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How the Mariana Trench Became Earth's Deepest Point

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Christiana Hanaman
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« on: April 07, 2012, 05:59:42 pm »

How the Mariana Trench Became Earth's Deepest Point





Heavy lava, tectonic movements shaped the 7-mile-deep abyss.
Cameras dropped into the Mariana Trench record the presence of giant amoebas as well as other life forms.
The Mariana Trench (pictured in a video still of an illustration) is the deepest place on Earth.

Video still courtesy of NOAA

Richard A. Lovett

for National Geographic News

Published April 5, 2012

James Cameron made headlines last month by successfully diving 6.8 miles (11 kilometers) to the deepest part of the Mariana Trench in a one-person submersible called the DEEPSEA CHALLENGER. (See "Cameron Exclusive: After Record Dive, Why Go Back to Mariana Trench?")

Best known as a Hollywood director and now a National Geographic Society explorer-in-residence, Cameron is one of just three people to dive to Earth's deepest point, and the only one to be able to stay long enough to look around. (Video: Cameron Dive Is an Exploration First.)

Though Cameron and his team are hoping to discover more about the biology of the Mariana depths, geologists already know a lot about how the Mariana Trench formed—and why it's Earth's deepest spot.

(Related: "James Cameron on Earth's Deepest Spot: Desolate, Lunar-Like.")

Ancient Lava Shaped Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench isn't really the deep, narrow furrow that the word "trench" implies. Rather, the abyss marks the location of a subduction zone.

Subduction zones occur where one part of the seabed—in this case the Pacific plate—dives beneath another, the Philippine plate. Though tectonic forces eventually warp the Pacific plate so that it makes a near-vertical dive into the Earth's interior, at seabed level the plate dips at a relatively gentle angle.

A tectonic plate is a huge hunk of rock, 60 miles (97 kilometers) or more thick, said Robert Stern, a geophysicist at the University of Texas, Dallas. "In order for this to sink back into the earth, it has to bend downward, and these are very gentle bends."

One reason the Mariana Trench is so deep, he added, is because the western Pacific is home to some of the oldest seafloor in the world—about 180 million years old.

Seafloor is formed as lava at mid-ocean ridges. When it's fresh, lava is comparatively warm and buoyant, riding high on the underlying mantle.

But as lava ages and spreads away from its source, it slowly cools and becomes increasingly dense, causing it to settle ever lower—as is the case with the Mariana Trench.

(Read more about our dynamic Earth.)

Mariana Trench Could Trigger Big Quakes?

Two other factors conspire to make the 1,580-mile-long (2,550-kilometer-long) Mariana Trench staggeringly deep.

For one, the trench lies far from any major landmass, which means it's remote from the mouths of muddy rivers.

"Many other deep trenches are more filled with sediment," Chris Goldfinger, director of the Active Tectonics and Seafloor Mapping Laboratory at Oregon State University, said in an email. "This one isn't."

In addition, nearby fault lines cut the Pacific plate into a narrow tongue at the site of the trench, allowing the plate to bend more steeply downward than at other subduction zones.

Because of this orientation, most scientists thought that the Mariana Trench subduction zone wouldn't be a source of major earthquakes, said geophysicist Emile Okal of Northwestern University.

That's because the dense rock of the Pacific Plate at the site of the trench should not press strongly upward against the overriding Philippine plate, creating the friction that would cause earthquakes.

But the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and the 2011 Japan earthquake "killed" that theory by occurring in other, similar places where giant temblors weren't expected, Okal said by email.

So there's no reason to believe the Mariana Trench region couldn't produce an earthquake of perhaps magnitude 8.5, he said.

"There are two events [in the region] known to have generated local tsunamis in 1826 and 1872."

Cameron Dive a "Man on the Moon" Feat

Despite Cameron's record dive, it's impossible to know what really happens in the subduction zone, since most of the action occurs up to 420 miles (700 kilometers) below Earth's surface. (See plate-tectonics pictures.)

(The dive was part of the DEEPSEA CHALLENGE program, a partnership with the National Geographic Society and Rolex. The Society owns National Geographic News.)

"That's the iceberg," the University of Texas's Stern said, in reference to Cameron's movie Titanic. "Cameron wasn't even at the tip of it—11 kilometers out of 700. The trench is the interface between the limits of human experience and the reality humans can't experience."

Even so, with subsequent dives, there's the prospect of retrieving rock samples and looking for life deeper than it's ever been found before.

"Life in extreme environments is fascinating, and I think [that's] a big part of what motivated Cameron," said Oregon State's Goldfinger.

"Hopefully this new vehicle will lead to being able to do science effectively at those depths. I think it's really a mission of discovery at this point."

UT's Stern agreed, calling Cameron's trip "kind of a man-on-the-moon thing."

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/04/120405-james-cameron-mariana-trench-deepsea-challenger-oceans-science/
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BlueHue2
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Blue-Hue? is he Just Blind, or a One-eyed 'king' ?


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« Reply #1 on: November 16, 2012, 04:53:45 am »

Dear, CHRISTIANA - HANAMAN,

Trenches?
we are still digging them in the Netherlands,
they don't come from out of nowhere,
BlueHue's theory is that
The Moon causes Tidalwaves as well as ( Earth-Quake-)Tsunamis

Proof,TRENCHES ARE THE " kinetic- wave positions " which,
point to 2 locationa where an itinerant Moon has hit Earth's surface
1st in Antartica, 2nd on the Hawain isles.

Since 1055 bc,
Tidal waves called FLOODS or TorrentStorms in Holland( Sea-transgressions.)
occur at intervalls of exactly 50 years on the dot
So the common people has already forgotten them
and is not prewarned for their NEXT ocurrence(s)

EXAMPLES:
1755 Lissabon Earthquake, 1906 SanFrancisco
1953 Seatransgressions, ( December!)2004 the last ASIAN Tsunami !
PREDICTION the Next MEGA-Tsunamiwill be ( Statistically-)in 2055 and 2105 ad.
Major Earthquakes with "  the Tsunami of 2004 belongs to the year 2005 but Moon' s Orbit varies !

Time Date:
TRENCH FORMING is consecutive with 2 Historic events
The TITANO-Machia(1055bc) and GIGANTO- Machia (855bc.)and 705 bc.

These were" WARS
of the GODS ", which is a symbolic euphemism of recurrent CaTaclysms
The Starsigns changed Position
When the Earth stood really still (dd 855 bc.)

MOON is

-ofcourse- a captured Satelite
which means that it originally bumped into Earth's surface
twice before stabilizing into a ballanced orbit

PLATO's Atlantis Dialogue,
which is a Parody of Darius-2's Athenian-Trade-Boycott( dd 413 bc.)
also discribes that simultaniously with the( original-)Battle
the Celestial Bodies were shifting over the battlefield.

PROOF hereof, is
that Odysseus Sea-voyage to Hades was recorded, before 855 bc.
And Odysseus used the Starsigns to navigate Fropm TROY to Scheria.

When However
the Starsigns shifted in 855 bc and thus were changed
Odysseus recorded Seavoyage went haywire
and thus showed a( Known-) orientation/precession deviation

Modern astronomers assume that the Star DRACO in Aldebaran
was the Original PoleStar which( after 855bc.) has now become the Little-Bear.

If we reconstruct
The Odyssee,
it went NOT from TROY as Truva at the Dardanelles, but,
from TARSUS at the Sehan-river.
all the way through the RED- Sea down to ADEN

And Guess what:
ADEN, in Odysseus days, used to be named Scheria
and the Country surrounding it ESCH-Scheria.
But not many if any Modern-Historian knows that
ATLANTIS was not a Land, but a SEA-trade Empire
Called HYPEREA in Latin and SUMMA-MERIA or MAA-SAABA in Punician.

Marco Polo
went past Somalia on his way to China in 1220 ad
on his return he made a Map of his Journeys
and Named a Nabatean SEA-Trade-Empire existing around 1000-500 bc.

THAT Seatrade Empire
was divided into THREE Parts all named INDIA
India MAJOR was Somalia, India MEDIA was rabia Foelix,
India MINOR was India Proper.

" OKEANOS begat the Thethys-Sea "
Originally the Maritime GREEK word OKEANOS/ Ocean, did NOT
mean a Large open Sea, but a Sea-Bay or Sea-Strait NOT a HIGH SEA
Only the Romans applied the Word HIGH SEA to Oceanus

This simply means
that the Present Names:
 Atlantic Ocean/ Pacific Ocean
cannot be ancient GREEK toponyms.

The SEA-Strait of DOVER
Was named the FRETUM Gallicum or
Oceanus Britannicum
Original name for Ocean of AD was" Spanish Sea
( ONLY changed to Atlantic Ocean at the Peace-Treaty
of M"unster in 1648, at behest of the Dutch maritime-Secretary Mr. De-Witt.


PANGEA( only' yesterday ' ?
Moreover the Ancients
Thought that the Indian Ocean or MER - ARABE
was a closed SEA
and that it's southern borders were Madagascar and the Tip of India.

Thus the forming of the Indian Continental Plate
may have been NOT completed until 1000/800 bc

BLUEHUE's theory says that the Forming of the
HIMALAY Mnts. occurred in Pleistocene/Quarternary Times
Actually the Himalay Mountain range may hav risen
in one Single Day in the year 855 bc.

( Paleo-)Geologists configuerred that the QUARTERNARY - LAKE- BURSTwhen Glacier-Lakes bursted their Ice-dams was in 8000 bc.
which incidentally ended the " ICE- AGE " ( globally in  10.000 bc.)

But this is a false  Geoogical Event-Tradition
by Armchair Paleo Geologists.

Actually by mountain raising a lot of " DEBRIS " is abducted.
thus the Pleistocene/ Quartenary TopLayer of the Himayans
has been spirited away to form the bottom of the giant
Indian River Silt-Dump cone off the Coast of GUJARAT NW-India.

The remaining Top Layers are from the Eocen/ Miocene epoch-period
of 20.million years ago and thus counted as the Birthdate of the
indian Mountain raising, which is thus clearly a ( Continued)Fallacy

CONCLUSION

After the  originally Itinerant Moon ran into Mars
and there caused the Borealis Basin-Dent
and the AITKIN-Bottom dent in itself,

It is hard to Fathom which PART of the Moon has hit Earthduring it's orbit setteling in 1055 and 855 bc.

When Moon Hit MARS and Dried that Planet,
it went for Earth,
clothed in Mars primevil-waters
accopagnied with mars meteorites that fell on Earth
and were named the MARUTS making 100m across dents in Arabia

NASA
Issued in 1995 a MAP of Mars meteorite Bouncing-Traces
which puzzled together/conceived a collage of these Strait-dents across Earth
when it was still in one piece called the PANGEA or Panchea-Epoch
about 2 million or 20.ooo Years ago.

MOON
had sent these Mars Pebbles ahead to earth
and soon followed after
Cracking Earth's scull with the socalled TRENCHES

The tangential-POSITIONS of the Trenches redirect their origin
by Circle formed oblong kinetic waves from Antartica & Hawaii isles.
that trAvelled through the earth's core
and produced the TRENCHES on the opposite sides of the TWO Moon impacts !

The ICE CAPS were formed by MARS-WATER
that the itinerant Moon was carrying to Earth

IF
this BlueHue-Theory seems strange or weird,
in the 19th Cent. Paleo geologists thoght that
the MOON was jutted out from the Indian(=Somalian-) Basin
by any celestial body the size of Mars at the opposite end !

120 Newspapers( Science Section Editors)
and 50 ( European )Universities
 have rejected this BlueHue-Theory.that
Simply because it seemed to them " Imposible"

ANOTHER: MISSION IMPOSSIBLE ?

Mr Francesco CAROTTI of Germany
discovered that the Name JESUS CHRIST, was simply
a Nickname or Epitheton of General Julius Caesar
(WHO campagned under that Nick-name against Pompey in Palestine.)
and he wrote TWO, thick books proving THAT !( 1999-2007)

I myself,(dd 2006) in his wake, discovered that
MOHAMMAD, was a major Byzantine/East-Roman- General too,
There are Ample Coins with this true Man,
Mohammad is not Arabic but GREEK: Moha-Man(= Big Man.) but who cares ?

The world hasn't beaten a path to my attic apartement door yet !

Sincerely, " BlueHue " dd 17 Nov.2012 at Amsterdam/ Holland.
PS
if you as so many others don't believe in BlueHue's theory,
would you believe that the Symbol of France: Marriann'es Head on
French coins were once remodelled after Brigitte Bardot?

Or that the Statue of Fortuna-Britannica on british Penny coins,
clad in Helmet & Armor, holding the British shield and a Faretower
was modelled in 1665 ad after Miss Frances Stewart
( King Charles-2's then royal Mistress.)?.


DISCLAIMERI apologize to my fellow atlantologists
to have discovered it first( At Aden in Yemen.)
the Yemenites knew this but nobody is asking them.)










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Atlantis in,"historical-Perspective"
=Known-World,Oikumene=Now,Yemen>Surat-89

This Egyptian,INDIAN-Ocean trade-Empire was
ruled by-CEO-Queen Tiy

PLATO wrote (GREEK!)" ATHE " Now,Aden= Solomon's/OFIR, in Herodotus-Araby-Map

ATLANTIS-Dialogue=Satire,on Athens-Trade boycott(of Darius2,413bc)
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