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the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

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Bianca
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« Reply #60 on: January 01, 2008, 09:42:43 am »










                                       ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)





dhill757

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   posted 09-22-2004 02:22 AM                       
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quote:
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                                      The Mid-Atlantic Ridge – Atlantis revisited





(Detail from the world topografic map at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov.)



As regards our purpose: the effective possibility of finding Atlantis, the last expedition in the mentioned area of the Atlantic Ocean saw an American team searching the MAR in the period November 14 – December 14, 2000. Responsible for the team were the professors Donna Blackman (Scripps Institute of Oceanography), Jeff Karson (University of Washington) and Deborah Kelley (Duke University), and other experts from a total of eight different American universities participated in the project. The "R/V Atlantis" was the research ship provided by the US Academic Navy – and the aim of the expedition was to study the mineralogical composition as well as the topographical evolution of the so-called "Atlantis Massif".

The instrument that would allow the experts to study the ridge at close quarters, was "Alvin", a small bathyscaphe capable of diving to great depths and equipped with a mechanical arm for the removal of rock samples. Furthermore, sophisticated sonar and video instruments on the "R/V Atlantis" would contribute to illuminating the results of the research from other angles.

The choice of the area where the research would be concentrated was not casual. Probably previous cartographic studies of images elaborated by satellites have helped the experts select an area where they might obtain the results they were aiming at.

This research area, however, does not correspond entirely with the area indicated in the above NASA map (fig. 1), though perhaps except for the extreme north-eastern area of the chosen spot. The geographical location of the area is c. 30 degrees north. The MAR expedition’s web-site, http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/mar/ , explains the purpose of the same:

"The unusual thing about the area under study is a large mountain, called the Atlantis Massif, just west of the Mid-Atlantic spreading center at 30°N. The peak of the mountain is 1,700 m (5,000') higherthan the usual spreading ridge crest. The width of the mountain is 4-6 times greater than that of most abyssal hills. It is clear that this mountain is a new addition to Earth's crust since it is part of very young and newly created seafloor. The mission is to find out why and how it formed. What forces are responsible for the great height to which rock has been uplifted at this site? What caused a change in the usual style of oceanic crustal formation? When might this area return to its normal state? These are the many questions the scientists seek to answer."

If the American research team had decided to concentrate their studies in an area located more north-easternly of the Atlantis Massif, they might have discovered other things – perhaps also of an archaeological nature – but the mentioned scientific expedition of course clearly states that their main interests concerned the geological features of the MAR. From the maps of the "National Geophysic Data Center" (NGDC: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov ) it is possible to observe very clearly that a little further towards north-east, a much more interesting relief is located, from an archaeological point of view – it is in fact an area where the attempted recovery of objects might offer evidence of a submerged civilization. Let us observe the maps which are available on the Internet at the NGDC-site (the images are small details of much larger maps, which have not been manipulated in any way. The maps have been developed by the NGDC for didactic and scientific purposes.)

In the right (eastern) part of this image we find the Iberian Peninsula, Gibraltar, and part of the north-west African coast. The Spanish and Portuguese islands off the African coast may be observed – and further to the left we see a section of the mid-atlantic ridge. The area outlined by the while oval corresponds to an area which probably represents the reliefs of a huge island which now lies below the surface of the Atlantic Ocean. This area also includes the Azores.

                                     

The reliefs which are so clearly observed in the above image are even clearer in a splendid image of the entire planet, where the factor of the Earth’s curvature logically improves the visual prospective  http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/relief_slides2.html )

It has been possible to study the underwater mountain ranges only since 1973 – in fact, ever since the beginning of the space age the various satellites have been providing spectacular images which indicate without any doubt hitherto unknown details concerning the Earth’s crust and the submarine reliefs. Here, we clearly see a submerged shape similar to a peninsula which points in south-west direction, towards the northern coasts of South America. The same reliefs that we find schematically sketched in the first map of this article, the NASA map, are more clearly visible, here.

It seems natural to ask, if so many archaeologists are in search of a scoop - why have none of them ever gone directly in this place, to study the mid-atlantic ridge in a place where aerial images show such an evident island/peninsula shape?

In an attempt to explain this ‘lack of interest’ (or, granted, maybe we should say, ‘lack of funds’?), admittedly we only have very few references to point to, in order to feel certain that an expedition with the aim of finding Atlantis would yield the results hoped for. Besides Plato’s writings which have already been thoroughly discussed by many persons and organisations on the Internet, we have only one alternative source that offers any conclusive material on Atlantis. However, to compensate for its ‘solitude’, this source directly states the geographical coordinates of the lost island of Atlantis.

The shape of the island can reasonably well be compared to a diagonally elongated, inverted Latin "S" – the upper curve at the right, and the lower at the right. The island’s northernmost point extended to about latitude 40° North, longitude 34° West. The island extended south to about latitude 25 ½ ° North, and west to longitude 47° West, latitude 27 ½ ° North, and eastward to about longitude 28° West. …"

- and the detailed information to establish Atlantis’ exact location continue. On the base of this information we may sketch the following map (the shape of the island is only approximate):

In the book "Toward the Light" we furthermore find the information that if we trace an imaginary line from the English town of Plymouth to the centre of the island of Trinidad close to the South American coast, such a line would cut through the length of the submerged island and touch its easternmost and southernmost points. The largest part of the island would lie west of this line.

What would the oceanographers/archaeologists find if they actually decided to research the mentioned area, with bathyscaphs equipped with cameras, sophisticated sonars, etc.?
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Other links for those who want to learn more about the geological nature of ocean floor of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge – the experts’ comments may be found at the following URLs:

· From "Science for Everyone", a ‘field study’ of the MAR containing interesting data on the eruptive processes and the tectonic movements typical of the area: http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/eosdksmith.html 

· Exceptional images at: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/2minrelief.html 
The entire site http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov displays various types of geographical maps. A web site worth visiting.


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http://www.altrementi.com/english/literary/mid-atl_ridge.htm   


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FROM

ATLANTIS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN (ORIGINAL)


http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php/topic,5655.105.html



                             
« Last Edit: January 10, 2008, 12:39:25 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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Mario Dantas
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« Reply #61 on: January 01, 2008, 01:02:44 pm »

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Bianca
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« Reply #62 on: February 07, 2008, 10:16:47 am »








                                                   Evidence from the floor of the ocean





In a 1954 issue of Geological Society of America, Bulletin, Bruce Heezen and others reported on a seamount -
an underwater mountain - that has been named Atlantis by geologists and is in the Atlantic Ocean.

It has been found to have been an island about 12,000 years ago - exactly the time specified by Plato! This abstract is given:



The Atlantis, Cruiser, and Great Meteor seamounts rise from a broad ridge or plateau which extends from the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge to 37°N. 32°W. southeast to Great Sea mount at 30°N. 28°W. The Atlantis Sea mount,
briefly explored 1947 and 1948, was found by echo sounding and submarine photography to have a fairly flat bedrock summit area at about 180 fathoms covered in some cases by current-rippled sand.

Its slopes are covered with sand or ooze symmetrically rippled at 400 fathoms and marked by slump features
in 570 fathoms. A small piece of volcanic agglomerate was dredged from 400 fathoms on the north slope.
About a ton of flat pteropod limestone cobbles was dredged from the summit area.



One of the cobbles gave an apparent radiocarbon age of 12,000 years ±900 (J.L. Kulp). The state of lithifi-
cation of the limestone suggests that it may have been lithified under subaerial [i.e. above water, on land
surface] conditions and that the sea mount may have been an island within the past 12,000 years.

(Heezen, Bruce C., et al, "Flat-Topped Atlantis, Cruiser, And Great Meteor Sea Mounts" in Geological Society
of America, Bulletin, 65:1261, 1954 (Protogonos issue 9))



In later studies, evidence was found for the remnants of a "sunken block of continent" in the middle of the
Atlantic Ocean. An articlein New Scientist 1975 summarizes the result.

(Anonymous, New Scientist,66:540, 1975)



Although they make no such fanciful claim from their results as to have discovered the mythical mid-Atlantic landmass, an international group of oceanographers has now convincingly confirmed preliminary findings that
a sunken block of continent lies in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery comes from analysing
dredge samples taken along the line of the Vema offset fault, a long east-west fracture zone lying between
Africa and South America close to latitude 11øN.



The article describes the first report of "shallow-water limestone fragments" from the Vema Fracture in the
Atlantic:

Four years ago two University of Miami workers, J. Honnorez and E. Bonatti, first reported the recovery of
shallow-water limestone fragments from the Vema fracture zone. This limestone contained minerals indica-
tive of a nearby granitic source unlikely to occur on the ocean floor. Neither water currents, nor more eso-
teric transport systems, could explain the presence of these rocks so far from the modern boundaries of the continents. The two researchers believed that, instead, the granitic grains must have been deposited close
to their source.
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Bianca
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« Reply #63 on: February 07, 2008, 10:24:13 am »







Then the recent researchers are noted:



Now, with C. Emiliani of Miami, Paul Bronniman of the University of Geneva, M.A. Furrer of Esso Production Research, Begles, and A.A. Meyerhof, a consulting geologist from Tulsa, USA, they have carried out a more searching analysis of the dredge samples.

Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 26, p.8



Finally, he notes the evidence for activity in less than 30 meters of water, and even some eviden-
ce for activity in soil.

The Limestones include traces of shallow-water fossils - foraminifera, green algae, bits of gastro-
pods, and crab coprolites - implying formation in water, in one instance, less than 30 m deep.

Furthermore, the limestones have been recrystallized from a high to low-magnesium form of calcite.

Oxygen and carbon-isotope ratios prove conclusively that this process must have taken place subaerially
[on land surface] "through the action of meteoric water enriched in light carbon while passing through a soil zone ..." A pitted limestone sample bears evidence of tidal action. Some 50 km east of the dredge site along
the Vema fracture the team also recovered a thick-shelled, shallow-water, bivalve fossil from a depth of
over 2000 m.

The coprolites in the sample indicate a Mesozoic age for the limestone which may well be the sedi-
mentary capping on a residual continental block left behind as the [??] spread out into an ocean.

The granitic minerals could thus have come from the bordering continents while the ocean was still
in its infancy. Vertical movements made by the block appear to have raised it above sea level at
some period during its history.





FROM:


Unknown Earth: A Handbook of Geological Enigmas

by William R. Corliss.
« Last Edit: February 07, 2008, 10:27:34 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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unknown
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« Reply #64 on: February 08, 2008, 03:12:03 am »

Atlantis in the Atlantic!
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Elphias Levi
Bianca
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« Reply #65 on: February 08, 2008, 06:57:51 am »






For sure, Unknown!!!


To quote James Bramwell:


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"Either Atlantis is an island in the Atlantic or it's not Atlantis at all." -

James Bramwell, Lost Atlantis,


1937--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Gwen Parker
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« Reply #66 on: February 08, 2008, 01:31:46 pm »

Yeah, you know, I am still looking for some mechanism which could have sunk an island as big as Atlantis might have been. 

The Canary Island landslides are something worth considering, and yet, they haven't dated any of the debris from the Canary landslides to the time Plato sets Atlantis (I believe the most recent one was something like 100,000 years ago). 

The Canaries, Azores, eastern Atlantic or Bahamas regions are the most likely. 
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unknown
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« Reply #67 on: February 09, 2008, 06:12:30 pm »

I like that quote B.
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Elphias Levi
Bianca
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« Reply #68 on: February 09, 2008, 07:22:04 pm »






Thank you, Unk!!!


(Shhh, I 'stole' it from dhill....)
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Carolyn Silver
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« Reply #69 on: February 18, 2008, 01:22:24 pm »

Thx for all your very informative posts, Bianca!  If you don't mind, I am going to steal some of them from you! 
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Bianca
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« Reply #70 on: February 18, 2008, 01:39:11 pm »




Hi, Carolyn!!!

So glad to 'see' you !!!

Please feel free to take any info you want.  That's the reason of my research.  If it is
not used, what's the point?

Hugs,
b
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Bianca
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« Reply #71 on: March 01, 2008, 09:03:10 pm »










                                         Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean –




that is the favourite theory among many scientists all over the world. Just because Plato
mentioned an empire in the Atlantic Ocean? No! There is considerable circumstancial evi-
dence for a land bridge or a huge island in the Atlantic Ocean.

According to Plato’s report, Atlantis should be situated between Spain, North Africa and
Central America. This is exactly where the Canary Islands are – and the Atlantic Ridge,
one of the world’s most unstable regions. Moreover, this is also the location of the Azores
and, further westward, the Caribbean area with its huge and small islands.



Picture above:

In 1665, the German Jesuit priest Athanasius Kircher
created this inverted map of Atlantis.

Turning the map results in an image of the Central Atlantic
 plateau around the Azores. What is unusual about that is
that people at that time had only little knowledge about
the nature of the sea bed.

Were some ancient notes available to the Jesuit priests
enabling them to create such a map? 
« Last Edit: March 01, 2008, 09:04:57 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #72 on: March 01, 2008, 09:06:48 pm »









From time immemorial, the Atlantic Ridge, from Iceland to South America, has been
an area of considerable seismic activity. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are
nothing extraordinary.




The Atlantic Ocean – Catastrophes:



In 1669, a major part of the notorious pirate island Port Royal sank due to an disastrous
earthquake.

In 1775, Lisbon, which is on a parallel with the Azores at a latitude of 39 43'/36 55' N,
was badly hit by a devastating earthquake killing 60 000 people. Moreover, both the
harbour and the docks sank 200 metres to the ground.

In 1783, one fifth of the Icelandic population fell victim to a catastrophic earthquake.

In 1811, on the Azores, a volcanic island named “Sambrina“ rose some thousand metres
to the surface and sank again shortly after. The islands of Corvi and Flores constantly
change their shape and parts of them are swallowed up by the sea.

To the best of present knowledge there is an underwater area with deep valleys and
high mountains around the Azores and the Canary Islands. Reducing the sea level by
150 metres to the Ice Age level brings about a huge piece of land which, however,
does not match the dimensions Plato wrote about.

Nevertheless, further westward, in the Caribbean area, a huge land mass comes into
existence which perfectly meets Platos records. 
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Bianca
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« Reply #73 on: March 01, 2008, 09:08:45 pm »









The Atlantic Ocean – Facts:



In 1969, by order of Duke University, an expedition to the Aves Ridge in the Caribbean
Sea found granite on fifty locations. Usually, granite is found only onshore or where
once had been solid ground.

In 1898, 750 km north of the Azores, the transatlantic cable broke. On this occasion,
rock samples were taken from a depth of 17 000 fathoms. A close examination came
to the result that the rock samples consisted of tachylyte, a lava-like substance.
Yet this mineral would not emerge unless above sea level and under atmospheric
pressure.

Moreover, it will decompose after 15 000 years.

This means that once there had been mainland.




In a depth of up to 1 000 metres, coastal sand was found on the reefs of the Azores.
However, it usually only appears on flat beaches.

In 1936, the Geological Society of America conducted a study of sunken river canyons
in the Atlantic Ocean. It says that rivers on the European, the North African and the
American side sank into the continental sockets for up to 300 km in length and 2 km in
depth. That means that in the Pleistocene Age, that is when mankind emerged, the sea
level underwent a change in depth up to 2 000 metres.   
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Bianca
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« Reply #74 on: March 01, 2008, 09:10:14 pm »









The Atlantic Ridge – one of the world’s most notorious regions in terms of seismic activity.
Decreasing the sea level by 300 to 400 metres brings about a huge land mass that would
perfectly fit Plato’s descriptions. In “Critias“, Plato writes:



“(...)In the next place, they had fountains, one of cold and another of hot water, in
gracious plenty flowing; and they were wonderfully adapted for use by reason of the
pleasantness and excellence of their waters. They constructed buildings about them
and planted suitable trees, also they made cisterns, some open to the heavens, others
roofed over, to be used in winter as warm baths (...)“



Usually, these warm and cold springs manifest themselves within continental zones.
An example for this is Iceland where people use the warm springs to supply themselves
with heat and energy – just as Plato put it.

Yet the Würm Ice Age 12 000 years ago is not a suitable candidate to have reduced
the sea level along the Atlantic Ridge. Did, then, the catastrophe in the Atlantic Ocean
indeed happen? That desaster with its devastating earthquakes and inundations that
caused the mid-Atlantic Ridge to sink? Or is it all about an inundation of the Caribbean
area with its shallow waters? Also, the point in time when the glaciers melted would
perfectly meet the time of the disappearance of Atlantis as has been indicated by Plato.

Read the following excerpt from the Critias dialogue:



“(...)Let me begin by observing first of all, that nine thousand was the sum of years
which had elapsed since the war which was said to have taken place between those
who dwelt outside the pillars of Heracles and all who dwelt within them; this war I am
going to describe. (...)“ 
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