinia pestis in dental pulp". Microbiology 150 (2): 263–264. DOI:10.1099/mic.0.26885-0.
    ^ a b "Stephanie Haensch et al, "Distinct Clones of ''Yersinia pestis'' Caused the Black Death"". 7 October 2010. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
    ^ Schuenemann VJ, Bos K, DeWitte S, Schmedes S, Jamieson J, Mittnik A, Forrest S, Coombes BK, Wood JW, Earn DJD, White W, Krause J, Poinar H (2011): Targeted enrichment of ancient pathogens yielding the pPCP1 plasmid of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death. PNAS 2011; published ahead of print August 29, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1105107108
    ^ Bos, Kirsten I.; Schuenemann VJ, Golding GB, Burbano HA, Waglechner N, Coombes BK, McPhee JB, DeWitte SN, Meyer M, Schmedes S, Wood J, Earn DJD, Herring A, Bauer P, Poinar HN, Krause J (12 October 2011). "A draft genome of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death". Nature. DOI:10.1038/nature10549.
    ^ ABC/Reuters (Tuesday, 29 January 2008). "Black death 'discriminated' between victims (ABC News in Science)". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ "Health. De-coding the Black Death". Wednesday, 3 October 2001, 21:51 GMT 22:51 UK. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ "Black Death's Gene Code Cracked". 2001-10-03. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ Philip Daileader, The Late Middle Ages, audio/video course produced by The Teaching Company, (2007) ISBN 978-1-59803-345-8.
    ^ Q&A by Kathryn Jean Lopez (2005-09-14). "Q&A with John Kelly on The Great Mortality on National Review Online". Retrieved 2011-12-10.
    ^ Egypt – Major Cities, U.S. Library of Congress
    ^ Snell, Melissa (2006). "The Great Mortality". Retrieved 2009-04-19
    ^ Richard Wunderli (1992). Peasant Fires: The Drummer of Niklashausen. Indiana University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-253-36725-5.
    ^ J. M. Bennett and C. W. Hollister, Medieval Europe: A Short History (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 329.
    ^ a b Black Death,
    ^ "Jewish History 1340–1349".
    ^ "Texas Department of State Health Services, History of Plague". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ J. M. Bennett and C. W. Hollister, Medieval Europe: A Short History (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 372.
    ^ "Plague readings". University of Arizona. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ Quotes from the Plague
    ^ "4". WHO Plague Manual. World Health Organisation.
    ^ "The Great Plague". Stephen Porter (2009). Amberley Publishing. p.25. ISBN 1-84868-087-2
    ^ J. N. Hays (1998). "The burdens of disease: epidemics and human response in western history.". p 58. ISBN 0-8135-2528-4
    ^ "Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history". J. N. Hays (2005). p.46. ISBN 1-85109-658-2
    ^ Geoffrey Parker (2001). "Europe in crisis, 1598–1648". Wiley-Blackwell. p.7. ISBN 0-631-22028-3
    ^ The Black Death in Egypt and England: A Comparative Study, Stuart J. Borsch, Austin: University of Texas
    ^ Secondary sources such as the Cambridge History of Medieval England often contain discussions of methodology in reaching these figures that are necessary reading for anyone wishing to understand this controversial episode in more detail.
    ^ "BBC – History – Black Death". p. 131. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ Gottfried, Robert S. (1983). The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe. London: Hale. ISBN 0-7090-1299-3.
    ^ "BBC – Radio 4 Voices of the Powerless – 29 August 2002 Plague in Tudor and Stuart Britain". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ Plague, 1911 Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
    ^ Vanessa Harding (2002). "The dead and the living in Paris and London, 1500–1670.". p.25. ISBN 0-521-81126-0
    ^ Byrne 2004, p. 62
    ^ Vanessa Harding (2002). "The dead and the living in Paris and London, 1500–1670.". p.24. ISBN 0-521-81126-0
    ^ "Plague in London: spatial and temporal aspects of mortality", J. A. I. Champion, Epidemic Disease in London, Centre for Metropolitan History Working Papers Series, No. 1 (1993).
    ^ Geography, climate, population, economy, society. J.P.Sommerville.
    ^ "Crisis and Change in the Venetian Economy in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries". Brian Pullan. (2006). p.151. ISBN 0-415-37700-5
    ^ "Medicine and society in early modern Europe". Mary Lindemann (1999). Cambridge University Press. p.41. ISBN 0-521-42354-6
    ^ a b Harald Aastorp (2004-08-01). "Svartedauden enda verre enn antatt". Retrieved 2009-01-03.
    ^ Øivind Larsen. "DNMS.NO : Michael: 2005 : 03/2005 : Book review: Black Death and hard facts". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ Karl Julius Beloch, Bevölkerungsgeschichte Italiens, volume 3, pp. 359–360.
    ^ "Naples in the 1600s". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ The Seventeenth-Century Decline, S. G. Payne, A History of Spain and Portugal
    ^ a b "Armies of pestilence: the effects of pandemics on history". James Clarke & Co. (2004). p.72. ISBN 0-227-17240-X
    ^ "Kathy McDonough, Empire of Poland". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ "Bubonic plague in early modern Russia: public health and urban disaster". John T. Alexander (2002). Oxford University Press US. p.21. ISBN 0-19-515818-0
    ^ "Ruttopuisto – Plague Park". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
    ^ "Stockholm: A Cultural History". Tony Griffiths (2009). Oxford University Press US. p.9. ISBN 0-19-538638-8
    ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Black Death)". Retrieved 2011-12-10.
    ^ Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M. ABC-CLIO. p. 519. ISBN 0-313-34102-8.
    ^ "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800". Robert Davis (2004) ISBN 1-4039-4551-9.
    ^ Université de Strasbourg. Institut de turcologie, Université de Strasbourg. Institut d'études turques, Association pour le développement des études turques. (1998). Turcica. Éditions Klincksieck. p. 198.
    ^ "The Fertile Crescent, 1800–1914: a documentary economic history". Charles Philip Issawi (1988). Oxford University Press US. p.99. ISBN 0-19-504951-9
    ^ Infectious Diseases: Plague Through History,
    ^ Bubonic Plague comes to Sydney in 1900, University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School
    ^ Chase, Marilyn (2004). The Barbary Plague: The Black Death in Victorian San Francisco. Random House Digital. ISBN 0-375-75708-2.
    Echenberg, Myron (2007). Plague Ports: The Global Urban Impact of Bubonic Plague: 1894–1901. Sacramento: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-2232-6.
    Kraut, Alan M. (1995). Silent travelers: germs, genes, and the "immigrant menace". JHU Press. ISBN 0-8018-5096-7.
    Markel, Howard (2005). When Germs Travel: Six Major Epidemics That Have Invaded America And the Fears They Have Unleashed. Random House Digital. ISBN 0-375-72602-0.
    Kalisch, Philip A. (Summer 1972). "The Black Death in Chinatown: Plague and Politics in San Francisco 1900–1904". Arizona and the West (Journal of the Southwest) 14 (2): 113–136.
    Risse, Guenter B. (2012). "Bubonic Plague Visits San Francisco's Chinatown". Plague, Fear, and Politics in San Francisco's Chinatown. JHU Press. ISBN 1-4214-0510-5.
    Shah, Nayan (2001). Contagious divides: Epidemics and race in San Francisco's Chinatown. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22629-1.
    ^ Human Plague – United States, 1993–1994, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    ^ USA (2011-10-03). "An overview of plague in the United States". Retrieved 2011-12-10.
    ^ "Oregon man suffering from the plague is in critical condition". NY Daily News. 2012-06-12.
    ^ Drug-resistant plague a 'major threat', say scientists, SciDev.Net

Further reading

    Byrne, J. P. (2004). The Black Death. London: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32492-1.
    Cantor, Norman F. (2001), In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made, New York, Free Press.
    Cohn, Samuel K. Jr., (2002), The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe, London: Arnold.
    Gasquet, Francis Aidan (1893). The Great Pestilence AD 1348 to 1349: Now Commonly Known As the Black Death. ISBN 978-1-4179-7113-8.
    Hecker, J.F.C. (1859). B.G. Babington(trans). ed. Epidemics of the Middle Ages. London, Trübner.
    Herlihy, D., (1997), The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
    McNeill, William H. (1976). Plagues and Peoples. Anchor/Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-11256-4.
    Scott, S., and Duncan, C. J., (2001), Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Shrewsbury, J. F. D., (1970), A History of Bubonic Plague in the British Isles, London: Cambridge University Press
    Twigg, G., (1984), The Black Death: A Biological Reappraisal, London: Batsford.
    Ziegler, Philip (1998). The Black Death. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-027524-7. 1st editions 1969.
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