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Hugues de Payens

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« on: January 29, 2012, 07:00:05 pm »

Hugues de Payens


Hugues de Payens (French pronunciation: [yɡ də pajɛ̃]), also Hughes de Payns ([yɡ də pɛ̃]), Hughes de Pagan (English: Hugh of Payens or Hugh Pagan) (c. 10701136), a French knight from the Champagne region, was the co-founder and first Grand Master of the Knights Templar. With Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, he created the Latin Rule, the code of behavior for the Order.


Born    c.1070
Payns
Died    c.1136
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Nationality    Champenois
Known for    First Grand Master of the
Knights Templar
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« Reply #1 on: January 29, 2012, 07:04:23 pm »

Biography

There is no contemporary biography in existence and no later writers cite one that is still extant. Information is therefore extremely scanty and any embellishments often rely on people writing decades or even centuries after De Payens' death.

He was probably born at Château Payns, about 10 km from Troyes, in Champagne. Hugo de Pedano, Montiniaci dominus is mentioned as a witness to a donation by Count Hugh of Champagne in a record dated to 1085-90, indicating that the man was at least sixteen by this date—a legal adult and thus able to bear witness to legal documents—and so born no later than 1070. His name appears on a number of other charters up to 1113 also relating to Count Hugh, indicating that De Payans was almost certainly part of the Count's court and allowing speculation that he was related to the Count. Within this period he also married, to a woman recorded as Elizabeth de Chappes (or by later chroniclers as Catherine St. Clair), and fathered at least one child—Thibaud, later abbot at La Colombe.

Some sources suggest the Count went on the First Crusade in 1096, other sources do not. If he did it is reasonable to believe De Payens accompanied him and therefore it is likely that Hugues served in the army of Godfroi de Bouillon during the Crusade. Count Hugh did make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1104-07 and visited Jerusalem for a second time in 1114-16. It is probable that he was accompanied by Hugues, who remained there after the Count returned to France as there is a charter with "Hugonis de Peans" in the witness list from Jerusalem in 1120 and again in 1123. In 1125 his name appears again as a witness to a donation, this time accompanied by the title "magister militium Templi".

Later chroniclers write that De Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem with eight knights, two of whom were brothers and all of whom were his relatives by either blood or marriage, in order to form the first of the Knights Templar. The other knights were Godfrey de Saint-Omer, Payen de Montdidier, Archambaud de St. Agnan, Andre de Montbard, Geoffrey Bison, and two men recorded only by the names of Rossal and Gondamer. The ninth knight remains unknown, although some have speculated that it was Count Hugh of Champagne himself—despite the Count returning to France in 1116 and documentary evidence showing that he joined the Knights on his third visit to the Holy Land in 1125.

As Grand Master, De Payens led the Order for almost twenty years until his death, helping to establish the Order's foundations as an important and influential international military and financial institution.

On his visit to England and Scotland in 1128, he raised men and money for the Order, and also founded their first House in London and another near Edinburgh at Balantrodoch [1], now known as Temple, Midlothian.

He died in Palestine in 1136—May 24 is often stated—and was succeeded as Grand Master by Robert de Craon.
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« Reply #2 on: January 29, 2012, 07:05:52 pm »

In popular culture

It has recently been claimed that the wife of Hugues de Payens was Catherine St. Clair within the context of the alternative histories of Rosslyn.[1][2]

A biography of Hugues de Payen by Thierry Leroy[3] identifies his wife and the mother of his children as Elizabeth de Chappes. The book draws its information on the marriage from local church cartularies dealing chiefly with the disposition of the Grand Master's properties, the earliest alluding to Elizabeth as his wife in 1113 and others spanning Payen's lifetime, the period following his death and lastly her own death in 1170.

Hugues is the main protagonist of the Jack Whyte novel Knights of the Black and White.

Cathedrale de Payens (situated in 14th arrondissement of Paris) is one of the game locations in Deus Ex. The protagonist - J.C. Denton - must reach MJ12 computer network terminal located in the cathedral.

    Though overshadowed by several larger and more well-known cathedrals, the Cathedrale de Payens in the 14th arrondissement remains a historical curiosity of interest to many scholars. Construction was begun in 1218 and completed before the end of the century, financed by the Templar Knights -- an order of warrior monks -- as part of a similar network of churches, cathedrals, and forts (or "commanderies" as they were called) throughout Britain, Europe, and the Holy Lands.

In the cathedral's library player can find four books about Knights Templar contain mention of Hugues de Payens.
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« Reply #3 on: January 29, 2012, 07:07:05 pm »




King Baldwin II with Hugues de Payens and Godfrey de Saint-Omer
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« Reply #4 on: January 29, 2012, 07:07:42 pm »

Notes

    ^ e.g. Tim Wallace-Murphy, The Templar Legacy & The Masonic Inheritance within Rosslyn Chapel, p.17 (The Friends of Rosslyn, 1994 ISBN 9521493-1-1).
    ^ The claim that Hugues de Payens married Catherine St. Clair was made in Les Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau (1967), "Tableau Généalogique de Gisors, Guitry, Mareuil et Saint-Clair par Henri Lobineau" in Pierre Jarnac, Les Mystères de Rennes-le-Château, Mélanges Sulfureux (CERT, 1995).
    ^ Thierry Leroy, Hugues de Payns, chevalier champenois, fondateur de l'ordre des templiers (Troyes: edition de la Maison Boulanger, 1997).

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« Reply #5 on: January 29, 2012, 07:09:28 pm »

HUGH DE PAYENS AND THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR:



Sir Hugh de Pagen (Payens) was a French (noble) knight from Champagne. He was thought to have been a man of deep religious values, humility, and valor. Hugh was married to Catherine St. Clair, and after her death he took his religious vows (Wasserman, James. The Templars and the Assassins: The Militia of Heaven. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 2001, 156). Hugh was nearly fifty (50) years of age, when he founded the Order of the Poor Knights of The Temple of Solomon (The Knights Templar). Hugh was a veteran of the First Crusade (in 1099) and had spent twenty-two years of his life east of Europe. In 1118/1119, "Hughes and eight other knights, took vows of obedience to Warmund of Picquigny, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, resolving to live in holy poverty and charity, and to devote themselves to the care and protection of Christian pilgrims..." (ibid).

The Templars were given lodgings in the al-Aqsa mosque near the Dome of the Rock, which was thought to have been the original site of the Temple of Solomon. The Templars were founded in 1118, and were dedicated to the survival of both the pilgrims and Christendom in the Holy Lands. The first Templar preceptory outside the Holy Land was built on the St. Clair/Sinclair Estate in Scotland.

Hugues (Hugh) de Payens was a cousin and vassal of the Comte de Champayne. The first crusade resulted in the fall of Jerusalem, and established the Christian states of Jerusalem, Antoich, Tripoli, and Edessa. About 3,000 knights set out from Constantinople with 12,000 infantry. Hugh and Godfrey St. Omer founded the Order of the Templars of the Cross, which gained great size and power during the Middle Ages. He (Hugh) was sent by Baldwin II of Palestine as envoy to the Kings of France and England, and he was a famous crusader. In Robert Payne's book, The Dream of the Tomb: A History of the Crusades, it states that Hugh appeared to have been sweet-tempered, totally dedicated, and ruthless on behalf of the faith. The Knights Templar were Soldiers of Christ, ascetic almost to fanaticism, single-minded to the exclusion of all ideas except the worship of God and the annihilation of the Saracens (125). Even though Christ had urged his followers not to kill, the Templars were now to kill in his name. St Bernard decided that killing infidels was not to be considered homicide, but malicide (the killing of evil).

The Templars were to safeguard the lives of pilgrims who flocked to Jerusalem and other holy places. They were armed monks, priestly swordbearers, chivalrous only on behalf of God, and shock troops to fight righteous battles. Their courage was legendary.

Saewulf wrote: The Saracens lie in the mountain caves to surprise Christians ... Saewulf, with his Anglo-Saxon companions, arrived at a time when the King of Jerusalem was first established. Hundreds died before they saw Jerusalem's golden gates.


http://www.angelfire.com/mi4/polcrt/KnightsTemplar1.html
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« Reply #6 on: January 29, 2012, 07:13:12 pm »

"Hugh de Payens infused the Templars with the energy of chastity and obedience. No women might enter the Temple; they were not permitted to embrace any woman, not even their sisters or their mothers. A lamp burned in their dormitories all night; their breeches were tightly laced, they were never permitted to see each other naked. They were permitted no privacy, and letters addressed to individual Templars had to be read aloud in the presence of the Grand Master or a chaplain. They never shaved their beards. Their Spartan lives were directed toward the single end of protecting the pilgrims and the Kingdom of Jerusalem by killing the enemy" (Payne 126).

The Muslims both feared and respected the Templars, and at times, they went to Muslim court as diplomats.

In 1120, Fulk V, Comte (Count) de Anjou (father of Geoffrey Plantagenet) was said to have joined the Knights Templar Order, and he was followed in 1124 by Hugues, Comte de Champayne. These knights were evidently far from poor, and there is no record of these illustrious noblemen policing the Bedouin-infested highways for the benefit of pilgrims. Perhaps they were given Order status as patrons? St Bernard was related to the Comte de Champayne and through him (also) to Hugues de Payens. Henri de St. Clair (11th century) was a crusader with Godefroi de Bouillon. His descendant (two centuries later) also a Henri, was the Commander of the Knights Templar at the Battle of Bannockburn. The Sinclairs had Viking heritage through both the Dukes of Normandy and the Jarls (Earls) of Orkney. Henry de St. Clair, son of Henri the crusader, was a Privy Councillor. His sister Richilde married into the Chaument family (also kin to Hugh de Payens ("Scotland and the Holy Grail" (295-297) in Highlander magazine).

Hugh was the Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1118-1136, Hugh and many Templars learned to speak Arabic and other local languages, making them easy diplomats. In many ways, the Templars also appreciated the Muslim's religious devotion.

Hugh's eldest brother, Edmund de Pagen inherited all the family wealth, as the younger, Hugh was landless. Hugh decided that the Crusades promised adventure and

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« Reply #7 on: January 29, 2012, 07:13:50 pm »

an oath of poverty, obedience, and chastity. However, fraties conjugati (married brothers) were permitted later, and if a knight died before his wife, she was entitled to part of the Templars' property. This rule was not established until 1124.

Hugh's second in command was Godefroi, a Flemish knight. It has been noted that many Scottish nobles also have their heraldic origins in Flanders: Balliol, Bruce, Comyn, Douglas, Fleming, Graham, Hay, and Lindsey are a few that come to mind. Legend tells us that Scotland has always been somehow associated with the Templars, since their beginnings. Another knight that was recuited was Andre de Montbard, a kinsman of the Count of Burgundy.

Originally Hugh and Godfrey (Godefroi Saint Omer) had only one horse between the two of them. This became the symbol of the Templars (two men on one horse). The Templars wore white surcoats with a red Maltese cross on the chest. However, so many people financed their journey that eventually the Knights Templar became rich money lenders.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, based on literature of the times, state that Hugues de Payens visited England's Henry I and the king received him with much honor, and gave him rich presents. However, as a Templar, he was obligated to sign over the title, to his possessions, to the Knights Templar cause. In 1128, Hugh de Payens met with King David I of Scotland, soon after the Council of Troyes. King David granted Hugues and his knights the lands of Ballantradoch, by the Firth of Forth. William the Lion promoted and encouraged the knights and they received lands around the Lothians and Aberdeen. They had deeds to property in Ayr and western Scotland. A large contingent of Templars were found at Bannockburn in 1314. Afterwards they (Templars) were also prominant in Lorne and Argyll.

From the time of Robert the Bruce, each successive Bruce and Stewart heir was reputed to be Knights Templar from birth. One must remember that this was part and parcel of many genealogical claims made in the past.

Read my pages on Royals and Peerage for more about this practice.

Hugh was said to have had three sons: Edmund de Payen, Theobald de Payen, and Thomas de Payen. Theobald of Payen/Payn (Paiene) was the Abbott of Saint Columba-de-Saens in 1139 and most likely left no issue. When Hugh was married still is not clear, however, he was married long enough, before his wife died to give her three (3) children. Details of this family are very difficult to document in the early days. Some French sources do not mention Catherine St. Clair, but another wife.

Hugh de Payen died on May 24, 1136. His successor as Grand Master was Robert de Craon.


http://www.angelfire.com/mi4/polcrt/KnightsTemplar1.html
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« Reply #8 on: January 29, 2012, 07:14:18 pm »

Later this family was reputed to be prominent in their manorial holdings. Perhaps Hugh married a woman of wealth? Catherine St. Clair certainly fits that profile. Perhaps she died, leaving him her holdings? I have yet to determine the answers.

Hugh was not the only Payne to achieve knighthood. I found Sir Geoffrey Payn(e) and Sir John Payn(e). They were both slain at Calais in 1347 (there was intensive fighting from 1338-1347). Both Sir John and Geoffrey took up the cross in the last Crusade in 1270. Their arms were "bore argent, two bars and in chief three scallops azure - sable for Sir John (Foster, Joseph, The Dictionary of Heraldry, Feudal Coats of Arms and Pedigrees. London: Studio Editions, Ltd., 1994, 154)

I also found a Walter Payne (called Walter Payueli in Jenyn's Ordinary), and a Sir Raffe Paynell, of Caythorne, Lincolnshire (he had the SAME coat of arms as Ralph Payne in Jenyns Ordinary (154)- The Stopham family of Yorkshire had the same arms as well, there must be a connection between these families?) A Ralph Paynell was the Sheriff of Yorkshire. He had holdings in five other counties (page 341 in Hinde, Thomas, The Domesday Book: England's Heritage Then and Now. Wayne, NJ: CLB, dist. by BHB International Inc., 1997).

Their arms were described as: bore, gules a lion rampant tail forchee argent quarterly with Paveley azure a cross floretti (154).
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« Reply #9 on: January 29, 2012, 07:15:33 pm »

Hugh de Payens was also known as "Pagamus," a Burgundian knight. Burgundy is on the continent. Payens and Payns seem to be interchanged in records.

The Payens (Pagens), changed their name to "Payne," then "Paine." They moved to England (from Normandy, as a departure point) during the time of Edward the Confessor. In 1066, Pagen was listed as having land in sixteen counties in England.

Although Edmund de Pagen inherited wealth. Hugh was the famous brother, who later acquired his own wealth, and fathered a line of knights, Earls, and landowners (as told by family histories). Part of this line eventually came to the Americas.

The Templars eventually had property established in Francia, Provence, Iberia, and England. In the 13th century, they had properties in Germany, Dalmatia, and Morea.

Hinde also mentions Thetford, Norfolk County, England's most famous son, Thomas Paine who wrote the Rights of Man. Thomas was born in 1737 and was unrecognized until recently. He resided in "Green Gables."

***Recent discoveries, in regards to the PAYNE/Paine family has brought up a debate over their ancestry in America going back to peerage or yeoman class. There are two schools of thought. I will add that debate on my Paine page.

http://www.angelfire.com/mi4/polcrt/KnightsTemplar1.html
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« Reply #10 on: January 29, 2012, 07:16:08 pm »



This knight's coat of arms belonged to
Sir Edward, Sir Edmund, and John Pagenham from
Suffolk, England. I have yet to figure out how these
knights might relate to Hugh (if at all). The
records from this time period are difficult at best.

I found another name Pagendarm, in Norman,
France, in the 1300's. Their arms
were "bore,
quarterly or and gules, an eagle displayed vert.
(Ashmole and Parliamentary rolls and Jenyns
Ordinary (153).
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« Reply #11 on: January 29, 2012, 07:16:56 pm »




...
   The Templar Seal showing two knights
(Hugh de Payens and Godefroi Sant Omer) on
one horse
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« Reply #12 on: January 29, 2012, 07:17:53 pm »




   


HUGUES DE PAYNS MUSEUM
Secrets of the Knights Templar in Champagne


Musee Hugues de Payens photoPower and secrecy are a heady combination and humans just can’t get enough of the mysteries of secret societies that seem to operate in the dark shadows of politics and religion, from the DaVinci Code’s reliance on the mostly made up ‘Priory of Scion” to the involvement of the Freemasons in America’s founding. Many of these fictional or imaginative conspiracy theories originate with the very real history of The Order of the Knights Templar and a piece of that mysterious history can be found in a small town in central France near Troyes.

The Knights Templar, officially known as "The Order of the Poor Brothers-in-Arms of Christ for the Protection of the Temple of Solomon" was founded in 1128 by the Catholic Council of Troyes. The first Templars were a small group of 9 medieval knights dedicated to religious piety, chastity and poverty, led by a minor nobleman from the Champagne region of central France who had served in the First Crusade, Hugues de Payns (various spellings - Hughes de Payens or Pagens). The original intent of the order was to protect the safety of Christian Pilgrims traveling to the Holy Land. The Templars were promoted and supported by local French cleric Bernard of Clairvaux ( see Saint Bernard Chatillon-Sur-Seine) as head of the Cistercian monastic order in Champagne and Burgundy whose writing was central to instigation of the Second Crusade. Over time the idea of chastity and poverty faded as the Templars became a great economic power through their handling of a medieval version of a banking system, passing money through the order by means of the travels of its knights and Cistercian monks and network of monasteries (see Abbey Fontenay) between Europe and the Holy Lands. The Templar order was brutally crushed in a swift power play by French King Phillip the Fair (see Dijon), when all of it’s order was arrested on the ever-since unlucky night of Friday 13th, 1307. Many were tortured, executed and its Grand Master Jacques de Molay, burnt at the stake, bringing us the word "immolation".
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« Reply #13 on: January 29, 2012, 07:18:15 pm »

About 5 miles to the west of the Champagne region capital of Troyes (see Troyes Medieval City), the still very small town of Payns is marked by a water tower with the curious artwork of a medieval Templar Knight with red cross on white. Of course, this is the hometown of local boy who made it big, Hughes de Payens who became lord of this village in 1113. As any small town would, Payns has established a museum dedicated to its local hero. So much of the Knights Templar story emanates from the Champagne and Burgundy regions of France where the sect began, and any tourist of France with an interest in this fascinating historical mystery may find a visit to this otherwise very quiet little town a worthwhile stop. The Musee Hugues de Payns is only open from 3pm to 6pm from May to September on the first Sunday of the month. On display are miniatures, an illuminated map, archeological artifacts and relics. I have to admit, when I stopped at this unique little museum, it was closed, so the Templar secrets contained within remain a mystery, but perhaps the next visitor can unearth its dark truths. For more Templar drama, the Museum Di Marco in nearby Troyes offers an exhibit of illustrated texts of the Trials of The Templars (Les Proces des Templiers).
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« Reply #14 on: January 29, 2012, 07:18:52 pm »




The village of Payns is located along the Aube River and a drive along Route 9 passes several ancient village churches. Perhaps not a destination to plan all by itself, a unique and curious stop on a French countryside journey. The Abbey Clairvaux is east of Troyes and Abbey Paracalet from the legend of Heloise and Abelard to the west (see ). The town of St. Sulpice has a beautiful 12th Century church and the Chateau Barberey Saint Sulpice is a mile east of Payns and at €2, very cheap to visit. Just don't come during the two hour French at lunch time. © Bargain Travel Europe
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