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Filling in the gaps in the slave trade

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Booker Gant
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« on: December 04, 2011, 05:32:05 pm »

Nature | News
Filling in the gaps in the slave trade

Diverse disciplines combine forces to study dark chapter in human history.

    Jo Marchant

01 December 2011


Geneticists, archaeologists and historians are joining forces to investigate the history of transatlantic slavery, in a €4.3-million (US$5.8-million) project launched today. The researchers say that the project is a unique opportunity to improve our knowledge of the slave trade, but warn that some of their results might be “uncomfortable”.

Between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, millions of people from west and central Africa were captured and shipped across the Atlantic by European slave traders to a life of forced labour in the Americas. The subject has been well studied by historians, but one of the coordinators of the project, geneticist Hannes Schroeder of the Center for GeoGenetics at the Natural History Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen, says that there are still “large gaps in our knowledge” regarding the origins of the people captured as slaves, for instance, and how the slave trade operated.



The history of the slave trade can be made clearer using genetic data.

Mary Evans Picture Library

“The historical records are fragmentary,” he says. “For example, they tend to mention just the port of export, rather than the ethnic or geographical origin of the person. The idea is that by bringing in genetics, we get a different view.”
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Booker Gant
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« Reply #1 on: December 04, 2011, 05:32:53 pm »

Schroeder got the idea for the collaboration after studying isotopes of strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the bones and teeth of slaves buried at the Newton plantation in southern Barbados. Archaeologists were keen to find a method to distinguish between first-generation captives and individuals who were subsequently born on the island, and to relate that to ancient African cultural practices such as filing teeth or burying grave goods with bodies.

Of 25 individuals studied, Schroeder showed that 7 were first-generation captives born in Africa, including one who had made the Atlantic crossing as a child1.

Schroeder was subsequently keen to use DNA to pin down the ethnic origins of slaves to particular regions within Africa, and to bring together researchers of different disciplines. The resulting project, called EUROTAST (for Europe and Trans Atlantic Slave Trade), is funded by a grant from the European Union’s Marie Curie network, and will support 15 researchers at 10 institutions in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Portugal and Iceland.
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Booker Gant
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« Reply #2 on: December 04, 2011, 05:33:33 pm »

Ancient origins
Related content

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Bioarchaeologists at institutions including the universities of Bristol and York, UK, will study the skeletal remains of enslaved Africans to investigate their demographics, health and quality of life, and use protein and isotope analysis to gain information about geographical origins and identify diseases such as scurvy and tuberculosis.

Meanwhile, historians at the University of Hull, UK, will compile and study written sources on the origins of African captives, and archaeologists based at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands will map and excavate plantations and slave villages in the Dutch Antilles.

But a large focus is on genetics. Several groups will study the DNA of modern populations, such as the Noir Marron people in French Guiana, to reconstruct the origins of Africans captured as slaves. The Noir Marron are direct descendants of slaves who escaped their Dutch masters during the era of plantation slavery, and have since interbred very little with other populations.

Researchers at the Center for GeoGenetics will study ancient DNA from enslaved Africans buried in the Caribbean, using more than 300,000 genetic markers on the nuclear genome. These are called ancestry informative markers2, and will help to distinguish between people from different populations in West Africa.

Matthew Collins, a bioarchaeologist at the University of York, who will lead one of the projects, says that EUROTAST may reveal controversial findings. These could include, for example, the extent of interbreeding with native Americans and Europeans among US populations who see themselves as purely African, and the role of African people in the slave trade.

“I think it’s going to be a very uncomfortable project,” he says. “It’s going to come out with some things that people don’t want to hear, but that’s one of the things that’s interesting about it.”

Because of this, the researchers plan to discuss their work with involved communities ahead of announcing the results.

    Nature
    doi:10.1038/nature.2011.9535

References

    Schroeder, H., O’Connell, T. C., Evans, J. A., Shuler, K. A. and Hedges, R. E. M. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 139, 547–557 (2009).
        Article
        PubMed
        ISI
    Show context

    Bryc, K. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107, 786–791 (2010).
        Article
        PubMed
        ChemPort
    Show context

Related stories and links
From nature.com

    Ancient DNA: Curse of the Pharaoh's DNA

    27 April 2011
    Anthropology: The Iceman defrosted

    02 March 2011
    Anthropology: DNA from across the ocean

    22 December 2010
    Jefferson's descendants continue to deny slave link

    16 May 2002
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Booker Gant
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« Reply #3 on: December 04, 2011, 05:34:19 pm »

http://www.nature.com/news/filling-in-the-gaps-in-the-slave-trade-1.9535
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Volitzer
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« Reply #4 on: January 19, 2012, 12:33:51 pm »

I am curious BOOKER are you doing anything to overcome the system of debt-slavery thrusted upon Americans and Europeans by these banks ?

Banks Versus the American Dream
 



The Money Masters.



Right now for every $38 out there the FED wants $1500 back, a mathematically impossible debt to ever pay back.

Considering more black-Americans voted for Obama who was a puppet to this system and not for Chuck Baldwin who vowed to crush it, black-Americans are hardly in much of a position to **** about slavery anymore.

Whatever happened to MLK's "content of their character" philosophy upon entering the voting booth ?

Aaron McGruder really hit the nail on the head when it came to the black community getting involved with politics.  Uh name the 3 Branches of government....  Uh the Main Branch...

The NWO tricked the black community to literally voting for their own banker enslavement via Obama.

Of course it is the NWO that gets your black community leaders to get the Planned Parenthood clinics in your neighborhoods.

I think all of the NWO's activity is disgusting and deplorable.

Fight racism and systems of slavery but know who the real enemies of freedom really are.
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Booker Gant
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« Reply #5 on: January 19, 2012, 11:00:16 pm »

First off, you're not fit to talk about MLK.  You support a bigot who didn't even support honoring the man. Second, support the Republican Party, for what?  Hasn't been a good Republican since Lincoln.

The Republican Party you support is a group of bigots and crazies who do the bidding of the rich corporations. You can take them and screw them as far as I'm concerned, you and that racist bigot, Ron Paul.
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Volitzer
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« Reply #6 on: January 20, 2012, 11:58:51 am »

First off, you're not fit to talk about MLK.  You support a bigot who didn't even support honoring the man.

Okay I disagree with Ron Paul on this one.  We should honor history's greatest men.  I remember back in the 2nd grade we used to have Washington's Birthday and  Lincoln's Birth day.  I hate the fact that it has just been narrowed down to just President's Day.

Second, support the Republican Party, for what?  Hasn't been a good Republican since Lincoln.

I DO NOT support the Republican Party.   You see the TEA, Constitution, Libertarian Party & Ron Paul thread ?  They started that because of all the posting I have done here regarding Ron Paul and the Constitution Party.

The Republican Party you support is a group of bigots and crazies who do the bidding of the rich corporations. You can take them and screw them as far as I'm concerned, you and that racist bigot, Ron Paul.

I DO NOT SUPPORT THE REPUBLICAN PARTY.   I AM A CONSTITUTION-PARTY SUPPORTER !!!!

 Ron Paul is actually trying to end banker based debt slavery.  Obama hasn't.   Ron Paul is actually taking up the JFK mantle much to the dismay of Democrats.  Plantation slavery has been ended since the passage of the 13th Amendment.  You are a smart guy, and other black-Americans are waking up to Obama.  

Ron Paul-- What Some Black People Think [VIDEO]




The American Dream Film-Full Length  

 



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Booker Gant
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« Reply #7 on: January 21, 2012, 06:15:07 pm »

Quote
I DO NOT support the Republican Party.   You see the TEA, Constitution, Libertarian Party & Ron Paul thread ?

Apparently, you are missing something, mainly that Ron Paul is not going for the Libertarian nomination, but the Republican nomination. Also, he has also been elected to the House numerous times as a Republican.  So, by supporting him, you are supporting the Republican Party.
Quote
Ron Paul is actually taking up the JFK mantle much to the dismay of Democrats.

Really?  Then why is he against any program  (Social Security, Medicare, Welfare, food stamps, unemployment benefits, the minimum wage) that help economically disadvantaged people?

Also, you posted a clip from an African-American's opinion on the political race.  When have all the people of a single race ever been of the same opinion?  I don't know any African-Americans that support Ron Paul. What is the point of even posting that?  To say that just cause one person supports him, the rest of us should fall in line?

Point is, the Republicans haven't done anything for the black race since Lincoln. Anyone who thinks differently should do some research on it. Start with the Willie Horton ads and work your way back. Or just look at Bush's response to Hurricane Katrina.
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Volitzer
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« Reply #8 on: January 23, 2012, 11:30:00 am »


Apparently, you are missing something, mainly that Ron Paul is not going for the Libertarian nomination, but the Republican nomination. Also, he has also been elected to the House numerous times as a Republican.  So, by supporting him, you are supporting the Republican Party.


Ron Paul is staying in the Republican Party cuz Americans would rather vote for the 2 Bilderberg Parties and have their vote "count" even tho the 2 parties constantly betray them rather than vote for a 3rd party that actually represents them.  America could have voted for Chuck Baldwin of the Constitution Party back in 2008 and we would be 4th year into an economic recovery after ENDing the FED.  Instead 64% of the vote went to the 2 Globalist parties.  Even tho things are much more worse since 2000 since Bush and Obama were in.  A majority of Americans will still keep voting for 2 party oligarchy, and be losing their jobs and their homes before voting for a 3rd party.

Ron Paul has to stay in with the Republicans cuz Americans will just vote for the next Bilderberg puppet if Newt, or Mitt get the selected.

I hope if comes down to it, he'll run independent, but given the fact that most people can make the Globalist connection now with the other Republican and Democrat shills Ron Paul should get the nomination easily.  If not the Libertarian and Constitution Parties are standing by.





Ron Paul is actually taking up the JFK mantle much to the dismay of Democrats.

Really?  Then why is he against any program  (Social Security, Medicare, Welfare, food stamps, unemployment benefits, the minimum wage) that help economically disadvantaged people?

Also, you posted a clip from an African-American's opinion on the political race.  When have all the people of a single race ever been of the same opinion?  I don't know any African-Americans that support Ron Paul. What is the point of even posting that?  To say that just cause one person supports him, the rest of us should fall in line?

Point is, the Republicans haven't done anything for the black race since Lincoln. Anyone who thinks differently should do some research on it. Start with the Willie Horton ads and work your way back. Or just look at Bush's response to Hurricane Katrina.
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