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Thracians

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« on: February 18, 2007, 11:58:55 pm »


Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC.


Ethnically "Thracians" refers to various ancient peoples who spoke Dacian and Thracian, a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family.

The Thracian tribes to the south, neighbouring the Ancient Greeks, determined the latter to name a so called Thrace region (now divided between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey). Other names of ancient provinces inhabited by Thracians were: Moesia, Dacia, Scythia Minor, Bithynia (in northwest Asia Minor), Mysia, Macedonia, Pannonia, and others. This area extends over most of the Balkans region, and the Getae north of the Danube as far as beyond the Bug.[1].

Archaeological and linguistic evidence supports the observation of Herodotus (5.3) in the fifth century BC, that the Thracians were a multitude of tribes, who, despite a fundamentally common language and heritage, did not ever achieve a unified national consciousness
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« Reply #1 on: February 19, 2007, 12:00:31 am »



Thracian Horseman.

Origins

The prehistoric origins of the Thracians remain obscure, in absence of written historical records. Evidence of Proto-Thracians in the prehistoric period depends on remains of material culture. It is generally proposed that a Proto-Thracian people developed from a mixture of invading Indo-European and indigenous peoples in the Balkans over the centuries, starting from the Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age[2]. Thracians figure in the Iliad as allies of the Trojans, hailing from Thrace.

Classical period

By the 5th century BC, the Thracian presence was pervasive enough to have made Herodotus (book 5) call them the second-most numerous people in the part of the world known by him (after the Indians), and potentially the most powerful, if not for their disunity. The Thracians in classical times were broken up into a large number of groups and tribes, though a number of powerful Thracian states were organized, such as the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace and the Dacia of Burebista. A type of soldier of this period called the Peltast probably originated in Thrace.

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« Reply #2 on: February 19, 2007, 12:02:58 am »

Archaeology



A gold Thracian treasure from Panagyurishte, BulgariaDuring the 2000s, Bulgarian archaeologists made discoveries in Central Bulgaria which were summarized as "The Valley of the Thracian Kings". On 19 August 2005, some archaeologists announced they had found the first Thracian capital, which was situated near Karlovo in Bulgaria. A lot of polished ceramic artifacts (pieces of roof-tiles and Greek-like vases) were discovered revealing the fortune of the city. The Bulgarian Ministry of Culture declared its support to the excavations.

In Dabene, Bulgaria, a cache of more than 15,000 gold Thracian artifacts were discovered, including thousands of rings. In August 2006 a sensational archeological find was made near the village of Dubovo. A Thracian dagger made of an alloy of gold and platinum, sharp, and in perfect condition, was found in a tomb near the village of Dubovo. [2]


Sources

The Iliad records that the Thracians from around the Hellespont and also the Thracian Cicones fought on the side of the Trojans (Iliad, book II). The Odyssey records that Odysseus and his men raided Thrace on their way back home from war. Many mythical figures, such as the god Dionysus, princess Europa and the hero Orpheus were borrowed by the Greeks from their Thracian neighbours.

In book 7 of his Histories, Herodotus describes the equipment of the Thracians fighting under the Persians,

The Thracians went to the war wearing the skins of foxes upon their heads, and about their bodies tunics, over which was thrown a long cloak of many colours. Their legs and feet were clad in buskins made from the skins of fawns; and they had for arms javelins, with light targes, and short dirks. This people, after crossing into Asia, took the name of Bithynians; before, they had been called Strymonians, while they dwelt upon the Strymon; whence, according to their own account, they had been driven out by the Mysians and Teucrians. The commander of these Asiatic Thracians was Bassaces the son of Artabanus.
In book 5, Herodotus describes the customs of various Thracian tribes.

The Thracians who live above the Crestonaeans observe the following customs. Each man among them has several wives; and no sooner does a man die than a sharp contest ensues among the wives upon the question which of them all the husband loved most tenderly; the friends of each eagerly plead on her behalf, and she to whom the honour is adjudged, after receiving the praises both of men and women, is slain over the grave by the hand of her next of kin, and then buried with her husband. The others are sorely grieved, for nothing is considered such a disgrace.
The Thracians who do not belong to these tribes have the customs which follow. They sell their children to traders. On their maidens they keep no watch, but leave them altogether free, while on the conduct of their wives they keep a most strict watch. Brides are purchased of their parents for large sums of money. Tattooing among them marks noble birth, and the want of it low birth. To be idle is accounted the most honourable thing, and to be a tiller of the ground the most dishonourable. To live by war and plunder is of all things the most glorious. These are the most remarkable of their customs.
The gods which they worship are but three, Mars, Bacchus, and Dian. Their kings, however, unlike the rest of the citizens, worship Mercury more than any other god, always swearing by his name, and declaring that they are themselves sprung from him.
Their wealthy ones are buried in the following fashion. The body is laid out for three days; and during this time they kill victims of all kinds, and feast upon them, after first bewailing the departed. Then they either burn the body or else bury it in the ground. Lastly, they raise a mound over the grave, and hold games of all sorts, wherein the single combat is awarded the highest prize. Such is the mode of burial among the Thracians.
Josephus claims the founder of the Thracians was the biblical character Tiras, son of Japheth:

Thiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians. AotJ I:6.
In a well-known fragment, Xenophanes comments:

Men make gods in their own image; those of the Ethiopians are black and snub-nosed, those of the Thracians have blue eyes and red hair.
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« Reply #3 on: February 19, 2007, 12:05:59 am »

Thracian language

Sources
As an extinct language with only a few short inscriptions attributed to it (see below), there is little known about the Thracian language, but a number of features are agreed upon. Some Thracian words can be found cited in ancient texts[2] (this list excludes Dacian plant names which however are sometimes included):
   asa A Bessian word for the Coltsfoot; cf. Lith dial. asỹs "horse-tail," Latv. ai, aas "horse-tail, sedge, rush," rel. to Latv. as, ass "sharp", OBulg ostrǔ, Lith atrs "sharp"
   bolinthos "wild bull, Mac. vol "a bull", bison", English bull
   bria "town"
   brynchos "guitar"; cf. Romanian broancă "a stringed instrument", Russian brenčat' "play on a stringed instrument", Polish brzek "ringing, tinkle", Mac. brumchi "a ringing sound"
   brytos, bryton, brutos, bryttion "a kind of ale made from barley" ; cf. E broth, Welsh brwd "brewage", Lat defrutum "must boiled down", Gk apphrysen "to seethe, boil",Slavic vriti "to seethe, boil" vrutok "strong spring, boiling water", Skt bhurati "he quivers", Alb brum "dough"
   dinupula, *sinupyla "wild pumpkin"; cf. Bul. and Mac. dinya a watermelon, Lith nobuolas wild pumpkin, Alb thnukl dogberry
   genton "meat"
   kalamindar "plane tree"
   kemos "a kind of fruit with follicles"
   ktistai "Thracians living in celibacy, monks"
   mendruta a Moesian name for the beet or alternately the False Helleborine, Veratrum nigrum
   rhomphaia "a spear"; later the meaning "sword" is attested, Mac. rophia " a lightning", "God's sword"
   skalme "a knife, a sword"
   skarke "a coin"
   spinos "a stone which burns when water is poured on it"
   torelle "a lament, a song of mourning"
   zalmos, zelmis "a hide, skin" ; cf. G Helm "helmet", Lith lmas, OPruss salmis "helmet", OSl lĕmŭ, Skt śrman "cover"
   zeira, zira "a type of upper garment"
   zelas "wine"; Russian zelye "a fermented or witch's brew",
   zetraia "a pot"; Grk. χύτρα (chutra) "pot"
   zibythides "the noble Thracian men and women", Lith. zhibut "fire, light" Mac. and Serb. shibytsa "a lightening stick".
In addition there are many words and probable words extracted from anthroponyms, toponyms, hydronyms, oronyms and other lexical elements found in ancient and Byzantine sources (see also List of ancient Thracian cities):
   -disza, -diza, -dizos "a fortified settlement" compare to Slavic zidati, sozidati, (po)dizati "to build"
   -para, -pera, -paron, etc. "a town"
A number of probable Thracian words are found in inscriptions (most of them written with Greek script) on buildings, coins, and other artifacts (see inscriptions below).
Another source for the Thracian vocabulary are words of unknown or disputed etymology found in Bulgarian and Macedonian(see Bulgarian lexis)as well as Romanian (see Eastern Romance substratum). Albanian is sometimes regarded as a descendant of Dacian or Thracian, or as a descendant of Illyrian with a Daco-Thracic admixture; thus the Albanian lexis is another source.
Thracian words in the Ancient Greek lexicon are also proposed. Greek lexical elements may derive from Thracian, such as balios ("dappled"; < PIE *bhel-, "to shine"; Pokorny also cites Illyrian as a possible source), bounos, "hill, mound", etc.
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« Reply #4 on: February 19, 2007, 12:07:28 am »

Inscriptions

Only four Thracian insciptions have been found. One is a gold ring found in 1912 in the town of Ezerovo, Bulgaria. The ring was dated to the 5th century BC. On the ring is an inscription written in a Greek script which says:

ΡΟΛΙΣΤΕΝΕΑΣΝ / ΕΡΕΝΕΑΤΙΛ / ΤΕΑΝΗΣΚΟΑ / ΡΑΖΕΑΔΟΜ / ΕΑΝΤΙΛΕΖΥ / ΠΤΑΜΙΗΕ / ΡΑΖ / ΗΛΤΑ
rolisteneasn /ereneatil / teanēskoa / razeadom / eantilezu / ptamiēe / raz / ēlta
The meaning of the inscription is not known, and it bears no resemblance to any known language. Thracologists such as Georgiev and Dechev have proposed various translations for the inscription but these are just guesses.

A second inscription was found in 1965 near the village of Kjolmen, Preslav district, dating to the sixth century BC. It consists of 56 letters of the Greek alphabet, probably a tomb stele inscription similar to the Phrygian ones:

ΕΒΑΡ. ΖΕΣΑΣΝ ΗΝΕΤΕΣΑ ΙΓΕΚ.Α / ΝΒΛΑΒΑΗΕΓΝ / ΝΥΑΣΝΛΕΤΕΔΝΥΕΔΝΕΙΝΔΑΚΑΤΡ.Σ
ebar. zesasn ēnetesa igek. a / nblabaēgn / nuasnletednuedneindakatr.s
A third inscription is again on a ring, found in Duvanli, Plovdiv district, next to the left hand of a skeleton. It dates to the 5th century BC. The ring has the image of a horseman with the inscription surrounding the image. It is only partly legible (16 out of the initial 21)

ΗΖΙΗ ..... ΔΕΛΕ / ΜΕΖΗΝΑΙ
ēziē ..... dele / mezēnai
ΜΕΖΗΝΑΙ likely corresponds to Menzana, the Messapian "horse deity" to which horses were sacrificed, compared also to Albanian mes, mezi and Romanian mnz "colt", derived from PIE *mend(i)- "horse".

These are the longest inscriptions preserved. The remaining ones are mostly single words or names on vessels and other artefacts. In addition, Thracian lexical elements have been drawn from inscriptions in Greek or Latin.

In a Latin inscription from Rome discussing a citizen from the Roman province of Thracia, the phrase Midne potelense is found; this is interpreted as indicating the Thracian's place of origin, midne being seen as the Thracian equivalent of Latin vicus, "village". If this is correct, the Thracian word has a close cognate (Latv. mitne, "a dwelling") in Latvian, a Baltic language.It could be connected also to the Bulgarian term for dwelling place "mitnitsa".

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thracian_language

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« Reply #5 on: February 19, 2007, 01:02:47 am »

SG,
From above:
"The Iliad records that the Thracians from around the Hellespont and also the Thracian Cicones fought on the side of the Trojans (Iliad, book II). The Odyssey records that Odysseus and his men raided Thrace on their way back home from war. "

Doesn't it sound ludicrous that "Odysseus and his men raided Thrace on their way back home from war. " if Thrace is in fact now called Bulgaria.

Odysseus and his men were purportedly from cities and kingdoms ringing the Mediterranean...?  How on earth would/could they have passed Thrace on their way from Schleimann's "Troy" to their respective home loci??

The only logical answer is that Homer wrote about events that happened in a location not in the Mediterranean...(see Felice Vinci's Homer in the Baltic) and that his writings told about events that predated the migrations south.
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« Reply #6 on: February 19, 2007, 01:16:02 am »

Archeologists, Police Hit Headlines over Gold Treasure
A Day in the Life
By Ivelina Puhaleva
Oct 04

Just a month after Bulgarian land left the world perplexed at the unique gold-lump mask from Shipka, the expedition of Dr Georgi Kitov revealed another ancient wonder believed to be the oldest and largest Thracian tomb discovered so far.

The three-chamber edifice has made the team of Kitov's expedition dumbfound not only with its intact construction, but also with the invaluable treasure found inside.

A total of 74 artifacts, including 20 Thracian-made of pure gold, saw broad daylight nearly 2,500 years after being earthed for the convenience of an obviously wealthy and powerful man.

Archeologists said that the gold wreath of the Golyamata Kosmatka mound tomb depicting oak leaves and acorn nuts is one of the kind known to scientists from Thracian times.

An exquisite gold vessel designed for drinking wine appeared to be decorated with domestically modified ornaments otherwise typical for the art of the day. It is only the third to complete the collection of merely another couple of similar artifacts unearthed earlier this year in excavations near Vratsa, north-west Bulgaria, and the Shipka-nearby mound of Svetitsata (The Saint).

The tomb has been unearthed from beneath the Golyama Kosmatka mound, in the outskirts of the Shipka Peak.

The archeological team's head Georgi Kitov, called also Bulgaria's "Indiana Jones" explained that the excavations have revealed a 13-metre long passage and two halls walled up with stones behind the façade.

The tomb has amazed archeologists with its first-of-the-kind doors made of marble and decorated with human figures, iron nail imitations and blue-end-red sculptural ornaments.

Further on, the first chamber showed up in a rectangular and vaulted form where a horse skeleton was found.

Hitting yet for another time the headlines, the work of Kitov's team stirred media attention with unexpected and unprecedented clash between archeologists and special police forces sent to the excavations site after personal order by the country's top policeman, General Lieutenant Boyko Borissov.

Taking into account earlier incidents with robbers' assaults on sites already proved to hide ancient treasures, Georgi Kitov called on police to provide for the security of the excavations and the findings. However, the archeologists themselves occurred to be the first suspected in smuggling artifacts.

Was it for the security of treasure of national historic importance, or for an ostentatious media-attracting action that the police sealed the handful of archeologists inside the tomb in pitch-dark night and search them even stricter than criminals?

No doubt, the security of such findings demands for utmost measures, but it would not cost much to pay those brave and selfless people devoted to Bulgaria and its history the minimum of respect and decent attitude by official institutions.

Otherwise, it is worth praising the official efforts to save Bulgarian history's treasures from secretive attempts of smugglers and consciousness-striped treasure hunters and collectors.

Oct 04

BBC: Bulgarian Archeologists Unearth 5,000-Year Old Gold

A Bulgarian archeological team came upon a stunning find of over 400 tiny gold jewels dating back 5,000 years, BBC announced Friday.

The archaeologists had unearthed gold rings, beads and jewellery inlaid with tiny pearls, the head of Bulgaria's National Museum of History, Bozhidar Dimitrov was quoted saying.

Dimitrov said the jewels had shown expert craftsmanship and an unexpectedly high level of technology for the time.

The exact location will be kept in secret until the excavation is complete. It is only known that the site is in one of the valleys south of the Stara Planina mountain in central Bulgaria.

Dimitrov compared the gold ornaments to jewels found in ancient Troy ruins dated around 2,000 BC, much later than the Bulgarian treasure.

"All this makes us believe that Bulgaria's lands were the heart of Europe's earliest civilisation", he said.




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« Reply #7 on: February 19, 2007, 01:22:13 am »

Nov 04

Bulgarian archeologists have discovered 3,000-year-old human skeletons, just weeks after Europe's oldest skeleton was unearthed in the country.
The skeletons, discovered near the village of Moguila in the district of Yambol, are about two meters tall, which is unusual for the people who inhabited the region in the Early Bronze era.

The skeletons are balled up in an embryo position, which, ancient peoples believed, immortalized the soul, archeologists explained.

The people came to the region from the Black Sea steppe and after mixing with the locals gave birth to the Thracians.

Bulgaria's ancient Thracian heritage has been put in the spotlight this year with a number of key archaeological discoveries in the so-called "Valley of the Thracian Kings".

Nov 04

A series of spectacular discoveries at three sites in central and eastern Bulgaria has highlighted the exotic lifestyle of the ancient Thracians as never before.
Georgi Kitov, a veteran Thrakologist who has excavated more than 30 tombs built for the ancient warrior elite, says that the Thracians were known for drinking undiluted strong red wine and were famous for their martial skills. They were the most successful gladiators in ancient Rome.

As a result of the latest finds, the Thracians, who excelled at constructing elaborate tombs and rock-cut shrines, have seized the popular imagination.

Under communism research into the culture of the Thracians, a warrior caste who amassed wealth in the form of gold and silver artefacts, took second place to Slav history, reflecting Bulgaria's close political ties with the Soviet Union.

Dr Kitov, wearing a battered solar topee and a T-shirt picturing his latest find - a bronze head, thought to be of King Sevt III - clearly enjoys making Thracian culture more accessible.

He says more than 15,000 people have visited the 4th century BC king's tomb near Kazanluk since it was discovered last month, but "sadly, we'll have to shut it up for the winter".

Working with a team of eight experts from the archaeological institute at the Bulgarian Academy of Science, Dr Kitov unearthed a three-chamber tomb that unites the beehive vault of prehistoric Greece with local architectural styles in an unprecedented way.

The inner chamber - big enough for three people to stand upright - was hewn from a block of granite weighing an estimated 60 tonnes "like a giant sarcophagus". The huge block had been transported from a quarry about 10km away, Dr Kitov said.

It contained a delicate two-handled gold drinking cup and three amphoras as well as Sevt's military equipment: 10 spears, a sword, a bronze helmet decorated with gold and silver fittings, a round shield and leg armour.

The portrait head, perhaps the work of the Greek sculptor Lysippus, was ragged at the neck, recalling the ancient Thracian ritual of hacking a hero's body into seven pieces.

Nikolay Ovcharov, also from the Academy's archaeological institute, believes he has identified the oracle of Dionysos at Perperikon, a sprawling hilltop sanctuary surrounded by forest near the town of Kurdzhali in south-east Bulgaria.

It was here, he says, that Alexander the Great first learned he would become the conqueror of Asia. Several hundred years later, the Roman general Octavian, later to become the emperor Augustus, was told at Perperikon that he would hold sway over a huge empire.

"This oracle was as important as that of Apollo at Delphi in Greece," Prof Ovcharov says. He has excavated a large oval hall, open to the sky, containing a round altar cut out of the rock, which fits the historian Suetonius's description of the oracle of Dionysos.

Divination was based on how high the flames would leap after wine was poured over the altar fire, he says.

Perperikon has a long history as a sacred site, from the fourth millennium BC to early Christian times.

A church was built over earlier remains in the 5th century AD and the pagan sanctuary became part of a Byzantine bishopric.

Prof Ovcharov has also excavated a temple at Tatul, near Bulgaria's border with Turkey. With its distinctive flat summit rising above the forest, the sanctuary is visible from miles away.

It may be the site revered in antiquity as the tomb of Orpheus, the legendary Thracian musician who was torn to pieces by frenzied women followers of Dionysos, and inspired one of the most popular religious cults in the ancient world.




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« Reply #8 on: February 19, 2007, 01:23:13 am »

Dec 04

Bulgarian Scientists Unveil Perperikon's Mystery


Bulgarian scientists revealed the ancient name of the grandiose religious centre Perperikon thus unveiling one of the deepest secrets of the ancient world.

The grandiose religious centre as once called Pergamon, the scientists announced. The team of the prominent Bulgarian scientists used complicated methods to discover the name of the center.

The followed the medieval west European cards, which showed that near the Arda river there was a big city called Pergamon, which was also the first name of the legendary Troy. The experts are still exploring the possibility that both Pergamon and Perperikon were used for the same city.

Pergamon is a Thracian word meaning "stronghold on the top." According to the Bulgarian scientists the name of the city came from the presence of such a fortress.

Perperikon (or Hyperperakion or Perperakion) is in the Eastern Rhodope range, some 10 miles from the Bulgarian town of Kurdzhali. In ancient Greek history the Perperikon sanctuary has been as important as that of Apollo at Delphi.


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« Reply #9 on: February 19, 2007, 01:31:30 am »

March 05

Bulgaria, Greece at Odds over Mythical Orpheus
Politics
Bulgarian and Greek tour operators have come at odds over advertising campaigns using the name of the mythical Orpheus, MPA reports.

Greek operators from the Evros region are working on an advert with the slogan "Come to the land of the mythical Orpheus, at the same time their Bulgarian colleagues voiced their disagreement with that campaign, as "it would be a twist of history."

We are against that slogan, as it would deprive Bulgaria from its history and one great treasure, Donka Sokolova, chairperson of the Bulgarian Association of Travel Agencies (BATA) said. Sokolova also pointed out that there are several Bulgarian tour agencies using the same slogan in their brochures.

Experts say that Greece's advertising campaign will deprive Bulgaria from its chances to present Orpheus, Dionysus and Spartak as part of its rich history. In the words of Lyubomir Popyordanov, chairman of the Bulgarian association for alternative tourism Bulgarian should alarm the Greek authorities over that problem.

The mythical Orpheus is believed to have lived in the Rodophes mountain. Orpheus grave was unearthed in Bulgaria in the summer of 2004, but still, there is controversial information whether he lived in the Bulgarian or the Greek part of the mountain chain.

The MPA agency reported that the "Come to the land of the mythical Orpheus" campaign will be first launched at a special tourism conference in Moscow.


March 05

Saxe-Coburg First to Glimpse at Unique Seutus Inscription
Politics
Bulgaria's Prime Minister Simeon Saxe-Coburg will be the first statesman to see the unique inscription "To Seutus" upon the bronze helmet, which was unearthed this summer by Dr Kitov near Kazanluk, in the very heart of Bulgaria.

The inscription on the helmet, decorated with gold and silver fittings, proves archeologists were right to believe it belonged to king Seutus III - a mighty rival to Alexander the Great.

The prime minister, who will mark the national holiday with the people in the small town of Shipka, will also give the greenlight to the project "Valley of the Thracian Kings", where a number of archeological discoveries put into the spotlight Bulgaria's ancient Thracian heritage.

Among the most significant archeological finds was the discovery of the 2,400-year-old Thracian shrine. One of its chambers contained the bronze helmet, a delicate two-handled gold drinking cup and three amphoras as well as 10 spears, a sword, a round shield and leg armour.


March 05

From Archaeology Magazine:
http://www.archaeology.org/0503/abstracts/kitov.html

March 05

Tall Bronze Age skeletons found in Bulgaria
Archaeologists working near the village of
Moguila in the district of Yambol, Bulgaria, have
uncovered 3,000 year-old skeletons.
The skeletons were around 2 metres in length,
unusually tall compared to other Early Bronze Age
remains found in the area. They were found curled
up in an embryonic position, which was believed
to immortalise the soul. These people arrived
in the region having moved from the Black Sea
steppe, mixing with locals to produce the
Thracian race. The Thracian heritage of Bulgaria
has been highlighted this year by a number of
important discoveries in the so-called "Valley of
the Thracian Kings", including the unearthing of
Europe's oldest skeleton last week.

Source: Sofia News Agency (16 November 2004) http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=41588

March 05

Bulgaria's Golden Treasure Heads for Globe-Trot
Lifestyle
The unique Thracian treasure of nine solid gold artifacts leaves the country to be exhibited for a year in several cities of Spain.

This weekend was the last chance for Sofia residents to drop in and see the unique gold set before its departure on Monday.

The Panagyurishte treasure consists of nine utensils with rich decoration unearthed accidentally by three common workers in 1949. It is made of solid gold and weights 6.164 kg.

The biggest utensil is an Amphora rhyton. Seven utensils are rhyta (horn-shaped), three are in the shape of animal heads, one is like front part of he-goat's body, three are like women's heads, and one is phiale. It is dated to the last 3-4 decades of the 4th century B.C.

It is most likely that the set was used for drinking wine in religious context or in everyday life, and some suggest it was probably used by mighty Thracian King Seutus III. There is also an opinion, that it was designated for ritual purifying of a liquid, probably wine, by decanting from one utensil into another.

So far, the Panagyurishte treasure has visited several countries abroad, including Japan, Germany and Switzerland.


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Thus ye may find in thy mental and spiritual self, ye can make thyself just as happy or just as miserable as ye like. How miserable do ye want to be?......For you GROW to heaven, you don't GO to heaven. It is within thine own conscience that ye grow there.

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« Reply #10 on: February 19, 2007, 01:33:52 am »

May 05

Ancient tablets found in Bulgaria

Bulgarian archaeologists unearthed tablets over 35-centuries old,
bearing the ancient script of the Cretan (Minoan) civilization.
Scientists from the University of Heidelberg examined the findings.
The script is also known as Linear A script which dates back to
XV-XIV century BCE.
Nikolay Ovcharov, who is heading the archaeological expedition
in the ancient Perperikon complex near Kardzhali, called the
discovery "revolutionary".

Source: Sofia News Agency (18 May 2005)
http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=47819
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Thus ye may find in thy mental and spiritual self, ye can make thyself just as happy or just as miserable as ye like. How miserable do ye want to be?......For you GROW to heaven, you don't GO to heaven. It is within thine own conscience that ye grow there.

Edgar Cayce
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« Reply #11 on: February 19, 2007, 01:34:31 am »

June 05

Orpheus Temple Reveals Unique Artifacts

Archeologists working at the Orpheus Temple, near Bulgaria's Tatul village, have unearthed numerous richly ornamented artifacts graved with sun-related symbols - the largest finding of ritual ceramics from the times of Antiquity on Bulgarian land.

An unmatchable priest scepter has stunned the scientists, as such an artifact has not been seen in the material culture of Thracians.

The royal symbol is believed to have belonged to a mighty Thracian king buried at the site of the temple.

This summer Bulgarian archaeologists have renewed excavations at the Tatul village, where they believe that a unique temple of mythical royal descendant and artist Orpheus is located.

Continuing excavation works come to confirm preliminary suggestions by archaeologists that the sanctuary at Tatul has effloresced for more than two thousand years in ancient times. It is probably the largest temple after the sanctuary of Dionisos in Perperikon, also located in the Rhodopes Mountain.

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Thus ye may find in thy mental and spiritual self, ye can make thyself just as happy or just as miserable as ye like. How miserable do ye want to be?......For you GROW to heaven, you don't GO to heaven. It is within thine own conscience that ye grow there.

Edgar Cayce
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« Reply #12 on: February 19, 2007, 01:37:47 am »

July 05

Thracian Gold Found at Tatul Temple


Archeologists have found a piece of 23-carat Thracian gold in south Bulgaria.

The team was examining the Tatul sanctuary near Kardzhali when they picked the precious find. It was discovered in a layer from the Late Bronze Age.

Experts believe that the piece was a part of a gold-trimmed stone mask.

Tatul, an extremely rich archeological site, is expected to bring to the surface sensational finds, specialists say.

They have already discovered a thin bronze knife, pieces of bronze earrings and cups, as well as ceramic pieces of a scepter bearing unique images of the sun.

The royal symbol is believed to have belonged to a mighty Thracian king buried at the site of the temple.

Tatul is believed to be a unique temple of mythical royal descendant and artist Orpheus.

Continuing excavation works come to confirm preliminary suggestions by archaeologists that the sanctuary at Tatul has effloresced for more than two thousand years in ancient times. It is probably the largest temple after the sanctuary of Dionisos in Perperikon, also located in the Rhodopes Mountain.

July 05

"Richest" Grave of Thracian King Unearthed in Bulgaria

Bulgarian archaeologists came across a uniquely rich funeral of an ancient Thracian king, it was announced on Monday.

The astounding find dates back to 4th century BC and includes tens of gold, silver and bronze bowls, the director of the National Historic Museum Prof Bozhidar Dimitrov said.

It is believed to be the richest Thracian king's funeral found so far in Bulgaria.

The ancient king was not laid in a tomb, but in a grave. Among the funeral gifts discovered near Zlatinitsa village were also a gold wreath, a gold cross, jewelry pieces, and other artifacts.

The Thracian king was a young ruler who was buried with two horses and a favourite dog, Prof. Dimitrov said.

Meanwhile, on Saturday Bulgarian archaeologists made another astounding discovery, which is believed to be Orpheus' grave near the village of Tatul."

July 05

Thracian King's Gold Moves to Sofia

The unique Thracian treasure, discovered on Sunday in Bulgaria, was transported Tuesday to the National Historic Museum in Sofia.

Archaeologists came across the grave of an ancient ruler, believed to be a Thracian king, near the village of Zlatinitsa. The team from the National Historic Museum, headed by Prof. Daniela Agre, discovered 50 gold, silver and bronze funeral gifts.

The ruler was buried fully accoutered - with helmet, chain armor, sword and six spears. He also had a gold wreath on his head and a gold ring on his hand - symbols of king's power, Prof. Bozsidar Dimitrov, Museum's Director said.

The Thracian king was also a very tall man - approximately 190 cm of height, Prof. Agre said.

The astounding find dates back to 4th century BC and is believed to be the richest of its kind discovered so far in Bulgaria.

The treasure will be displayed to the public in the end of October, archeologists announced.

July 05

More Thracian treasures

Archaeologists have unearthed 2,400-year-old treasure in a Thracian tomb in eastern Bulgaria. Professor Daniela Agre, who led the team of
15 from the Bulgarian Archaeological Institute, said the finds provided enormous clues to understanding one of Europe's most mysterious ancient people. "The period of the grave is exceptionally important. It was a peak moment in the development of Thracian culture, statesmanship and art. They had very strong contacts and mutual influences with Greece, Anatolia and Scythia." she said.

Among the objects found were a golden laurel and ring, rhytons - silver drinking vessels shaped like horns, Greek pottery and military
items including weapons and armour. The tomb in Zlatinitsa, 290 km east of the capital Sofia, has remained unopened since, Prof Agre estimated, the 4th century BCE. Most Thracians tombs were looted in antiquity and those that remain untouched are vulnerable to sophisticated looters. "This is the only way we can learn from
artefacts, when they are in their original context," said Prof Vassil Nikolov, director of the Bulgarian Archaeological Institute.

Prof Agre said it was the tomb of an upper-class lord or similarly powerful and wealthy leader, perhaps a governor. "The used weapons and the arrow wounds in the bones of his horse indicated that he was a warrior. He was buried in the biggest burial mound in the region," said Prof Agre. "This was like a province of England, such
as Kent, and he was the leader. The king's body was laid in a huge wood-paneled pit together with two horses and a dog, while Thracian kings were usually buried in vast stone tombs under huge earth mounds.
"Like the Egyptians built pyramids and used them as temples before they died, the Thracian rulers built mounds. When they died they were buried inside and earth was piled up on top. But here there was no mound," National Museum of History director Bozhidar Dimitrov said

Thousands of Thracian mounds are spread throughout Bulgaria, and archaeological finds suggest that the Thracians established a
powerful kingdom in the 5th century BCE. Despite numerous archaeological discoveries, little is known about Thracian rulers, because no inscriptions have been found. Thracians had no alphabet and apparently refused to use Greek letters, Dimitrov said.

Last year, another archaeological expedition discovered two vast Thracian tombs in the Kazanlak region, prompting archaeologists to
name it "the Valley of Thracian Kings" in reference to the Valley of Kings near Luxor, Egypt, home to the tombs of Egyptian Pharaohs. A
2,400-year-old golden mask was found then, along with many golden artifacts.

Sources: Associated Press, BBC News, Yahoo! News (25 July 2005), The
Telegraph (26 July 2005)
http://fullcoverage.yahoo.com/s/ap/20050725/ap_on_sc/bulgaria_ancient_treasure_1;_ylt=Aiy8Xcnet4gFNwChD0JANGFFeQoB;_ylu=X3oDMTBiMW04NW9mBHNlYwMlJVRPUCUl
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4714103.stm
http://portal.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/07/26/wtomb26.xml&sSheet=/news/2005/07/26/ixworld.html
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Thus ye may find in thy mental and spiritual self, ye can make thyself just as happy or just as miserable as ye like. How miserable do ye want to be?......For you GROW to heaven, you don't GO to heaven. It is within thine own conscience that ye grow there.

Edgar Cayce
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« Reply #13 on: February 19, 2007, 01:43:15 am »

Aug 05

Specialists Identify Bulgaria-Found Thracian King's Body


Bulgarian archaeologists have identified the Thracian ruler, whose tomb was found on July 23rd near the village of Zlatinitsa.

The king's name is Kerseblept, according to Daniela Agre, head of the archeological team, which discovered the ruler's body and a number of gold artifacts.

Kerseblept, who was a son of Kotus I, was an amazing warrior, gre explained.

He has entered many times in battles with Macedonian king Philip II.

He used to be an honorary citizen of Athens and had the right to participate in the Olympics Games.

There is a hypothesis that the golden wreath, found during the excavations, is a prize for his achievement at the legendary games, Agre shared.

It is more probable, however, that the wreath is an insignia of honour he received in a battle, the archaeologist said.

The unique Thracian golden wreath has been put on display at Sofia's National History Museum on Wednesday.

The entire treasure will be displayed to the public in the end of October, archaeologists announced.

Aug 05

Ancient Labrys unearthed in Bulgaria

Bulgarian archeologists accidentally unearthed a bronze labrys,

a double headed ritual axe, symbol of the King's authority in the history of the Thracian tribes.

The labrys was found during rescue opearions at the Ada Tepe hill, near Krumovgrad. The archaeologists say that the finding dates back to the Bronze age and is unique for Bulgaria. The bronze labrys is 15cm long and proves Ada Tepe's links to the Minoan culture.
The head of the expedition Georgi Nihtrisov said that the Ada Tepe region hides many historical secrets. He also said that these
secrets will remain unsolved as the region will be included in the gold extraction area of the Balkan Mineral & Mining AD.

Source: Novinite (9 August 2005)
http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=51018

Aug 05

Thousands of golden ornaments unearthed in Bulgaria

Archeologists working a dig in central Bulgaria have unearthed some 15,000 miniature rings and other gold ornaments that date to the end
of the third millennium BCE - a find they say matches the famous treasure of Troy, scholars announced. Digging started near the village of Dabene, 120 kilometres east of the capital, Sofia, a year ago after an archeologist saw a farmer's wife wearing a necklace of golden rings, assembled by her husband from pieces he had found on his farm. The 4,100- to 4,200-year-old golden ornaments have been gradually unearthed over the past year from an ancient tomb, according to Prof. Vasil Nikolov, the consultant on the excavations.

The treasure consists of 15,000 gold ornaments and miniature golden rings, some of them so finely crafted that the point where the
ring is welded is invisible with an ordinary microscope. "We don't know who these people were, but we call them proto-Thracians," Nikolov said. "The buried man was cremated, and then an earth mound was piled over his ashes and his riches, suggesting that he was part of these people's social elite," Nikolov said.

Prof. Bozhidar Dimitrov, director of Bulgaria's History Museum, said the site consisted of an ancient settlement and three mounds, and that excavations would continue. "This is the oldest golden treasure ever found in Bulgaria after the Varna necropolis," Dimitrov said. "In the whole of Europe and the Near East there is only one find that rivals these extremely well-crafted pieces: the golden treasures found in ancient Troy," he added.

With tomb raiders also making their presence felt in Bulgaria, local archaeologists are battling to reach the country's ancient burial sites first. Experts estimate there are some 15,000 tombs dotted across the Balkan state.


http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,1551241,00.html?gusrc=rss

Aug 05

Fake Imitation of Bulgarian Golden Treasure Disclosed


Politics
A counterfeit copy of the world-famous Panaguyrishte golden treasure was found in a private home, police said.

This is the first ever known counterfeiting example of the treasure, which is made of pure gold.

Police said the prototype of a Panaguyrishte rhyton was made of a metal sheet covered by silver. The finding was made in a private house in the town of Svilengrad, on the southern border of Bulgaria.

Made of 6.164 kg solid gold, it consists of a phial and eight rhytons, one shaped like an amphora and the others like heads of women or animals. The set outstanding with rich decoration was unearthed accidentally by three common workers in 1949.

The biggest utensil is an Amphora rhyton. Seven utensils are rhyta (horn-shaped), three are in the shape of animal heads, one is like front part of he-goat's body, three are like women's heads, and one is phiale. It is dated to the last 3-4 decades of the 4th century B.C.

Besides the counterfeit rhyton, police revealed also copies of old Bulgarian cup and Ottoman coins dated XV-XIX c. There were also numerous moulds for coins, icons, etc.

A man aged 44 was arrested during the police raid, local Darik Radio informed.
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ILLIGITIMI NON CARBORUNDUM

Thus ye may find in thy mental and spiritual self, ye can make thyself just as happy or just as miserable as ye like. How miserable do ye want to be?......For you GROW to heaven, you don't GO to heaven. It is within thine own conscience that ye grow there.

Edgar Cayce
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Posts: 1688


Using rocks and minerals to heal the earth and us.


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« Reply #14 on: February 19, 2007, 01:45:02 am »

Jan 06

Bulgaria's Precious Thracian Head Repaired for EUR 66,000

Lifestyle
A unique Thracian bronze head unearthed in Bulgaria has been renovated for 66,000 euros, media said.

The piece was brought back to Bulgaria from Italy, where experts worked on its repair for three months.

The head is believed to portray King Sevt III, whose vault was found by Bulgarian archaeologists in 2004.

Back then, the oldest and largest Thracian tomb disclosed so far on Bulgarian land emerged from beneath the Golyamata Kosmatka mound.

The archeological team's head Georgi Kitov, (called also Bulgaria's "Indiana Jones") explained that the excavations have revealed a 13-metre long passage and two halls walled up with stones behind the facade.

The tomb has amazed archeologists with its first-of-the-kind doors made of marble and decorated with human figures, iron nail imitations and blue-end-red sculptural ornaments.

Jan 06

This ancient Bulgarian Festival echoes the distant past for us in the 21st century......

International Kukeri Festival Enchants Bulgaria

About 5,000 men practicing the ancient Kukeri tradition gathered in the western city of Pernik to dance the winter away in the end of one of the coldest weeks in Bulgaria this season.

Seven foreign groups partook in the annual fest presenting the craft of the old Thracian tradition of dancing in the last days of Christmas just before nature returns to life.

Northern Ireland, Italy, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovenia and Macedonia sent their own teams to measure up with the Bulgarians.

The "Kukeri" is a important masked ritual, carried forward from the Thracians. The participants in this ritual are male only, dressed in sheepskin garments and wearing scary masks and chanove (copper bells) on their belts, dancing and singing Christmas songs and chants, with the intention to scare away the evil spirits or ghosts which people believed came back to the living ones in winter.

The Kukeri clothing is specially prepared for the feast. That is why every year it is different and more beautiful.

The Kukeri hoods and masks are magnificent, ornate and variegated works of applied art. This custom mixes theatre, lyric, music, dance and art. It began centuries ago and is connected with the farm and the family.

The ritual is a mixture between Christian and pagan traditions and symbols. There is a strong correlation between the event and the peasant life. It is a unique folklore, which can only be seen in Bulgaria.

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ILLIGITIMI NON CARBORUNDUM

Thus ye may find in thy mental and spiritual self, ye can make thyself just as happy or just as miserable as ye like. How miserable do ye want to be?......For you GROW to heaven, you don't GO to heaven. It is within thine own conscience that ye grow there.

Edgar Cayce
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