Atlantis Online
December 08, 2019, 06:42:06 pm
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: Ruins of 7,000-year-old city found in Egypt oasis
http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080129/wl_mideast_afp/egyptarchaeology
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

BRIEF HISTORY OF ASTROLOGY

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 [6]   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: BRIEF HISTORY OF ASTROLOGY  (Read 832 times)
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #75 on: October 13, 2008, 08:36:00 pm »




                       

                        15th century image from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry

                        showing believed relations between areas of the body and the zodiacal signs.
« Last Edit: October 13, 2008, 08:38:16 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #76 on: October 13, 2008, 08:41:22 pm »










                                                           O R I G I N S






The origins of much of the astrological doctrine and method that would later develop in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East are found among the ancient Babylonians and their system of celestial omens that began to be compiled around the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE.

This system of celestial omens later spread either directly or indirectly through the Babylonians and Assyrians to other areas such as India, Middle East, and Greece where it merged with pre-existing indigenous forms of astrology.

This Babylonian astrology came to Greece initially as early as the middle of the 4th century BCE, and then around the late 2nd or early 1st century BCE after the Alexandrian conquests, this Babylonian astrology was mixed with the Egyptian tradition of decanic astrology to create horoscopic astrology. This new form of astrology, which appears to have originated in Alexandrian Egypt, quickly spread across the ancient world into Europe, the Middle East and India.
Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #77 on: October 13, 2008, 08:46:54 pm »










Before the modern era



From the classical period through the scientific revolution, astrological training played a critical role
in advancing astronomical, mathematical, medical and psychological knowledge.

Astrological influences included the observation and long-term tracking of celestial objects.

It was astrologers who provided the first systematic documentation of the movements of the Sun,
the Moon, the planets, and the stars.

The differentiation between astronomy and astrology varied from place to place; they were indistinguishable in ancient Babylonia and medieval Europe, but separated to an extent in the
Hellenistic world.

The first semantic distinction between astrology and astronomy was given in the 11th century by
the Persian astronomer, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (see astrology and astronomy).

The pattern of astronomical knowledge gained from astrological endeavours has been historically repeated across numerous cultures, from ancient India through the classical Maya civilization to medieval Europe.

Given this historical contribution, astrology has been called a protoscience along with pseudosciences such as alchemy (see "Western astrology and alchemy" below).

Astrology was not always uncritically accepted before the modern era; it was often challenged by Hellenistic skeptics, church authorities, and medieval Muslim astronomers, such as Al-Farabi (Alpharabius), Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Avicenna and Averroes. Their reasons for refuting astrology were often due to both scientific (the methods used by astrologers being conjectural rather than empirical) and religious (conflicts with orthodox Islamic scholars) reasons.
Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292-1350), in his Miftah Dar al-SaCadah, used empirical arguments in astronomy in order to refute astrology and divination.





Many prominent thinkers, philosophers and scientists, such as


Pythagoras,

Plato,

Aristotle,

Galen,

Paracelsus,

Girolamo Cardan,

Nicholas Copernicus,

Taqi al-Din,

Tycho Brahe,

Galileo Galilei,

Johannes Kepler,

Carl Jung

and others, practiced or significantly contributed to astrology.
Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #78 on: October 13, 2008, 08:51:38 pm »










                                   E F F E C T S   O N   W O R L D   C U L T U R E





Astrology has had a profound influence over the past few thousand years on Western and Eastern cultures.

In the Middle Ages, when the educated of the time believed in astrology, the system of heavenly spheres and bodies was believed to reflect on the system of knowledge and the world itself below.

Astrology has had an influence on both language and literature. For example, influenza, from medieval Latin influentia meaning influence, was so named because doctors once believed epidemics to be caused by unfavorable planetary and stellar influences.

The word "disaster" comes from the Italian disastro, derived from the negative prefix dis- and from
Latin aster "star", thus meaning "ill-starred".

Adjectives "lunatic" (Luna/Moon), "mercurial" (Mercury), "venereal" (Venus), "martial" (Mars), "jovial" (Jupiter/Jove), and "saturnine" (Saturn) are all old words used to describe personal qualities said to resemble or be highly influenced by the astrological characteristics of the planet, some of which are derived from the attributes of the ancient Roman gods they are named after.

In literature, many writers, notably Geoffrey Chaucer[28][29][30] and William Shakespeare, used astrological symbolism to add subtlety and nuance to the description of their characters' motivation(s).

More recently, Michael Ward has proposed that C.S. Lewis imbued his Chronicles of Narnia with the characteristics and symbols of the seven heavens.

Often, an understanding of astrological symbolism is needed to fully appreciate such literature.



Some modern thinkers, notably Carl Jung, believe in astrology's descriptive powers regarding the mind without necessarily subscribing to its predictive claims.

In education astrology is reflected in the university education of medieval Europe, which was divided into seven distinct areas, each represented by a particular planet and known as the seven liberal arts.

Dante Alighieri speculated that these arts, which grew into the sciences we know today, fitted the same structure as the planets.

In music the best known example of astrology's influence is in the orchestral suite called "The Planets" by the British composer Gustav Holst, the framework of which is based upon the astrological symbolism of the planets.
Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #79 on: October 13, 2008, 08:57:33 pm »










                                            A S T R O L O G Y   A N D   S C I E N C E

 
 



By the time of Francis Bacon and the scientific revolution, newly emerging scientific disciplines
acquired a method of systematic empirical induction validated by experimental observations, which
led to the scientific revolution.

At this point, astrology and astronomy began to diverge; astronomy became one of the central sciences while astrology was increasingly viewed as an occult science or superstition by natural scientists. This separation accelerated through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Astrology is now regarded as unscientific both by scientific bodies and by individual scientists and
has been labeled as a pseudoscience. 

In 1975, the American Humanist Association published one of the most widely known modern criticisms of astrology, characterizing those who continue to have faith in the subject as doing so "in spite of the fact that there is no verified scientific basis for their beliefs, and indeed that there is strong evidence to the contrary".

Astronomer Carl Sagan found himself unable to sign the statement, not because he felt astrology had any validity at all, but because he found the statement's tone authoritarian. Sagan stated that he would instead have been willing to sign a statement describing and refuting the principal tenets of astrological belief, which he believed would have been far more persuasive and would have produced much less controversy than the circulated statement.

Although astrology has had no scientific standing for some time, it has been the subject of much research among astrologers since the beginning of the twentieth century. In their landmark study of twentieth-century research into natal astrology, astrology critics Geoffrey Dean and coauthors documented this burgeoning research activity, primarily within the astrological community.
Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #80 on: October 13, 2008, 08:58:54 pm »



The Ptolemaic System depicted by
Andreas Cellarius, 1660/61
« Last Edit: October 13, 2008, 09:02:27 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #81 on: October 13, 2008, 09:01:12 pm »










Claims about obstacles to research



Astrologers have argued that there are significant obstacles in carrying out scientific research into astrology today, including lack of funding, lack of background in science and statistics by astrologers, and insufficient expertise in astrology by research scientists and skeptics.

There are only a handful of journals dealing with scientific research into astrology (i.e. astrological journals directed towards scientific research or scientific journals publishing astrological research). Some astrologers have argued that few practitioners today pursue scientific testing of astrology because they feel that working with clients on a daily basis provides a personal validation for them.

Another argument made by astrologers is that most studies of astrology do not reflect the nature of astrological practice and that the scientific method does not apply to astrology.

Some astrology proponents claim that the prevailing attitudes and motives of many opponents of astrology introduce conscious or unconscious bias in the formulation of hypotheses to be tested,
the conduct of the tests, and the reporting of results.
Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #82 on: October 13, 2008, 09:04:24 pm »




                                   




GOD THE GEOMETER


Early science, particularly geometry and astronomy/astrology, was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars.

The compass in this 13th century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of creation, as many believed that there was something intrinsically divine or perfect that could be found in circles.
« Last Edit: October 13, 2008, 09:07:23 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #83 on: October 13, 2008, 09:15:21 pm »










Mechanism



As astrologers have been consistently unable to present physical mechanisms for astrology, few
modern astrologers believe in a direct causal relationship between heavenly bodies and earthly
events.

An editorial published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific reports that they can find no
evidence for a scientifically defined mechanism by which celestial objects can influence terrestrial affairs.

Some researchers have posited acausal, purely correlative, relationships between astrological observations and events, such as the theory of synchronicity proposed by Carl Jung.

Others have posited a basis in divination.

Still others have argued that empirical correlations can stand on their own epistemologically, and
do not need the support of any theory or mechanism.

To some observers, these non-mechanistic concepts raise serious questions about the feasibility
of validating astrology through scientific testing, and some have gone so far as to reject the applicability of the scientific method to astrology almost entirely.

Some astrologers, on the other hand, believe that astrology is amenable to the scientific method,
given sufficiently sophisticated analytical methods, and they cite pilot studies they claim support
this view.

Consequently, several astrologers have called for or advocated continuing studies of astrology
based on statistical validation.
Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #84 on: October 13, 2008, 09:23:42 pm »









                                                       R E F E R E N C E S





^ Robert Hand. "The History of Astrology — Another View". Retrieved on 2007-06-19.

^ a b c Eysenck, H.J., Nias, D.K.B., Astrology: Science or Superstition? (Penguin Books, 1982)

^ David Pingree. "The Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Astrology". Retrieved on 2007-12-18.

^ Reinhold Ebertin. Combination of Stellar Influences. ISBN 978-0866900874. 

^ Michael Star. "Astrology FAQ, Basics for Beginners and Students of Astrology".
Retrieved on 2006-07-17.

^ Alan Oken. Alan Oken’s As Above So Below. ISBN 978-0553027761. 

^ "Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Meriam-Webster. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.

^ ""astrology" Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Retrieved on 2006-07-17.

^ a b "WordNet 2.1". Princeton. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.

^ a b c d "Activities With Astrology". Astronomical society of the Pacific.

^ a b c "Objections to Astrology: A Statement by 186 Leading Scientists". The Humanist, September/October 1975.

^ Humphrey Taylor. "The Religious and Other Beliefs of Americans 2003". Retrieved on 2007-01-05.

^ "Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding". National Science Foundation.
Retrieved on 2007-01-05.

^ "Astrology". Encarta. (2008). Microsoft. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. “Scientists have long rejected the principles of astrology, but millions of people continue to believe in or practice it.
” 
^ Astrology: Fraud or Superstition? by Chaz Bufe "Astrology Fraud or Superstition". See Sharp Press.

^ Adam Mosley. "Tycho Brahe and Astrology". Retrieved on 2007-06-19.

^ About.com: Is Astrology a Pseudoscience? Examining the Basis and Nature of Astrology

^ Weor, Samael Aun Astrotheurgy, The Esoteric Treatise of Hermetic Astrology, pp. 60-117, Glorian Publishing 2006, ISBN 978-1-934206-06-5

^ Weor, Samael Aun Astrotheurgy, The Zodiacal Course, pp.3-58, Glorian Publishing, 2006, ISBN 978-1-934206-06-5

^ David Pingree - From Astral Omens to Astrology from Babylon to Bikaner, Roma: Istituto Italiano per L'Africa e L'Oriente, 1997. Pg. 26.

^ Alexandra David-Neel Magic and Mystery in Tibet, p. 290, Dover Publications Inc., 1971 ISBN 0-486-22682-4; 1st French ed. 1929

^ S. Pines (September 1964), "The Semantic Distinction between the Terms Astronomy and Astrology according to al-Biruni", Isis 55 (3): 343-349

^ Saliba, George (1994b), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, New York University Press, 60 & 67-69, ISBN 0814780237

^ Livingston, John W. (1971), "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation", Journal of the American Oriental Society 91(1): 96–103, doi:10.2307/600445 

^ Bruce Scofield. "Were They Astrologers? — Big League Scientists and Astrology". The Mountain Astrologer magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.

^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=influenza Online Etymology Dictionary

^ Ibid.

^ A. Kitson. "Astrology and English literature". Contemporary Review, October 1996. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.

^ M. Allen, J.H. Fisher. "Essential Chaucer: Science, including astrology". University of Texas, San Antonio. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.

^ A.B.P. Mattar et al. "Astronomy and Astrology in the Works of Chaucer". University of Singapore. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.

^ P. Brown. "Shakespeare, Astrology, and Alchemy: A Critical and Historical Perspective". The Mountain Astrologer, February/March 2004.

^ F. Piechoski. "Shakespeare's Astrology".
 
^ Carl G. Jung, "Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious," excerpted in The Basic Writings of C.G. Jung (Modern Library, repr. 1993), 362-363.

^ ****, Richard. "The scientific revolution".

^ Jim Tester, A History of Western Astrology (Ballantine Books, 1989), 240ff.

^ Richard Dawkins. "The Real Romance in the Stars". The Independent, December 1995.

^ "British Physicist Debunks Astrology in Indian Lecture". Associated Press.

^ "Astronomical Pseudo-Science: A Skeptic's Resource List". Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
 
^ Sagan, Carl. "Letter." The Humanist 36 (1976): 2

^ Mariapaula Karadimas. "Astrology: What it is and what it isn't,". The Peak Publications Society.

^ Sagan, Carl. The Demon Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. (New York: Ballantine Books, 1996), 303.

^ G. Dean et al, Recent Advances in Natal Astrology: A Critical Review 1900-1976. The Astrological Association (England 1977)

^ a b H.J. Eysenck & D.K.B. Nias, Astrology: Science or Superstition? Penguin Books (1982) ISBN 0-14-022397-5

^ a b c d G. Phillipson, Astrology in the Year Zero. Flare Publications (London, 2000)
ISBN 0-9530261-9-1

^ "School History". The Avalon School of Astrology.

^ a b c d M. Harding. "Prejudice in Astrological Research". Correlation, Vol 19(1).

^ K. Irving. "Science, Astrology and the Gauquelin Planetary Effects".

^ M. Urban-Lurain, Introduction to Multivariate Analysis, Astrological Research Methods,
Volume 1: An ISAR Anthology. International Society for Astrological Research (Los Angeles 1995)
ISBN 0-9646366-0-3

^ G. Perry, How do we Know What we Think we Know? From Paradigm to Method in Astrological Research, Astrological Research Methods, Volume 1: An ISAR Anthology. International Society for Astrological Research (Los Angeles 1995) ISBN 0-9646366-0-3

^ Bob Marks. "Astrology for Skeptics".

^ Dr. P. Seymour, Astrology: The evidence of Science. Penguin Group (London, 1988)
ISBN 0-14-019226-3

^ Frank McGillion. "The Pineal Gland and the Ancient Art of Iatromathematica".

^ Maggie Hyde, Jung and Astrology. The Aquarian Press (London, 1992) p. 24-26.

^ Geoffrey Cornelius, The Moment of Astrology. Utsav Arora, another meditation research specialist and astrologer, argues, "if 100% accuracy were to be the benchmark, we should be closing down and shutting all hospitals, medical labs. Scientific medical equipment and drugs have a long history of errors and miscalculations. Same is the case with computers and electronic. We don't refute electronic gadgets and equipment just because it fails but we work towards finding cures for the errors." The Wessex Astrologer (Bournemouth, 2003.)

^ D. Cochrane, Towards a Proof of Astrology: An AstroSignature for Mathematical Ability International Astrologer ISAR Journal Winter-Spring 2005, Vol 33, #2

^ M. Pottenger (ed), Astrological Research Methods, Volume 1: An ISAR Anthology. International Society for Astrological Research (Los Angeles 1995) ISBN 0-9646366-0-3

^ a b c Dean and Kelly. "Is Astrology Relevant to Consciousness and Psi?".

^ Robert Matthews (2003-08-17). "Comprehensive study of 'time twins' debunks astrology", London Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2007-05-22.
 
^ Dean, Geoffery. "Artifacts in data often wrongly seen as evidence for astrology".

^ a b Peter, Hartmann; Reuter, Martin; Nyborg, Helmut (2006). "The relationship between date of birth and individual differences in personality and intelligence: A large-scale study". Personality and Individual Differences 40: 1349–1362. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.017. ISSN 0191-8869. Lay summary – Discovery News (2006-04-25). 

^ Gauquelin M., Cosmic Influences on Human Behavior, Aurora Press, Santa Fe NM (1994)

^ Benski, C. et al. 1996. The "Mars Effect": A French Test of Over 1000 Sports Champions.

^ Zelen, M., P. Kurtz, and G. Abell. 1977. Is there a Mars effect? The Humanist 37 (6): 36-39.
 
^ Herbert Neisler in Skeptical — a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal, ed Donald Laycock, David Vernon, Colin Groves, Simon Brown, Imagecraft, Canberra, 1989, ISBN 0731657942, p3

^ Suitbert Ertel. "Raising the Hurdle for the Athletes' Mars Effect: Association Co-Varies With Eminence". Journal of Scientific Exploration.

^ Ken Irving. "Discussion of Mars eminence effect". Planetos.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrology
« Last Edit: October 13, 2008, 09:25:05 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 [6]   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy