Atlantis Online
December 04, 2023, 10:43:52 am
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: Update About Cuba Underwater Megalithic Research
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

Coral reef

Pages: 1 2 3 4 [5]   Go Down
Author Topic: Coral reef  (Read 707 times)
Hero Member
Posts: 106

« Reply #60 on: April 01, 2011, 12:03:02 am »


Organizations which currently undertake coral reef/atoll restoration projects using simple methods of plant propagation:

    * Coral Cay
    * Counterpart International[56]
    * U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (CRTF)
    * National Coral Reef Institute (NCRI)
    * US Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): Coral Reef Conservation Program
    * National Center for Coral Reef Research (NCORE)
    * Reef Ball
    * Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative (SEFCRI)
    * Foundation of the peoples of the South Pacific
    * WorldFishCenter: promotes sustainable mariculture techniques to grow reef organismsas tridacnidae
    * Coral Restoration Foundation (CRF) : Adopt a Coral

Organizations which promote interest, provide knowledge bases about coral reef survival, and promote activities to protect and restore coral reefs:

    * Australian Coral Reef Society
    * Biosphere Foundation[57]
    * Chagos Conservation Trust
    * Conservation Society of Pohnpei
    * Coral Cay Conservation
    * Coral Reef Care
    * Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL)
    * Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building for Management
    * Coral Triangle Initiative
    * Cousteau Society
    * Crusoe Reef Society
    * CEDAM International
    * Earthwatch
    * Environmental Defense Fund
    * Environmental Solutions International
    * Friends of Saba Marine Park
    * Global Coral Reef Alliance (GCRA)
    * Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network[58]
    * Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
    * Green Fins
    * ICRAN Mesoamerican Reef Alliance
    * International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI)[59]
    * International Marinelife Alliance
    * International Society for Reef Studies
    * Intercoast Network
    * Kosrae Conservation and Safety Organization
    * Marine Conservation Group
    * Marine Conservation Society
    * Mesoamerican Reef Tourism Initiative (MARTI)
    * NSF Moorea Coral Reef Long-term Ecological Research site[60]
    * Nature Conservancy
    * Ocean Voice International
    * PADI
    * Planetary Coral Reef Foundation[61]
    * Practical Action[62]
    * Project Reefkeeper
    * ReefBase
    * Reef Check
    * Reef Relief[63]
    * Reefwatch
    * Save Our Seas Foundation[64]
    * Seacology
    * SECORE
    * Singapore Underwater Federation
    * Society for Andaman and Nicobar Ecology
    * Tubbataha Foundation
    * Wildlife Conservation International
    * WWF

Report Spam   Logged
Hero Member
Posts: 106

« Reply #61 on: April 01, 2011, 12:03:34 am »

Artificial reefs

Efforts to expand the size and number of coral reefs generally involve supplying substrate to allow more corals to find a home. Substrate materials include discarded vehicle tires, scuttled ships, subway cars, and formed concrete such as reef balls. Reefs also grow unaided on marine structures such as oil rigs.

In large restoration projects, propagated hermatypic coral on substrate can be secured with metal pins, superglue or milliput.[65] Needle and thread can also attach A-hermatype coral to substrate.[66]

Low voltage electrical currents applied through seawater crystallize dissolved minerals onto steel structures. The resultant white carbonate (aragonite) is the same mineral that makes up natural coral reefs. Corals rapidly colonize and grow at accelerated rates on these coated structures. The electrical currents also accelerate formation and growth of both chemical limestone rock and the skeletons of corals and other shell-bearing organisms. The vicinity of the anode and cathode provides a high pH environment which inhibits the growth of competitive filamentous and fleshy algae. The increased growth rates fully depend on the accretion activity.[67]

During accretion, the settled corals display an increased growth rate, and size, and density, but after the process is complete, growth rate and density return to levels that are comparable to naturally growing corallites, and are about the same size or slightly smaller.[67
Report Spam   Logged
Hero Member
Posts: 106

« Reply #62 on: April 01, 2011, 12:04:08 am »


Beginning a few thousand years after hard skeletons were developed by marine organisms, coral reefs emerged. The times of maximum development were in the Middle Cambrian (513–501 Ma), Devonian (416–359 Ma) and Carboniferous (359–299 Ma), due to Order Rugosa extinct corals, and Late Cretaceous (100–65 Ma) and all Neogene (23 Ma–present), due to Order Scleractinia corals.

Not all reefs in the past were formed by corals: Early Cambrian (542–513 Ma) reefs resulted from calcareous algae and archaeocyathids (small animals with conical shape, probably related to sponges) and rudists, a type of bivalve, built Late Cretaceous (100–65 Ma) reefs.
Report Spam   Logged
Hero Member
Posts: 106

« Reply #63 on: April 01, 2011, 12:04:55 am »

Ancient coral reefs
Report Spam   Logged
Hero Member
Posts: 106

« Reply #64 on: April 01, 2011, 12:05:57 am »


   1. ^ Mulhall M (2007) Saving rainforests of the sea: An analysis of international efforts to conserve coral reefs Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum 19:321–351.
   2. ^ Hoover, John (November, 2007). Hawaiʻi's Sea Creatures. Mutual. ISBN 1-5854702902.
   3. ^ "Corals reveal impact of land use". ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
   4. ^ Minato, Charissa (July 1, 2002). "Urban runoff and coastal water quality being researched for effects on coral reefs". Retrieved December, 2010.
   5. ^ "Coastal Watershed Factsheets - Coral Reefs and Your Coastal Watershed". Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. July 1998. Retrieved December, 2010.
   6. ^ Smithers, S.G. and Woodroffe, C.D. (August 2000). "Microatolls as sea-level indicators on a mid-ocean atoll.". Marine Geology 168 (1–4): 61–78. doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(00)00043-8.
   7. ^ Coral reef The Encyclopedia of Earth, Updated February 27, 2009.
   8. ^ Darwin, Charles (1842). The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. Being the first part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle, under the command of Capt. Fitzroy, R.N. during the years 1832 to 1836. London: Smith Elder and Co.
   9. ^ a b Gordon Chancellor (2008). Introduction to Coral reefs. Darwin Online. Retrieved 2009-01-20
  10. ^ Animation of coral atoll formation NOAA Ocean Education Service. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
  11. ^ a b c Anderson, G (2003) Coral Reef Formation Marine Science.
  12. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2006). "A "big picture" view of the Great Barrier Reef" (PDF). Reef Facts for Tour Guides. Retrieved 18 June 2007.
  13. ^ a b Tobin, Barry (1998, revised 2003). "How the Great Barrier Reef was formed". Australian Institute of Marine Science. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  14. ^ CRC Reef Research Centre Ltd. "What is the Great Barrier Reef?". Retrieved 28 May 2006.
  15. ^ Four Types of Coral Reef Microdocs, Stanford Education. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  16. ^ MSN Encarta (2006). "Great Barrier Reef". Great Barrier Reef. Retrieved 11 December 2006.
  17. ^ a b c d Moyle & Cech 2003, p. 556
  18. ^ Connell, Joseph H. (March 24, 1978). "Diversity in Tropical Rain Forests and Coral Reefs". Science 199 (4335 pp). doi:10.1126/science.199.4335.1302.
  19. ^ UNEP (2001) UNEP-WCMC World Atlas of Coral Reefs Coral Reef Unit
  20. ^ a b c d Spalding, Mark, Corinna Ravilious, and Edmund Green. 2001. World Atlas of Coral Reefs. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press and UNEP/WCMC.
  21. ^ Achituv, Y. and Dubinsky, Z. 1990. Evolution and Zoogeography of Coral Reefs Ecosystems of the World. Vol. 25:1-8.
  22. ^ The Greenpeace Book of Coral Reefs
  23. ^ a b Nybakken, James. 1997. Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach. 4th ed. Menlo Park, CA: Addison Wesley.
  24. ^ [1] Ultra Marine: In far eastern Indonesia, the Raja Ampat islands embrace a phenomenal coral wilderness, by David Doubilet, National Geographic, September 2007
  25. ^ Sherman, C.D.H. "The Importance of Fine-scale Environmental Heterogeneity in Determining Levels of Genotypic Diversity and Local Adaption." University of Wollongong Ph.D. Thesis. 2006. Accessed 2009-06-07.
  26. ^ Paul Marshall and Heidi Schuttenberg.; Marshall, Paul; Schuttenberg, Heidi. (2006). A Reef Manager’s Guide to Coral Bleaching. Townsville, Australia: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,. ISBN 1 876945 40 0.
  27. ^ Stacy, J., Marion, G., McCulloch, M. and Hoegh-Guldberg, O. "changes to Mackay Whitsunday water quality and connectivity between terrestrial, mangrove and coral reef ecosystems: Clues from coral proxies and remote sensing records -Synthesis of research from an ARC Linkage Grant (2004-2007)." University of Queensland - Centre for Marine Studies. May 2007. Accessed 2009-06-07.
  28. ^ Nothdurft, L.D. "Microstructure and early diagensis of recent reef building scleractinian corals, Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef: Implications for palaeoclimate analysis." Queensland University of Technology Ph.D. Thesis. 2007. Accessed 2009-06-07.
  29. ^ Wilson, R.A. "The Biological Notion of Individual."Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. August 9, 2007. Accessed 2009-06-07.
  30. ^ Rougerier, F The functioning of coral reefs and atolls: from paradox to paradigm ORSTOM, Papeete.
  31. ^ Sorokin, Y. I. Coral Reef Ecology. Germany. Sringer-Herlag, Berlin Heidelberg. 1993.
  32. ^ a b c Castro, Peter and Michael Huber. 2000. Marine Biology. 3rd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
  33. ^ Zooxanthellae… What's That?
  34. ^ A Reef Manager’s Guide to Coral Bleaching. Townsville, Australia: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,. 2006. ISBN 1 876945 40 0.
  35. ^ Rich Coral Reefs in Nutrient-Poor Water: Paradox Explained? National Geographic News, November 7, 2001.
  36. ^ Corals play rough over Darwin's paradox New Scientist, 21 September 2002.
  37. ^ Wilson E (2004) "Coral’s Symbiotic Bacteria Fluoresce, Fix Nitrogen" Chemical and engineering news, 82(33): 7.
  38. ^ Greenpeace Book of Coral Reefs
  39. ^ Coexistence of coral reef fishes—a lottery for living space PF Sale 1978 - Environmental Biology of Fishes, 1978
  40. ^ McClellan, Kate; Bruno, John (2008). "Coral degradation through destructive fishing practices". Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
  41. ^ Osborne, Patrick L. (2000). Tropical Ecosystem and Ecological Concepts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 464. ISBN 0 521 64523 9.
  42. ^ Vroom, Peter S.; Page, Kimberly N.; Kenyon, Jean C.; Brainard, Russell E. (2006). "Algae-Dominated Reefs". American Scientist 94 (5): 430–437 .
  43. ^
  44. ^ "U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service - Birds of Midway Atoll". Retrieved August 19, 2009.
  45. ^ Heat Stress to Caribbean Corals in 2005 Worst on Record National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA. 15 November 2010.
  46. ^ a b The Importance of Coral to People WWF. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  47. ^ "Coastal Capital: Economic Valuation of Coastal Ecosystems in the Caribbean." World Resources Institute. World Resources Institute, n.d. Web. 21 Jan 2011. <>.
  48. ^ a b Coral reefs around the world, 2 September 2009.
  49. ^ RITTER, KARL (December 8, 2010). −goal-coral-reefs.html "Climate goal may spell end for some coral reefs". Associated Press.−goal-coral-reefs.html. Retrieved December, 2010.
  50. ^ Markey, Sean (May 16, 2006). "Global Warming Has Devastating Effect on Coral Reefs, Study Shows". National Geographic News.
  51. ^ Kleypas, J.A., R.A. Feely, V.J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, and L.L. Robbins, 2006, Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A guide for Future Research, NSF, NOAA, & USGS, 88 pp.
  52. ^ Save Our Seas, 1997 Summer Newsletter, Dr. Cindy Hunter and Dr. Alan Friedlander
  53. ^ Tun, K., L.M. Chou, A. Cabanban, V.S. Tuan, Philreefs, T. Yeemin, Suharsono, K.Sour, and D. Lane, 2004, p:235-276 in C. Wilkinson (ed.), Status of Coral Reefs of the world: 2004.
  54. ^ Cinner, J. et al. (2005). Conservation and community benefits from traditional coral reef management at Ahus Island, Papua New Guinea. Conservation Biology 19 (6), 1714-1723
  55. ^ "Coral Reef Management, Papua New Guinea". Nasa's Earth Observatory. Retrieved 2 November 2006.
  56. ^ 'The Coral Gardener'-documentary about Counterpart scientist Austin Bowden-Kerby
  57. ^ Biosphere Foundation
  58. ^ Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network Status of Coral Reefs of the World 2008
  59. ^ International Coral Reef Initiative
  60. ^ NSF Moorea Coral Reef Long-term Ecological Research site
  61. ^ Planetary Coral Reef Foundation
  62. ^ Action coral reef restoration Practical Action
  63. ^ Reef Relief
  64. ^ Save Our Seas Foundation
  65. ^ Superglue used for placement of coral
  66. ^ Needle and thread use with soft coral
  67. ^ a b Sabater, Marlowe G.; Yap, Helen T. 2004. "Long-term effects of induced mineral accretion on growth, survival, and corallite properties of Porites cylindrica Dana." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Vol. 311:355-374.

Report Spam   Logged
Hero Member
Posts: 106

« Reply #65 on: April 01, 2011, 12:08:08 am »
Report Spam   Logged
Pages: 1 2 3 4 [5]   Go Up
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy