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The Colossus of Rhodes

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Harvest Moon
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« Reply #30 on: December 26, 2011, 03:45:34 pm »

References

    James R. Ashley (2004). Macedonian Empire. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-1918-0. page 75
    Herbert Maryon, "The Colossus of Rhodes" The Journal of Hellenic Studies 76 (1956), pp. 68–86. A sculptor's speculations on the Colossus of Rhodes.
    D. E. L. Haynes, "Philo of Byzantium and the Colossus of Rhodes" The Journal of Hellenic Studies 77.2 (1957), pp. 311–312. A response to Maryon.
    M. H. Gabriel, BCH 16 (1932), pp 332–42.
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Harvest Moon
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« Reply #31 on: December 26, 2011, 03:46:33 pm »

226 BC Rhodes earthquake

The Rhodes earthquake of 226 BC, which affected the island of Rhodes, Greece, is famous for having toppled the large statue known as the Colossus of Rhodes. Following the earthquake, the statue lay in place for nearly 8 centuries before being sold off by invaders. While 226 BC is most often cited as the date of the quake, sources variously cite 226 or 227 BC as dates when it occurred.[2]
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« Reply #32 on: December 26, 2011, 03:47:03 pm »

Background

The island of Rhodes lies on part of the boundary between the Aegean Sea and African plates. The tectonic setting is complex, with a Neogene history that includes periods of thrusting, extension and strike slip. Currently the island is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation (17°±5° in the last 800,000 years) associated with the south Aegean sinistral strike-slip fault system.[3] The island has also been tilted to the northwest during the Pleistocene, an uplift attributed to a reverse fault lying just to the east of Rhodes. The earthquake of c. 227 BC is associated with an uplift of >3.0 m and movement on this reverse fault is considered to be the likely causative mechanism for the event.[4] The epicentral location of this event is uncertain, with modern catalogues giving locations either near Rhodes city,[1] or just south of the island of Symi.[5]

Some catalogues suggest that this earthquake caused a significant tsunami.[5] However, a recent review of the evidence has found no clear association.[6]
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« Reply #33 on: December 26, 2011, 03:48:05 pm »

Background

The island of Rhodes lies on part of the boundary between the Aegean Sea and African plates. The tectonic setting is complex, with a Neogene history that includes periods of thrusting, extension and strike slip. Currently the island is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation (17°±5° in the last 800,000 years) associated with the south Aegean sinistral strike-slip fault system.[3] The island has also been tilted to the northwest during the Pleistocene, an uplift attributed to a reverse fault lying just to the east of Rhodes. The earthquake of c. 227 BC is associated with an uplift of >3.0 m and movement on this reverse fault is considered to be the likely causative mechanism for the event.[4] The epicentral location of this event is uncertain, with modern catalogues giving locations either near Rhodes city,[1] or just south of the island of Symi.[5]

Some catalogues suggest that this earthquake caused a significant tsunami.[5] However, a recent review of the evidence has found no clear association.[6]
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« Reply #34 on: December 26, 2011, 03:48:26 pm »

At the time of the earthquake, Rhodes was an Aegean port city which was famous for the large bronze statue that stood near its harbor.[7] It was one of the major trading cities of the Mediterranean Sea, along with the city of Alexandria in Egypt. As evidenced by the taxes the city received in harbor fees, the amount of trade that passed through it was tremendous.[8] Having survived threats from larger neighbors, the city had gained the respect of the Mediterranean world.[2] The statue, known as the Colossus, had been built before 250 BC to give thanks to the gods for delivering the city safely from a Macedonian siege. Some historical images have shown the Colossus as actually straddling the harbor entrance, a feat which would have been impossible given the bronze-casting technology of the time.[7]

Significant damage was done to large portions of the city, including the harbor and commercial buildings, which were destroyed.[2] The earthquake toppled the Colossus, which lay in pieces near the harbor for centuries. According to the ancient writer Strabo, the statue had broken off at the knees. Strabo reports that an oracle told the citizens of Rhodes not to rebuild it, and an offer by Ptolemy III of Egypt to pay for its reconstruction was turned down. The Colossus would lie in place until 654 AD, when, according to legend, Arab invaders sold the pieces to a Jewish merchant in Edessa.[7] Regardless of their political leadership or government style, respect for the culture and economic importance of the city was such that Greek cities across the region offered assistance to help rebuild.[2] At least two did so by giving the city an exemption from their own customs dues.[8]
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« Reply #35 on: December 26, 2011, 03:48:56 pm »

References

    ^ a b Guidoboni E.; Ferrari G., Mariotti D., Comastri A., Tarabusi G. & Valensise G.. "Catalogue of Strong Earthquakes in Italy 461 B.C. - 1997and Mediterranean area 760 B.C. - 1500". Retrieved 2009-10-23.
    ^ a b c d Bozeman, Adda Bruemmer (1994). Politics and Culture in International History: From the Ancient Near East to the Opening of the Modern Age. Transaction Publishers. p. 108. ISBN 1-56000-735-4.
    ^ van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.; Krijgsman W., Langeris C.G., Cornée J-J., Duermeijer C.E., van Vugt N. (2007). "Discrete Plio-Pleistocene phases of tilting and counterclockwise rotation in the southeastern Aegean arc (Rhodos, Greece): early Pliocene formation of the south Aegean left-lateral strike-slip system". Journal of the Geological Society 164 (6): 1133–1144. Retrieved 2009-10-23.
    ^ Kontogianni, V. A.; Tsoulos N., Stiros S.C. (2002). "Coastal uplift, earthquakes and active faulting of Rhodes Island (Aegean Arc): modeling based on geodetic inversion". Marine Geology 186 (3-4). doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(02)00334-1.
    ^ a b National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA). "Tsunami Event". Retrieved 2009-10-23.
    ^ Papadopoulos, G.A.; Daskalaki E., Fokaefs A. and Giraleas N (2007). "Tsunami hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean: strong earthquakes". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 7: 57–64. Retrieved 2009-10-23.
    ^ a b c Clayton, Peter A. and Price, Martin (1990). The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Issue 5333. Routledge. pp. 11–12, 137. ISBN 0-415-05036-7.
    ^ a b Duncan-Jones, Richard (2002). Structure and Scale in the Roman Economy. Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-521-89289-9.
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« Reply #36 on: December 26, 2011, 03:50:31 pm »



Date    226 BC
Epicenter    36.43°N 28.21°ECoordinates: 36.43°N 28.21°E[1]
Countries or regions     Greece, Rhodes
Tsunami    ?
Casualties    ?
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« Reply #37 on: December 26, 2011, 03:52:47 pm »

The Rhodes Colossus

The Rhodes Colossus is an iconic editorial cartoon of the Scramble for Africa period, depicting British colonialist Cecil Rhodes as a giant standing over the continent.

The cartoon was drawn by Edward Linley Sambourne, and first appeared in Punch magazine in 1892. It was widely reprinted in its time,[1] and has since become a standard illustration in history texts.
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« Reply #38 on: December 26, 2011, 03:53:16 pm »

The cartoon was published in the 10 December 1892 edition of Punch, appearing beside a recent excerpt from The Times about a Rhodes plan to extend an electrical telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo.

It was led by a piece of satirical verse on the character and ambitions of Rhodes.[2]

    THE World's Seven Wonders are surely outshone!
      On Marvel World's billows 'twill toss us—'twill toss us,
    To watch him, Director and Statesman in one,
      This Seven-League-Booted Colossus—Colossus!
    Combining in one supernatural blend
      Plain Commerce and Imagination—gination;
    O'er Africa striding from dark end to end,
      To forward black emancipation—cipation.

    Brobdingnagian Bagman, big Dreamer of Dreams.
      A Titan of tact and shrewd trader—shrewd trader!
    A diplomat full of finesse and sharp schemes,
      With a touch of the pious Crusader—Crusader!
    A "Dealer" with despots, a "Squarer" of Kings,
      A jumper of mountain, lake, wilderness, wady,
    And manager 'cute of such troublesome things
      As LOBENGULA or the MAHDI—the MAHDI.

    Well may ABERCORN wonder and FIFE tootle praise,
      His two thousand hearers raise cheering—raise cheering.
    Of wild would-be Scuttlers he proves the mad craze,
      And of Governments prone to small-beering—small-beering.
    Sullen Boers may prove bores to a man of less tact,
      A duffer funk wiles Portuguesy—tuguesy;
    But Dutchmen, black potentates, all sorts, in fact,
      To RHODES the astute come quite easy—quite easy.

    The British South-African Company's shares
      May be at a discount—(Trade-martyrs!—trade-martyrs!)—
    But he, our Colossus, strides on, he declares,
      Whether with or without chums or charters—or charters.
    Hooray! We brave Britons are right now to the front—
      Provided we've someone to boss us—to boss us;
    And Scuttlers will have their work cut out to shunt
      This stalwart, far-striding Colossus—Colossus!
    —Verse accompanying the original cartoon
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« Reply #39 on: December 26, 2011, 03:54:01 pm »



The Rhodes Colossus
Striding from Cape Town to Cairo
Punch, 10 December 1892
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« Reply #40 on: December 26, 2011, 03:54:35 pm »

Iconography and influence

Rhodes is shown in a visual pun as the ancient Greek statue the Colossus of Rhodes, following the traditional (and architecturally unlikely) depiction of the Colossus with wide-set legs across Rhodes harbor (above).

Rhodes measures with the telegraphic line the distance from Cape Town (at his right foot) in South Africa to Cairo (at his left foot) in Egypt, illustrating his broader "Cape to Cairo" concept for British domination of Africa.

The cartoon is recognised today as a standard illustration in history texts of the Scramble for Africa, and of Colonialism as a whole. The original context of a proposed telegraph line is rarely mentioned in such reproductions, which take the "Cape to Cairo" concept more generally.

The cartoon was parodied in 2009 by the South African cartoonist Zapiro. The parody depicts Chinese President Hu Jintao in place of Rhodes holding up Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, the then Minister of Foreign Affairs, like a marionette while the Dalai Lama looks on from Asia.[3] This came after the South African Government refused the Dalai Lama a visa to attend a peace conference in Johannesburg, a move that was widely criticised in South African and international media[4] and suggested Chinese interference in South Africa's foreign policy - the cartoon also lampoons Chinese meddling in Africa in general.
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« Reply #41 on: December 26, 2011, 03:55:24 pm »



An 1898 American Colossus of the Pacific, in the style of the Rhodes cartoon
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« Reply #42 on: December 26, 2011, 03:56:49 pm »

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« Reply #43 on: December 26, 2011, 03:57:35 pm »

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« Reply #44 on: December 26, 2011, 03:58:19 pm »



The entry of the old harbour of Rhodes (called Mandraki), from the embankment inside. Rhodes, Greece. According to the legend, here was located the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. One can see the Saint-Nicolas fort and his lighthouse.
Français : L'entrée du vieux port de Rhodes (Mandraki), depuis le quai à l'intérieur, Rhodes, Grèce. Selon la légende, c'est ici qu'était placé la statue du fameuxColosse, l'une des sept Merveilles du Monde antique. On peut également voir le fort Saint Nicolas et son phare.
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