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(XII) HISTORY - 21ST CENTURY ASTROLOGY

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« Reply #75 on: September 26, 2007, 07:52:33 pm »








Astrology is a conception of reality circumscribed by a double necessity: one rational, one spiritual. It operates in this middle path, between taking into account astronomical data and the belief in a harmonization of the psyche with its immediate astral environment. This is why astrology has never been "disproved" by science.

Astrology is attacked not because it is false knowledge or bad metaphysics -- modern societies swallow more than their fill of those two things -- but rather because astrology represents the only current metaphysics capable of dissolving the unilateral nature of modern consciousness and of bringing order to the chaotic diversity of its awarenesses.
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« Reply #76 on: September 26, 2007, 07:54:02 pm »








                                              The Mystification of Statistics





"The critique of astrology based on the theme of its impossibility rests on vain and frivolous premises." (Ptolemy)

      Astrology need not be "proved" because it has no need for external justification to exist, has had no such need for millenia, due above all to the fact that efforts in that regard are in contradiction to its nature. The development of statistical research has come to bear significantly on this point since the beginning of this century [53] , first in France and subsequently in Germany, more recently in England and the United States.

One might well question the interest in astrology of such research and the pertinence of its "results," ranging from the summary investigations of Paul Choisnard (1901), Henri Selva , the German Herbert von Klöckler (1927), the Swiss Karl Krafft (1939), or Léon Lasson [54]  to the more sophisticated research of the American Donald Bradley (1950), Michel Gauquelin (1955), the Englishman John Addey (1976) and of their French, German and Anglo-Saxon emulators.

      Statistics uses a bipartite approach: on the one hand, astrological material to be submitted to testing and constituted of factors isolated from their astrological context (i.e., divorced from their functional role in the context of the natal chart), and on the other hand, a conditioning grid of psychological characteristics, "character traits," or socio-professional occupations. The result is what the statistician of astrology calls a statistical "fact."

The artificial partitioning introduced by the use of the statistical grid does not jive with the demarcations produced by the action of astrological operands. Moreover, the binary relationship, "bijective," supposedly intended to render the series of astrological factors correspondant to the empirical grid, proceeds from a dualist method in absolute contradiction to the pluralist logic of astrology.
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« Reply #77 on: September 26, 2007, 07:55:04 pm »








From this misadaptation of statistical methods to astrological reality, and in particular from their incapacity to test an object holistically, results a flattening of astrological symbolism and a degeneration of its operative structures into obsolete dualisms.

What is more, the treatment of samples which necessarily define the value horizon can only mire astral incidence in the entropic disorder typical of quantitative analysis and in effects of mass. To attempt to "prove" astrology through the use of statistics derives, quite simply, from mystification.[55]

      It is an illusion to test a premise such as "Aries is impulsive and hot-tempered" because there is no such thing as Aries. The natal chart in an implex of disparate tendencies. Aries as a discrete entity is simply an image, a metaphor, a symbol, which astrology uses as such. The premise itself is a metaphor: it is only relative to other, similar premises, such as, "Taurus is persistent" or "Gemini is persuasive."

There is no astrological statement that is not relative to other statements of like nature, for what is at issue here is not the interpretation that stipulates the impulsiveness of Aries, but rather the existence of an Aries quality which simultaneously differentiates itself from a Taurus quality and a Gemini quality ... and from a Pisces quality, i.e. one that is defined in terms of impulsiveness and aggression only in relation to the eleven other qualitative attributions among the Signs.
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« Reply #78 on: September 26, 2007, 07:57:34 pm »








Astro-statistics misses the difference between a fact and a symbol; it arbitrarily isolates elements from their context and renders binary a conception of reality which in essence is matrix-based. In astrology, there are only differentiating structures, even if the discourse of astrology, due to the linear nature of language, cannot develop except under the form of indicative propositions and relations between symbols, which process illustrates the underlying operative structures.

Its descriptions are in a certain sense only documentation which permits the recognition and comprehension of astral reality. Put another way, the astrologer cannot question whether or not his base assumptions are verifiable, but he can indeed ask himself questions about the trustworthiness of matrix-based structures and the models he uses.

      The "results" of the initial work done by Michel Gauquelin [56]  merely serve to corroborate -- partially and laboriously -- what the astrologer already knows, without invalidating anything at all. How could it be otherwise? If the "Gauquelin curve" only applies to four or five planets, then the problem is not that they exercise an influence which the others do not, but rather that the methodology is inadequate to the subject in the framework of its totality.[57]
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« Reply #79 on: September 26, 2007, 07:58:58 pm »








The notion of "professional category" is confused: social legitimation cannot really be considered as the sole criterion of reference for a potential tendency. More than that: who is a musician? The composer, the interpreter or the music-lover?

A socio-professional category can cover semantically disparate tendencies: a cardinal and a country vicar, despite the fact that both belong to the category "priest," are often in possession of very different psychic dispositions and motivations. Moreover, the "choice" of a profession depends on a host of factors other than astrological ones, be they hereditary, familial, or relative to life circumstances and the constraints of social life.[58]

      Data revealing "psychological traits" are also uncertain: how can one determine that an individual is introverted or extroverted, shy or bold, selfish or altruistic, pleasant, polite, persistent ... if not through an artificial method a very long way behind the times in relation to experimental psychology? [59] 

Astro-statistics utilizes questionnaires, ostensibly designed to discern personality: a particular character value is defined by a percentage of positive responses to a certain number of empirical questions. Complicated methods of data manipulation and analysis give birth to simplistic interpretations and illusory results. This inadequate procedure masks an inadequacy of thought, if not indeed a vacuity of thought. Astro-statistics remains a prisoner of a "garden club" kind of psychology.
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« Reply #80 on: September 26, 2007, 08:00:46 pm »








     The recent proliferation of astro-statistics and its possible introduction into university departments brings with it the risk that astrology may be aligned along the present technico-scientific paradigm, which would denature it without transfiguring it.

Kepler, who defended an experimental conception of astrology -- and despite whatever one might think of his minimalist model -- had a matrix-based vision of reality, particularly in regard to astronomy (cosmic harmony, eurhythmy of the planetary spheres, a weighted organization of the aspects, structural coherence ...), a standpoint which seems completely foreign to the conceptual framework of current investigators. Astrology needs a language and its own space, not "confirmations"; it needs concepts, not "facts."

      Statistics, whatever its own degree of "scientificity," cannot have as its function adjudication concerning the validity of any discipline -- or its lack thereof. Astro-statistics takes liberties which are not tolerated in any other domain. We have on our hands here the case of a dubious branch of the scientific endeavor which lays down the law about a particular discipline -- astrology -- in the name of another branch of knowledge, i.e. "science" in its totality, the base assumptions of which have never been proven, nor even formulated, and despite the fact that it has been shown that to prove or formulate them would be extremely difficult. In other words, we have here an instance of the use of science as ideology.

      Astro-statistics, which dresses itself up from the rag bag of science, plasters its dualist whimsies and dubious extrapolations on a body of knowledge which produces the precise effect of awakening the mind to non-dualist distinctions. It is a caricature of any truly respectable psychological research. Astro-statisticians, who work hard to bring about the eclipse of astrology, appear to be just one more species in the roster of parasites on astrology.

The observation made by the mathematician and philosopher Alfred Whitehead seems applicable to their case: "Obscurantists in any generation are in general represented by the majority of those who practice the dominant methodology. Today, it is scientific methods which predominate and the men of science who are the obscurantists." [60]
 
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« Reply #81 on: September 26, 2007, 08:02:13 pm »








                                             Moral and Ideological Quibbling





"We no longer believe in a God who has barred the path to the sun above Ajalon.
We no longer believe in the angels and the demons of the planets.
We no longer believe in the "laws" that the rationalists wish to calculate for us.
We believe today only in qualities which are incomprehensible, but which exist."
(Will Erich Peuckert: L'Astrologie)




      The principle arguments of the permanent repository aimed against astrology, from the Greek Skeptics to the rationalists and materialists of today, are not analyzed here in order to "justify" astrology to its detractors, but rather to attempt an understanding of the real causes for its rejection, which causes appear quite clearly to be based on recourse to morality, be its inspiration philosophical, religious or ideological.

Under this heading may be grouped the philosophical skepticism of Carneades, Panetius, Cicero or Sextus Empiricus, the Christian moralism of St. Augustine, Gregory of Nicea, Savanarola or Calvin, the individualist humanism of Petrarch or Pico della Mirandola, the ideological rationalism of Mersenne, Gassendi, Bayle or Voltaire, and modern materialism.
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« Reply #82 on: September 26, 2007, 08:05:05 pm »








 While Buddhism and Hinduism accommodate themselves to astrology quite effortlessly, that has never been the case with Judeo-Christian-Islamic monotheism and its idea of transcendence of a single and revealed God. Judaism, in its struggle against proto-astrological polytheism, [61]  omnipresent from the second millenium in the Mediterranean Basin, devoted itself to the break between man and his natural environment.

This is what it calls the Alliance. The natural and universal order, immanent to the world, shared by all people and individualized in each person, the ancestor of the Logos of Heraclitus, was replaced by Mosaic Law with its commandments.

As Nietzsche points out in The Antichrist and elsewhere, this substitution resulted in religion, morality and history becoming denatured.[62]  The invectives and threats of the prophet Isaiah do not spare astrologers: "Those who divide up the heavens, read in the stars and make known with each new moon what is destined to happen to you (...) shall be as straw, and fire shall consume them." [63] 

A similar state of mind inspires the warning of the compiler of Deuteronomy: "Do not go raise your eyes to the heavens, to look at the sun, the moon and the stars, the whole heavenly host, and let yourselves be led to prostrate yourselves before them and to serve them." [64]

      Eight centuries later, in an epoch when astrology, mixed with Stoicism, appeared as the predominant metaphysical conception of the Mediterranean Basin, Paul, the founder of Christianity, exhorts his listeners to abandon their "idolatrous" practices: "You observe religiously the days, the months, the seasons, the years! You make me fearful that I have worked for you entirely in vain!" [65]

  Paulist doctrine requires, in order to rescue Christian faith from its limbo, a thorough-going condemnation of pagan mythology and philosophy, polytheistic cults, and astrology: "Be watchful that none take you in the trap of philosophy, that hollow deception under the banner of the tradition of men, of forces which rule the universe, but not of Christ." [66] 

The preacher invites his listeners to liberate themselves from the "powers" and the "elements of the earth," [67]  from earthly or celestial gods, from Egyptian "animalism" and from Babylonian astrology.
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« Reply #83 on: September 26, 2007, 08:07:29 pm »








The Sophist and Skeptic Favorinus of Arles (85?-160), a gossip in the know and an "illustrious mediocrity," [68]  attempts to demonstrate the uselessness of "Chaldean" prediction: "They predict what will happen, both good and bad. If they predict good fortune and they are mistaken, you will become unhappy by waiting in vain; if they predict misfortune and they lie, you will be unhappy by being fearful in vain; if, on the other hand, their prediction is true but does not correspond to your hopes, you will be unhappy because of the thought even before destiny makes you so in fact. If they promise you success and it happens to you, two problems still present themselves: not only will you tire yourself waiting anxiously in hope, but hope itself will rob you of the fruit to be born of the joy when the event takes place." [69] 

A faulty understanding of the nature of astrology leads the logician Karl Popper to maintain a similar vein of reasoning: if our destiny can be predicted by astrology, how can it help us to escape that destiny? [70]  This line of thought is another thread from Carneades' refrain that astrology suppresses liberty and makes of man nothing more than a puppet in the hands of destiny.

      Christian theologians seized this idea, adapted it to the so-called Pauline liberation and converted it into a dogma: free will. Origen, the elder contemporary of Plotinus [71]  admitted a certain influence on the part of the stars over the formation of character, but developed a distinction between predictive star-signs and operative star-causes, [72]  and denounced in the name of freedom of conscience the fatalistic attitude of those who calculate horoscopes.[73]

      Acceptance of the star as the "sign" of something factual, circumstantial or existential at first by the Fathers of the Church, [74]  then by Christian theologians up to the 17th century, resulted in the notions and praxis of astrology being relegated to the category of divination, be it augural, conjectural, prophetic or predictive and to dispossess the astral impression (i.e. the mark of psychic impregnation made by the astral operands) of its true power. Moreover, the opportunity to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of their individual and collective manifestations was discarded. That policy was continued by their rationalist successors.
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« Reply #84 on: September 26, 2007, 08:09:41 pm »








Astrology's adversaries, beginning with Pico della Mirandola, have never stopped maintaining a confusion between astrology and astromancy.[75]  Astrologers accepted the challenge of preserving their ascendency to political power, on which they were financially dependent. Astrologers, whose credibility has been tarnished in this fool's game, have continued to pay for his error throughout five centuries of predictive excess.

In the 17th century, Pierre Gassendi needled Jean-Baptiste Morin to get him to predict some tangible, verifiable event: "The important thing would be to predict some event yet to happen, the cause of which is not immediately apparent. (...) Predict for me, then, for at least once in your life some notable event." [76]  The astro-statistician Geoffrey Dean seeks to paint astrology into the same corner.[77] 

To this end he organizes grotesque competitions in which the participants are induced to test astrology on the basis of outdated positivistic assumptions, to gauge its legitimacy. He concludes ingenuously that astrology is invalid on the basis of the negative results obtained, i.e. the impossibility of producing statistically significant predictions.[78] 

Is the seismologist really capable of predicting an earthquake, or the meteorologist a storm? Statistical discourse, more than in the case of any other scientific activity, needs a collateral instrument in order to reach its conclusions. An effective result is not necessarily required. Even if the results show nothing conclusive, either at the semantic level or even at the practical level, the instrument of measure is the gauge of the scientific nature of the activity and the work accomplished. It could be said that this propensity for using the right instrument serves in the first place to validate the activity one undertakes and for which one is paid. Standard deviation and khi2 are instances of the baubles which justify the current development of astro-statistics.

      Free will, the dogmatic base of Judeo-Christian morality, permits the theologian to justify Adam's fall, to condemn the crime of Cain, and to judge the supposed sins of their supposed descendants. The sense of a destiny written in the stars casts a shadow on God's providence and His inscrutable designs. Origen, a thinker of exceptional breadth, understood before St. Augustine the menace held for the Christian sect by a notion which stipulates astral influence upon souls and therefore intrudes on that intimate space of interiority, shared with God alone.

This is why their successors conceded a certain likelihood to "astral influence," upon the condition that it be limited to the physical world (including the human body), and that so-called "natural astrology" with its meteorological, agricultural and medical applications be allowed while control be retained of interior, psychic space.
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« Reply #85 on: September 26, 2007, 08:10:46 pm »








Astrological practicioners, following their divinatory and fatalistic lights, would have a pernicious effect on religious life (e.g., disdain for ritual, uselessness of prayer, weakening of piety and faith), on moral life (e.g., relaxing of personal effort, abandonment of the notions of virtue and merit, vanity of all moral actions), and on civil life (disobedience to laws, uselessness of legislation and penal repression, destabilization of the social order). How, then, to determine moral culpability and civic responsibility, how to justify the punishment of criminals and the coercion of recalcitrants, if every person were obeying an interior necessity of astral origin, independent of his will?

      The major moral argument announced for the first time by Carneades [79]  has been taken up by all adversaries of astrology, all of which is an instance of confused partisanship. Origen, in his Commentary on Genesis, says: "The consequence of this doctrine would be to annihilate completely our freedom of action, which, in this system, would no longer be worthy of either praise or blame, nor of being encouraged or reproved. If it is so, everything one lets resound about God's judgment is senseless (...) faith would be in vain, the coming of Jesus Christ to earth would have accomplished nothing, all the value of the law and the prophets would become worthless (...) A further effect of this atheistic and impious discourse would be to assign the faith of those acknowledged as believers in God as a result only of the power of the stars." [80]

      This argument was taken up again in 1640, the year of the first printed translation of the Tetrabiblos into the vernacular by the orator Charles de Condren, who condemns in the name of the Church, "those who assign in some manner to the Stars that they are a direct influence on man's freedom, which is an intolerable error that destroys Religion, and all Civic Policy, that justifies sinners, removes merit from the righteous, renders Stars capable of crimes and condemns Laws which set down punishments for criminals ..." [81]
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« Reply #86 on: September 26, 2007, 08:12:11 pm »








Apart from Guillaume d'Auvergne, the attitude of theologians of the 13th century toward astrology appears to be much more tolerant than that of St. Augustine's epoch: one thinks in first place of Albert the Great, the probable author of Speculum astronomiae, [82]  (an annotated register of valuable astrological writings available during this period, classified by rubrics), rather than of his pupil Thomas Aquinas, in whose work nothing indicates any practical or technical knowledge whatsoever of astrology.

In point of fact, theologians of the 13th century are neither for nor against astrology: they are indifferent to it. At first they appeared worried by it -- during the period which saw the first flowering of astrology in Europe, in the preceeding century, after the translation of Arabic treatises [83]  -- which led them to define the Church's position and to safeguard the doctrine of free will. It was a matter of keeping in hand "the astrological question," of defining the function of astrology and its limits in the framework of the Aristotelian universe omnipresent in the soul, in order finally to nullify it.

      The Italian Guido Bonatti (1223?-1297), the first great European astrologer, whom Dante throws into Hell along with the other outstanding astrologer of the century, Michael Scot, understood the necessity of having a radical attitude vis-à-vis the theological intelligentsia: "Astrologers know more about astronomy than theologians know about knowledge of God, and consequently are in a better position to judge than are the theologians to preach." [84]  It is within this context that one must understand the famous and questionable absolute determinism of this giant of astrology.
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« Reply #87 on: September 26, 2007, 08:14:24 pm »








Christian anti-astrology, throwing onto the stage first Jewish prophets, then the Fathers of the Church, and finally the theologians, doctors and savants of previous centuries, has largely confined itself to the argument of authority, against which astrologers opposed testimony from their own camp. Up until the 18th century the troops of anti-astrology were led -- in the name of moral, religious and civil authority -- by ecclesiastical dignitaries and by moralists: the Bishop of Lisieux Nicolas Oresme, the liturgist Henri de Hesse (Heinrich von Langenstein), the preacher Girolamo da Savaronola, the humanist Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, the reformer John Calvin, the Jesuit Marin Mersenne, the prevost Pierre Gassendi, the Calvinist Pierre Bayle ...

Since the "Enlightenment" -- and its attendant obfuscation of sensibility -- the ideologues of rationalist, techno-scientific thought have taken the place of the theologians.[85]  The committees on ethics are convened by physicians. The priests of technology have replaced the clergy, far in excess of the hopes of a Claude de Saint-Simon. Astrology has been abandoned as scientistic reason has become a benchmark with its own set of practices to which everyone must conform, if for no other reason than to justify one's intellectual existence.

      Several hypotheses have been put forward by historians of culture to attempt an interpretation of the "decline" of astrology in the middle of the 17th century: hostility on the part of clerical authorities, disinterest on the part of intellectuals, a consequence of scientific and technological discoveries (whereas, in fact, science was still only marginally established at the end of the 17th century), a gap between the new needs stemming from urbanization and the supposedly "archaic" mentality of astrologers ...

Keith Thomas says: "The clergy and the satirists pushed astrology into its grave, but the scientists were not present at the funeral." [86]  Bernard Capp evokes a profound change of mentalities: "As with sorcery, astrology appears to have been destroyed not by new arguments, but by a new vision of the universe which undermined traditional beliefs." [87]  Nonetheless, in none of the analyses is the eclipse of astrology set beside its rebirth at the end of the 19th century: [88]  this issue remains left to the sociologists.
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« Reply #88 on: September 26, 2007, 08:19:30 pm »








In reality none of the "reasons" given by historians is truly convincing, for they do not explain the difficulty that astrology, as opposed to medicine, supposedly had in adapting itself to new scientific criteria and conforming to emerging conceptual frameworks, in an epoch characterized by the reinforcement and centralization of the powers of the State, despite the renovation of astrology proposed by Kepler in his Tertius interveniens (1610).

      What changed in 1650 in anti-astrological literature, and especially in France, was not the content of the treatises (which remained the same from Pico della Mirandola forward), nor in fact even their numerical argumentation, but rather their status. Before 1650 they represent one opinion among many; after 1650 they represent official opinion.

Astrology was not displaced by a convincing argument of philosophical or scientific nature, it was simply rejected on the basis of the enforcement of a consensus among an established body of intellectuals -- a consensus which has never been achieved again since that time -- and primarily by scientific academies, religious orders (above all the Jesuits) [89] and the literary salons -- which is to say, by people whose interest was served not by liberty of thought but rather by the success of their own ideas, the preservation of their social position, and above all by imposing direction on the ideas of others.

Those who defended astrology, on the other hand, were isolated, often in the ranks of the aristocracy [90] , and independent spirits, i.e. people who needed neither money nor politics to express themselves, and who preferred a certain privacy to a place in public discourse.
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« Reply #89 on: September 26, 2007, 08:22:07 pm »








But why was astrology the vicitim of this state of affairs? Quite simple: if astrology enables a personal comprehension of the self and of the world, in principle available to all people, how does one justify the usefulness of churches, schools and tribunals? What would be the point of the discourse of clerical and civil authorities who channel society's mental representations and social practices? What would become of the credibility of politicans, medical professionals and priests (and today, of psychoanalysts)?

It seems that astrology suffered particularly because it represents a private, personal sphere of practice, outside public debate, because it is not in its nature to be involved in such things, as its transcultural history demonstrates only too well. Now, modern mentality, which began to take its place in the middle of the 17th century, cannot perceive otherness without wanting to alter it.

It is not, then, astrology in and of itself which declined in the course of the 17th century, but vast sections of entire systems of exterior representation to which it was linked and from which modern astrology has only just begun to separate itself.

      Ideology, which is in first instance the repertoire of values, beliefs and doctrines that are accepted and inculcated in the name of the dominant paradigm, does not examine discourse on the basis of the characteristics it exhibits, but instead on the basis of where it comes from; ideology gives no credit to meaning, but to consensus.

The discourse of astrology was attacked [91]  by ecclesiastical and lay authorities not because it is chimerical, but because it contains a truth judged to be subversive, "diabolical," in part transgressive of the religious, moral and ideological imperatives which underpin social order: "If, by amusing oneself with the stars, one forsakes God's order and each person goes off by himself without fitting himself into the community of mankind, will not God become contrary to Himself?" [92]
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