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JYOTISH/VEDIC/HINDU/INDIAN ASTROLOGY

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Author Topic: JYOTISH/VEDIC/HINDU/INDIAN ASTROLOGY  (Read 5941 times)
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« on: August 11, 2007, 02:14:28 pm »

                                                   
                                         






Jyotiṣa (Sanskrit jyotiṣa, from jyótis- "light, heavenly body": also spelled Jyotish and Jyotisha in English) is the ancient Indian system of astronomy and astrology (also known as Indian astrology, Hindu astrology, and Vedic astrology).

Philosophically, the Vedic system of astrology is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga , the auxiliary disciplines of Vedic religion. As such, Jyotish has historically been part of a continuous holistic approach to living and an integral practice based on the ancient spiritual tradition of India[citation needed]. The foundation of jyotish is the notion of bandhu of the Vedas or scriptures, which is the connection between the microcosm and the macrocosm. Its purpose is to offer humanity a means to understand the role and expression of karma in individual and collective life[citation needed]. Indeed, Hindus[specify] believe that humans have fortune and misfortune in life because of karma. Many use Jyotish to understand setbacks in life due to the influence of planets and perform religious ceremonies to mitigate or avoid the pain of separation in life.

The practice of Vedic astrology primarily relies on the visible or sidereal zodiac, which is different from the tropical zodiac used in Western astrology in that an ayanamsa adjustment is made for the gradual precession of the vernal equinox. The tropical zodiac is used in Vedic astrology only to predict the course of nature itself - as in weather, etc.

Vedic astrology also includes several nuanced sub-systems of interpretation and prediction with unique sacralized elements not found in Western astrology, such as its specific system of lunar mansions (called nakshatras, encompassing a pantheon of archetypal deities). The nakshatras are used by some to pick auspicious times of day or month for every human activity as well as to provide insight into the motivations and guiding characteristics of humans and events coming under their influence. Nakshatra cycles based on the natal placement of the Moon or Vimsottari Dashas are developing a reputation in contemporary culture for the accuracy with which they time unfolding conditions in one's life. When combined with an analysis of planetary transits, significant events in life become predictable.


In India, Jyotish is still commonly used to aid in important decisions in life. In Hindu culture, newborns are traditionally named based on their jyotish charts, and jyotish concepts are pervasive in the organization of the calendar and holidays as well as in many areas of life. Astrology is perceived to be vital in Indian culture, in making decisions made about marriage, opening a new business, and moving into a new home.
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« Reply #1 on: August 11, 2007, 02:18:26 pm »









The tradition of Jyotish is said to have existed in an unbroken line since 3000 B.C. or for some 5000 years. The Western tradition is, by comparison, considered to have existed since the Hellenistic period or for three millennia. Jyotish is regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other schools in and around India. Jyotish is often discussed as the instructional element of the Rigveda, or the Eye of the Veda, for its alleged ability to view both phenomenal reality and wisdom itself. Part of a larger Vedic curriculum including mathematics, architecture, medical and military applications, Jyotish has its own sophisticated teachings: the planets are grahas which are thought by astrologers to seize or act upon created beings and influence their actions and life. In particular, Surya, the Sun, is a manifestation of Vishnu, a central aspect of the Supreme, and is also the Atman within man.

Some level of interaction between Western and Indian astrology in ancient times has also been documented. The Yavanajataka ("Sayings of the Greeks") was translated from Greek to Sanskrit by Yavanesvara during the 2nd century CE, under the patronage of the Western Satrap Saka king Rudradaman I, and is considered the first Indian astrological treatise in the Sanskrit language.

Jyotish's many lineages or paramparas emphasize that its study is a sadhana or technique of mental and existential development. In modern times, it is a chief source of reference for many Hindus and other astrologers. Vedic astrologers will frequently prescribe special stones or meditation techniques using mantras to those facing difficult or unclear futures as predicted by means consistent with Jyotish methodology. While in past centuries, Brahmins had been the primary practitioners of Jyotish, since the last century, a renaissance of study of Jyotish and other Vedic sciences emerged in India and the west.[citation needed] The term "Vedic astrology" has been recently introduced by American and European astrologers in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to collaborative organizations such as the now-international Council of Vedic Astrology.
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« Reply #2 on: August 11, 2007, 02:23:03 pm »

                                       







Fundamentals of Jyotish

Vedic astrology i.e. Jyotish contains some concepts that are not found in any other school of astrology. Some of the important building blocks are discussed below.





 Nakshatra - the lunar mansions



Unique to Jyotisa or Vedic astrology is the idea of the nakshatra (Devanagari: नक्षत्र) or lunar mansion , one of the 27 or 28 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, that the Moon passes through during its monthly cycle, as used in Hindu astronomy and astrology. Each nakshatra represents a division of the ecliptic (of 13 degree 20 minutes) similar to the zodiac signs. 

 The mansion associated with a given date corresponds to the constellation which the Moon is passing through at that time. Traditionally the nakshatra position of Moon is computed for native's mental make-up, and calculations of planetary periods (dashas). Each nakshatra is further partitioned into four equal segments known as charan or pad. Nakshatra contains an important place in Astrological match making, Mahurtha, Panchanga and Prashana affairs.
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« Reply #3 on: August 11, 2007, 02:28:05 pm »









THE PLANETS


Graha literally means any heavenly body or point that can cast an impact on human affairs. It may be translated as planet for ease. Graha also includes lunar nodes (Rahu and Ketu) and sub-planets (upgrahas) which are not planets but no less effective than planets. The extra-saturnine planets (Uranus and Neptune) are not included in the category of Graha.


Here are the list of nine grahas (heavenly bodies or "planets"):


Sanskrit Name English Name Abbreviation Image Yantra Gender Guna Represents

Surya (सूर्य) Sun Sy or Su   M Sattva Soul, king, highly placed persons, father.

Chandra (चंद्र) Moon Ch or Mo   F Sattva Mind, queen, mother.

Mangala (मंगल) Mars Ma   M Tamas energetic action, confidence and ego

Budha (बुध) Mercury Bu or Me   N Rajas Communication and analysis

Brihaspati (बृहस्पति) Jupiter Gu or Ju   M Sattva the great teacher

Shukra (शुक्र) Venus Sk or Ve   F Rajas wealth, pleasure and reproduction

Shani (शनि) Saturn Sa   F Tamas learning the hard way. Career and Longevity

Rahu (राहु) Head of Demon Snake

Ascending/North Lunar Node Ra   F Tamas a Asura who does his best to plunge any area of one's life he controls into chaos
 
Ketu (केतु) Tail of Demon Snake

Descending/South Lunar Node Ke   M Tamas supernatural influences
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« Reply #4 on: August 11, 2007, 02:31:10 pm »








It is said in Vedic thought that everything emanated from the one basic vibration of "Om" or "Aum."

From "Om" the five elemental vibrations emerged representing the five different tattwas (or elements).

The five planets represent these five vibrations – Jupiter for Ether, Saturn for Air, Mars for Fire,

Mercury for Earth, and Venus for Water. Everything is made up of these five different elements in

different proportions. From this, arise the principles of Jyotish, the principles of Ayurveda, the principles

of Yoga, the principles of Indian classical music, the principles of color, and many other sciences in

ancient India.
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« Reply #5 on: August 11, 2007, 02:33:30 pm »








Rashi - the signs




The most easily referred to difference between the Jyotish and Western Zodiacs lies in the method of measurement. While synchronically, the two systems are identical, Vedic astrology uses primarily the sidereal zodiac (in which stars are considered to be the fixed background against which the motion of the planets is measured), whereas most Western astrology uses the tropical zodiac (the motion of the planets is measured against the position of the Sun on the Spring equinox). This difference becomes noticeable over time. After two millennia, as a result of the precession of the equinoxes, the origin of the ecliptic longitude has shifted by about 22 degrees. As a result the placement of planets in the Jyotish system is consistent with the actual zodiac, while in western astrology the planets fall into the following sign, as compared to their placement in the sidereal zodiac, about two thirds of the time. The sidereal zodiac is also an imaginary belt of 360 degrees (like the tropical zodiac), divided into 12 equal parts. Each twelfth part (of 30 degrees) is called a sign or rashi.



Number Sanskrit Name Western Name Element Quality



1 Mesha Aries Tejas Cara
 
2 Vrishabha Taurus Prithivi Sthira

3 Mithuna Gemini Vayu Dvisvabhava

4 Karka Cancer Jala Cara

5 Simha Leo Tejas Sthira

6 Kanya Virgo Prithivi Dvisvabhava

7 Tula Libra Vayu Cara

8 Vrischika Scorpio Jala Sthira

9 Dhanus Sagittarius Tejas Dvisvabhava

10 Makara Capricorn Prithivi Cara

11 Kumbha Aquarius Vayu Sthira

12 Meena Pisces Jala Dvisvabhava
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« Reply #6 on: August 11, 2007, 02:34:35 pm »





One's Ascendant, or lagna, the rashi which is rising on the eastern horizon at the time of one's birth, is the most influential and important one. Of lesser importance but still some impact is the Janma Rashi, the rashi in which the moon lay while one was born.

There are three different Jyotish chart notations, for showing the rashi and bhavi ( the houses ) which are functionally equivalent but quite different in appearance. The following images show the same birth chart in the two main notations - North Indian and South Indian. The third notation is followed in Eastern parts of India.








In the North Indian notation, the house positions are fixed (1st house top middle, with the rest following in counterclockwise order) and the signs of the zodiac are indicated by numbers in the chart (1 for Aries, and so on).
 Conversely, in the South Indian notation, the signs of the zodiac have fixed positions (Aries always occupies the 2nd box from the left in the top row, with the rest following in clockwise order), and the first house is marked "As" (for ascendant) with the rest following in clockwise order.
 

The charts are broken into twelve sections, houses or Bhavas, each of which is related to a rashi in an equal house system.
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« Reply #7 on: August 11, 2007, 02:40:59 pm »








Bhava - the houses



A two house system is in practice among follower of Jyotish. The first house is what Western astrologers call the whole sign house system while the second one is Sripathi akin to a Porphyry house system. KP also incorporates Placidus house system. The significance of 12 houses are as follow.

1st house Native, Appearance, Character, Purpose of Life
2nd house Wealth, Family, Meal, Early Education
3rd house Younger coborn, Communication (phone, SMS, chatting etc)
4th house Mother, Education, Home, Property, Vehicle
5th house Children, Lover, Recreation, Devotion, Creativity
6th house Health, Maternal uncle and aunt, Litigation, Servants
7th house Spouse, Business partner, Death, Trade, Agreement
8th house Sex, Longevity, Failure, Family of spouse, Dowry
9th house Luck, Higher learning, Travelling, Religion, Mentor
10th house Profession, Status, Power, Father, Mother-in-law
11th house Friends, Hopes, Earnings, Elder coborn, Daughter/Son-in-law
12th house Expenses, Sleep, Donation, Foreign stay
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« Reply #8 on: August 11, 2007, 02:41:58 pm »








Lagna - the Ascendant
One's Ascendant, or lagna, the rashi which is rising on the eastern horizon at the time of one's birth, is the most influential and important one. In addition, Sage Parasara mentioned a few special ascendants or Veshaish Lagni before mentioning the results of various divisional charts and houses. His mention that houses can be counted from special lagnas clearly indicates that he wanted special lagnas to be used instead of lagna for some clear purposes. Some important special lagnas are follows.

Chandra Lagna (ascendant counted from natal Moon sign - very important lagna)
Surya Lagna (ascendant counted from natal Sun sign)
Karak Lagna (significator taken as ascendant for all grahas)
Varnada Lagna (for social company)
Shri Lagna (for prosperity and marriage)
Indu Lagna (for wealth)
Hora Lagna (for financial prosperity)
Gati Lagna (for name and fame)
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« Reply #9 on: August 11, 2007, 02:43:53 pm »








Drishti - the aspect

Aspect is one of the most important phenomena that not only interlinks the planets with each other but also playing a role of bridge between signs. In Jyotish the word Drishti is tantamount to Aspect, means glance or sight. It is the transfer of influences to another graha or rashi as a result of their situation in relation to each other.

The hierarchy of aspect can be categorized into two types as;

1- Aspect based on Planet or Sign’s Nature
2- Aspect based on Relative Distance
1- Aspect based on Planet or Sign’s Nature
This is the system of aspect studied in Vedic Astrology. This holds that certain planet or sign sights another planet or sign depends on its nature. This can also be divided into two kinds, namely;

Graha Drishti
Rashi Drishti
Graha Drishti should prefer when analyzing


Nakshatra Dasha
Chart with respect to the Moon
Sahams i.e. Arabic Parts
Rashi Drishti should prefer when analyzing



Rashi Dasha

Chart with respect to Special Lagnas (AL GL, HL etc)
Vargas i.e. Divisional Charts


2- Aspect based on Relative Distance

This is the same method in vogue in Western Astrology. Tajik Varshphal (Vedic Solar Return Chart) applies this technique to erect 14 different types of aspects also known as varshphala yogas.
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« Reply #10 on: August 11, 2007, 02:45:23 pm »








Other elements of Jyotish

Jyotish also contains other important elements which build upon or develop the fundamental concepts of Vedic astrology.


 Varga - the divisional charts

The term Varga means Division and refers to the various divisions of a sign, based on which Divisional Charts (or simply D-Charts) is constructed. Divisional charts (Vargas or Amsas) are very peculiar to Jyotish, and they are not found in other systems of astrology. Ancient Indian Mentor and Expert, Maharishi Parashara describes 16 divisional charts which are as follows;

Rasi D-1: Body, Physical Matters and All Generall Maters
Hora D-2: Wealth, Family
Drekkana D-3: Siblings, Nature
Chaturthamsa D-4: Fortune and Property
Saptamsa D-7: Children/Progeny
Navamsa D-9: Wife, Dharma and Relationships
Dasamsa D-10: Actions in Society, Profession
Dwadasamsa D-12: Parents
Shodasamsa D-16: Vehicles, Travelling and Comforts
Vimsamsa D-20: Spiritual Pursuits
ChaturVimsamsa D-24: Education, Learning and Knowledge
SaptaVimsamsa D-27: Strengths and Weakness
Trimsamsa: D-30 Evils, Failure, Bad Luck
KhaVedamsa D-40: Maternal Legacy
AkshaVedamsa D-45: Paternal Legacy
Shastiamsa D-60: Past birth/Karma
Maharishi Jaimini explaines 4 more divisional charts. They include;

Panchamsa D-5: Fame & Power
Shasthamsa D-6: Health
Ashtamsa D8: Unexpected Troubles
EkaDasamsa/Rudramsa D-11: Death and Destruction
Apart form Rashi (D-1); Navamsha (D-9), Drekkana (D-3), Dasamsa (D-10) and Trimsamsa (D-30) are considered significant divisional charts.
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« Reply #11 on: August 11, 2007, 02:46:35 pm »








Argala - the intervention


Significations of various houses are interlinked. Support provided by one house to another is called Argala and the obstruction offered to supporting houses is called Virodha argala.

Graha (planets) in 2nd, 4th and 11th house cause argalas on a given house, whereas the planets in 12th, 10th and 3rd cause virodha argalas to 2nd, 4th and 11th respectively.

Banefic generally give shubha argalas, malefic offerpapa argalas. If however a malefic has an argala on house of which it is a significator, such an aragala can be termed as shubha. For example a malefics in 10th house cast papa argala to 9th house as 10th house is second from 9th. This may make the native non religious and give bad relations with boss/teacher, provided there is no virodh argala from 8th.
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« Reply #12 on: August 11, 2007, 02:47:33 pm »








Arudha - the mounted image


The term Arudha Pada is also known as "Pada". Arudha literally means "mount" and refers to the IMAGE of a sign falling on another due to "reflection of the rays emanating from it and being reflected by its lord.

Keeping the reflection in view, the Karaka (Significator) can be taken to be the Moon. Count from a sign to its lord. Then count as many signs from the lord to arrive at the ARUDHA PADA. For example, if the Lagna Lord is in the fifth house, then count five signs from the Lagna lord to arrive at the ninth house. This ninth house becomes the arudha Pada for the Lagna.

Exception: The Arudha Pada cannot be in the same sign or the seventh from it. In case this happens, then choose the tenth house therefrom. For example, if the Lagna Lord is in the 4th house, then the Arudha lagna should be in the 4th from the 4th house i.e. the 7th house. But since this is not allowed, the tenth therefrom should be chosen. The tenth from the 7th house is the 4th house and the 4th house becomes the Arudha Lagna.

Arudha of 1st house is also called PADA LAGNA or ARUDHA LAGNA. Arudha lagna stands for "manifestation of self, in this maya (illusory) world". In this manner Arudha Pada can be computed for all the houses. They are called Dhana Pada (2nd), Bhratripada (3rd), Matri Pada (4th), Mantrapada (5th), Satrupada (6th), Dara Pada (7th), Roga pada (8th), Bhagyapada (9th), Rajyapada (10th), Labhapada (11th) and Upapada (12th). Jaimini discussed Arudha lagna (AL) and Upapada (UL) extinsively in his classical treatise.
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« Reply #13 on: August 11, 2007, 02:48:30 pm »








Yoga - the planetary combinations


In Jyotish, Yoga means yoka or combination. Yogas are certain planetary combinations. Jyotish classics explaines hundred of thousands of yogas. Chandra (lunar combinations for general luck), Dhana (wealth related) and Raja (power and success related) yogas are often studied.

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« Reply #14 on: August 11, 2007, 02:49:29 pm »








Shadbala - the sixfold strength


Shadbala means sixfold strength. Although these strengths are combinedly used for finding the effect of planets on the lives of the natives, there is more use of the strengths and we get the clue of those uses from their names. These strengths need not be used only predicting the results of the dasa, however, can be used for normal horoscopic interpretation.

Shad Bal consists of the following strengths

1. Sthan Bal (Positional strength)
2. Dig Bal (Directional strength)
3. Kaal Bal (Temporalstrength), inclusive of Ayan Bal (Equinoctial strength)
4. Chesht Bal (Motional strength)
5. Naisargika Bal (Natural strength)
6. Drik Bal (Aspectual strength)
These strengths are computed for the seven Grahas from Sun to Saturn. The lunar nodes (Rahu and Ketu) are not considered.
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