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THE ROSETTA STONE

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Bianca
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« Reply #30 on: August 16, 2007, 09:55:58 am »


Ippolito Rosellini,

I monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia..., t. 2. I monumenti civili. Pisa, presso Niccolò Capurro e C., 1834. - Pitture della tomba di Ramesse III nella Valle dei Re

THE MONUMENTS OF EGYPT AND OF NUBIA. 2. CIVIL MONUMENTS. PISA. AT NOCCOLO' CAPURRO AND C. 1834.

PAINTINGS OF THE TOMB OF RAMSESS III IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS
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« Reply #31 on: August 16, 2007, 09:59:11 am »



THE THEBAN TRIAD -  Abu Simbel
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« Reply #32 on: October 07, 2007, 01:02:38 pm »










                                              The XVIIth DECREE of PTOLEMY V:





What "The Rosetta Stone" Really Says


By Robert D. Morningstar

While many people discuss "The Rosetta Stone" as a historical artifact, few take the time to read the story that it tells. Since childhood, I wondered about what was really written on "The Rosetta Stone." What was of such great importance that it had to be recorded in 3 languages to insure its survival? What was it that Champollion and Thomas Young discovered?

After waiting 45 years, I finally discovered a translation of its text published by E. A.Wallis Budge in the 1929. "The Rosetta Stone," is a remarkable story, a recounting of the many decrees of Ptolemy V Epiphanes (203-181 B.C.) upon the 9th anniversary of his reign.

Ptolemy V had succeeded during the previous year in subduing a rebellion by a certain temple and priesthood. The priests of the Temple of Lycopolis had refused to pay tithes and taxes to the Pharaoh in the VIIIth year of his reign. They occupied the fort-like temple on the banks of the Nile. Rather than attacking the temple with his army immediately, Ptolemy diverted the Nile River around the Temple by damming, digging trenches, mounds and canals around it, depriving them of water.

When his earthworks were complete, the Nile rose in its yearly flood cycle but the Temple of Lycopolis was isolated. At that time, Ptolemy V laid siege to the Temple to overcome the rebel priesthood.

The following excerpt relates the account of his strategy and victory:
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« Reply #33 on: October 07, 2007, 01:05:14 pm »










                                 "… [Ptolemy V Punishes the Rebels of Lycopolis]






(18) And having gone to Lycopolis, which is in the Busirite nome, which had been occupied and fortified against a siege with weapons of war and supplies of every kind ---now of longstanding was the disaffection of the impious men who were gathered together in it and who had done much injury to the temples and to all those who dwell in Egypt - and having encamped against them, he surrounded it with mounds and trenches and marvelous engines; and when the Nile had made a great rise (i.e. inundation) in the VIIIth year, and being about, as usual to flood out the plains, he (i.e. the King) held [the river] in check, having dammed up in many places the mouths of the canals, and in carrying out this work spent no small sum of money; and having stationed cavalry and infantry to guard [the dams] he took by storm the city in a very short time, and destroyed the all the impious men who were therein, even as HERMES (TOTH), and HORUS, the son of ISIS and OSIRIS, in those very same places, reduced to subjection those who had rebelled." [1]



After putting down the revolt, Ptolemy decreed the following:

A general amnesty for the rebels (except for the ringleaders)

Ptolemy V allowed many of the priests to retain their homes and wealth,

Ptolemy V decreed a national celebration of the jubilee of his reign.

Ptolemy V gave the people a tax break (really).




Then Ptolemy V also declared himself a deity:



a. To be worshipped in all temples of Egypt;
b. With a facsimile of himself carved in stone to be the object of highest veneration;
c. Accompanied with the burning of incense and prayers to him;
d. …3 times per day.
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« Reply #34 on: October 07, 2007, 01:07:44 pm »


PTOLEMY V
EPIPHANES








In our "politically correct" age of equality, the common man and the lowest common denominator of culture or religious beliefs, this would appear to be neither very laudable nor a fashionable aspiration. But it was this Pharaoh's final proclamation, The XVIIth Decree of Ptolemy V, which would rewrite the history of the Western World.

We cannot understand today the immense void of human knowledge and understanding of history, religion and politics that existed before the discovery and translation The Rosetta Stone.

In the 54th line of the Rosetta Stone inscription (corresponding to the XVIIth Decree in another similar but not identical stele found at Canopus), Ptolemy V Epiphanes commanded that the entire record of this campaign and adventure be inscribed on stelae, engraved in stone, in the 3 major languages of the kingdom. He furthermore decreed that this proclamation, rendered to begin the jubilee of his reign, should be placed prominently in all temples in Egypt and other important sites and shrines, thus insuring its wide distribution and dissemination. Most importantly, the decree stated:

"Let this decree be written (or copied)…And let it be inscribed upon a tablet of stone or copper (or brass?) in the writing of the House of Life (i.e. in hieroglyphics), and in the writing of books (i.e. Demotic), and in the writing of the Greeks…."
Those 46 words changed the course of history and they assured its future recovery after it was lost for two thousand years.

It was an electrifying moment for me to realize upon reading this proclamation that had "The Rosetta Stone" (one of only two stelae recovered) not survived, we would know nothing of the meaning of Egyptian history before the Ptolemies, except from Greek and Roman sources, nor would we know the meaning of hieroglyphics, the Egyptian language or the immense history and advanced science that has been revealed since its translation.

We would know nothing of their religion, their pantheon or the temple practices of the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms. We would not know of Narmer, Aha or Menes, the legendary First Pharaoh, who died in the Nile River, carried away by a hippopotamus, snatched by his leg from his royal barge.

We would have known little of Akhenaton and his monotheistic worship of Aten, much less heard the names of Nefertiti, Tutankamen or the lineage of pharaohs before Alexander the Great and the Ptolemy dynasty. We would never have heard of Seti, Rameses I or Ramses the Great.

All our history and culture would be different.
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« Reply #35 on: October 07, 2007, 01:09:18 pm »

                 






We would not know the names Aten, Aketaten, Amenhotep or the attributes of the Neteru, "The Sky Gods" of Heliopolis (Abydos) or of Khufu, Djoser and Imhotep, the Father of Medicine, called "Aesclypius" by the Greeks. We would know nothing of the Hyksos or "The Sea Peoples" or of "The Egyptian Book of the Dead."

Mankind might have remained, as Graham Hancock puts it, "…a species with amnesia."

Like a somnambulant awakening to his precarious position on the edge of a precipice, Mankind is only now slowly passing out of its amnesia but that would not be occurring without "The Rosetta Stone." The Aquarian Age would not be happening as it is.

Perhaps, we might have known some of these figures by their Greek names or counterparts, such as "Cheops" for Khufu, but the greater part of the most ancient roots knowledge and the foundations of Western History would have remained in darkness.

Therefore, let us praise his memory and "Hail, Ptolemy V Epiphanes."

Long May the Memory of the Great Illuminator of Egypt's ancient past live on and be remembered always in the Halls of Amenta.




Robert D. Morningstar
New York City
February 27, 2007
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« Reply #36 on: October 07, 2007, 01:12:17 pm »







Robert D. Morningstar



Robert D. Morningstar is a civilian intelligence analyst and psychotherapist in New York City. He is a specialist in photo interpretation, analysis and computer imaging. He graduated from Power Memorial Academy (NYC). Morningstar (M*) was a New York State Regents Scholar (1967-72) and received a degree in psychology from Fordham University. An expert in Chinese language, history and martial arts. M* is acknowledged as a Master of Yang Family Tai Chi Ch'uan by the Hong Kong Tai Chi Masters Association and has taught at Oberlin College and for the City University of New York (Hunter College) as well as, the International Center for the Disabled. He is a FAA-licensed pilot and Instrument Ground Instructor with 23 years of flying experience.

M* has studied the paranormal and UFOs for over 40 years and has published many research articles on the Internet, exposing government cover-up and deception in the JFK Assassination and his work is cited in major books on the assassination, notably in Paris Flammonde's "The Assassination of America" and "Conspiracy Science" by Prof. James Fetzer. M* has written extensively to expose NASA's use of 'Disinformation Technology' in suppressing evidence of extraterrestrial life and exposing the real nature and threat of the UFO phenomenon. He is currently the Associate Editor of UFO Digest.



Recent Articles at www.ufodigest.com



Saving Hubble

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On the Role of 'The Black Hand' of Political Assassinations in History

TMA-1: The Martian Artifact
TMA-1: The Martian Artifact - More on Martian Meteorology - Part II

Treasure of the Abyss: Morningstar Discovers Luminous Sky Object Above Lunar Surface In Apollo 16 Photograph

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For M*'s investigation into the JFK Assassination, see "Featured Articles" at:

www.jfkresearch.com


http://www.grahamhancock.com/forum/MorningstarR1.php?p=1
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« Reply #37 on: November 23, 2008, 01:56:28 pm »










                                                            Cracking Codes:


                                              The Rosetta Stone and Decipherment






When John Packer viewed the exhibition to celebrate the newly-cleaned Rosetta Stone at the British Museum, he found the display well-laid out, logical and informative.

This exhibition, now concluded, was held to celebrate the bi-centenary of the discovery of the Rosetta Stone.

The clarity of presentation of the facts, and the simple and logical display, made it a delight for both scholar and beginner alike.

In the first section, a wide variety of ancient scripts were shown including Sumerian, Chinese, Alaskan, Aboriginal Australian, Maya and Cuneiform, together with a facsimile of the last known example of a hieroglyphic text from Philae dated AD 394.

Next, one moved to the story of the discovery of the stone (during the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt
of 1798) by Pierre Bouchard in 1799. The stone is in the centre of this section of the exhibition and, appropriately, the broken edges of the black stela glitter starrily. Close by is a facsimile of the complete stone.

The text itself is a decree dating to the 27th March 196 BC honouring Ptolemy V Epiphanes. A clear and simple explanation of the deciphering of the stone followed, and although the contribution of J F Champollion (1790 – 1832) was given due acknowledgement, so too was the work of the Englishman Thomas Young (1773 – 1829), together with examples of his original letters on the subject. There is also a copy of Champollion’s Grammar of 1830.
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« Reply #38 on: November 23, 2008, 02:06:36 pm »





               
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« Reply #39 on: November 23, 2008, 02:12:21 pm »









One moved on to examples of different Egyptian scripts including the lingua franca of diplomatic correspondence in ancient times, Akkadian. This language was used, 3,000 years ago, by the
diplomatic staff of powerful rulers throughout the Middle East.

Early examples of hieroglyphs began with a facsimile of the Narmer Palette and an early ivory label
of King Den, and moved to the ‘hidden meaning’ cryptograph. There followed inscribed examples of funerary statues, graffiti on ostraca, and hieroglyphs in architecture in the form of a magnificent
door lintel.

A section followed on the ‘Art of Writing’ with examples of demotic and hieratic, before continuing
with the "The Power of Writing as the Words of the Gods" and the importance of the scribe and
Thoth their god of script. The accompanying seven foot ‘Was’ sceptre, a symbol of authority, was
itself most impressive. So was the fine example of ‘taking credit’ in the form of a text created in
the name of Tutankhamun ‘taken over’ by Horemheb.

One moved next to ‘the Art of Writing’, descriptive of the life of a scribe (with particular examples
from Deir el Medina, and from there to a series of examples of Ancient Egyptian literature including
a papyrus with part of a famous Middle Kingdom text, ‘The Story of Sinuhe’ and a stela with a poetic composition.

Next followed examples of scripts developed from hieroglyphs including Meroitic from Kush (Nubia) and Proto-Sinaitic. The penultimate part was devoted to the cracking of other codes including Linear B and Maya with good examples of the text. The exhibition concluded, somewhat strangely, but no doubt with an eye to the Millennium, with reference to the Rosetta spacecraft to be launched early in the new era with the task of cracking the code of the building blocks of the universe.

It is of course the hieroglyphs of Ancient Egypt that still exert a fascination today. Newcomers to the subject can make a good start with the British Museum’s own publication by Mark Collier & Bill Manley,
"How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs", British Museum Press, 1998. For further information on the other subjects covered in the exhibition, there is "Cracking Codes: The Rosetta Stone and Decipherment"
by R Parkinson, British Museum Press, 1999. AE

 

 info@ancientegyptmagazine.com
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« Reply #40 on: December 06, 2008, 09:14:25 am »










                                         C H A M P O L L I O N ' S   N O T E S
 





Painting of a relief made by the painter Bertin in the tomb of Ramesses III (Valley of the Kings) during Champollion's expedition. The reliefs and drawings executed during Champollion's only trip to Egypt were published under the title Monuments de I'Egypte et de la Nubie, from 1835 to 1845.



(Paris,
Bibliotheque Nationale)
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« Reply #41 on: December 06, 2008, 09:18:17 am »










Champollion's notes of his study of the cartouche of Cleopatra, inscribed on an obelisk found at Philae by Belzoni, The names of Cleopatra and Ptolemy were the first words deciphered by Champollion.

By analyzing the texts of the Rosetta Stone and comparing them with those on the obelisk of Philae, Champollion had the brilliant intuition that the names of the pharaohs in cartouches were in hieroglyphs with a phonetic value, and that it was therefore possible to establish an equivalence between hieroglyphic and alphabetic signs.
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« Reply #42 on: December 06, 2008, 09:20:57 am »










A page from Champollion's notes for his work Grammaire egyptienne, published between 1836 and 1841.



(Paris,
National Library)



http://touregypt.net/historicalessays/notes.htm
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« Reply #43 on: February 27, 2009, 09:17:39 am »









                               Hieroglyphics Cracked 1,000 Years Earlier Than Thought






ScienceDaily
(Oct. 7, 2004)

— Western scholars were not the first to decipher the ancient language of the pharaohs, according to a new book that will be published later this year by a UCL researcher.

Dr Okasha El Daly of UCL’s Institute of Archaeology will reveal that Arabic scholars not only took a keen interest in ancient Egypt but also correctly interpreted hieroglyphics in the ninth century AD – almost 1,000 years earlier than previously thought.

It has long been thought that Jean-Francois Champollion was the first person to crack hieroglyphics in 1822 using newly discovered Egyptian antiquities such as the Rosetta stone. But fresh analysis of manuscripts tucked away in long forgotten collections scattered across the globe prove that Arabic scholars got there first.

Dr Okasha El Daly, of UCL’s Institute of Archaeology, explains:

“For two and a half centuries the study of Egyptology has been dominated by a Euro-centric view, which has virtually ignored over a thousand years of Arabic scholarship and enquiry encouraged by Islam.

“Prior to Napoleonic times little was known in the West about the ancient civilisation of Egypt except what had been recorded in the Bible. It was assumed that the world of the pharaohs had long since been forgotten by Egyptians, who were thought to have been incorporated into the expanding Islamic world by the seventh century.

“But this overhasty conclusion ignores the vast contribution of medieval Arabic scholars and others between the seventh and 16th centuries. In reality a huge corpus of medieval writing by both scholars and ordinary people exists that dates from long before the earliest European Renaissance. Analysis reveals that not only did Moslems have a deep interest in the study of Ancient Egypt, they could also correctly decipher hieroglyphic script.”

Following the Roman invasion of Egypt in 30 BC the use of hieroglyphics began to die out with the last known writing in the fifth century AD.

While Western medieval commentators believed that hieroglyphics were symbols each representing a single concept Dr El Daly has shown that Arab scholars grasped the fundamental principle that hieroglyphics could represent sounds as well as ideas.

Using his unique expertise in both Egyptology and medieval Arabic writers, Dr El Daly began a seven year investigation of Arabic writing on ancient Egypt.

“The manuscripts were scattered worldwide in private as well as public collections and were mostly not catalogued. Even when they were, they were often wrongly classified so I had to go through each one individually - it is not like researching in modern books with an index which you can check for relevant information,” says Dr El Daly.

“A specialist in only Arabic or Islamic studies reading these manuscripts would fail to grasp their significance to Egyptology. Conversely Egyptologists think that Arabs and Moslems had nothing useful to say about ancient Egypt, so there wasn’t any need to look at manuscripts that were mainly the domain of scholars within the disciplines of Arabic/Oriental studies.”
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« Reply #44 on: February 27, 2009, 09:19:57 am »









The breakthrough in Dr El Daly’s research came from analysis of the work of Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn Wahshiyah, a ninth century alchemist. Ibn Wahshiyah’s work on ancient writing systems showed that he was able to correctly decipher many hieroglyphic signs. Being an alchemist not a linguist, his primary interest was to identify the phonetic value and meaning of hieroglyphic signs with the aim of accessing the ancient Egyptian scientific knowledge inscribed in hieroglyphs.

“By comparing Ibn Wahshiyah’s conclusions with those in current books on Egyptian Language, I was able to assess his accuracy in understanding hieroglyphic signs,” says Dr El Daly.

“In particular I looked at the Egyptian Grammar of Sir Alan Gardiner which has a sign list at the end, it revealed that Ibn Wahshiyah understood perfectly well the nature of Egyptian hieroglyphs.”

Dr El Daly added: “Western culture misinterprets Islam because we think teaching before the Quran is shunned, which isn’t the case. They valued history and assumed that Egypt was a land of science and wisdom and as such they wanted to learn their language to have access to such vast knowledge.

“Critically they did not, unlike the West, write history to fit with the religious ideas of the time, which makes their accounts more reliable. They were also keen on the universality of human history based on the unity of the origin of human beings and the diversity of their appearance and languages. Furthermore, there are likely to be many hidden manuscripts dotted round the world that could make a significant contribution to our understanding of the ancient world.

Dr Okasha El Daly is based in UCL’s Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, one of the world’s largest collections of artefacts covering thousands of years of ancient Egyptian prehistory and history. On Wednesday 6 October UCL launches the biggest university fundraising campaign, Advancing London’s Global University - the Campaign for UCL, which will seek to raise £300 million over the coming decade, including £25 million to build a purpose built museum, the Panopticon, that will house UCL’s collections of Egyptology, art and rare books in an environment that preserves them for all to see.

The Panopticon, which means ‘all-visible’ in Greek, will be unlike any other museum in the UK because the entire collection will be on display and publicly accessible. Other highlights will include works by Durer, Rembrandt, Turner and Constable; an unrivalled collection of John Flaxman’s drawings and sculpture; the first edition of Milton’s Paradise Lost and the George Orwell archives.


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Adapted from materials provided by University College London.
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