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ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy

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Author Topic: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy  (Read 7771 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #60 on: May 29, 2009, 08:56:02 am »










Islamic Astrology



Muslim astrologers defined a new form of astrology called electional astrology that could be used for all manner of divination in everyday life, such as the discovery of propitious moments for the undertaking of a journey, or the beginning of a business venture etc. They also were the first to speak of 'favourable' and 'unfavourable' indications, rather than categorical events.

Albumasur or Abu Ma'shar (805 - 885) was the greatest of the Arab astrologers. His treatise 'Introductoriam in Astronomium' spoke of how 'only by observing the great diversity of planetary motions can we comprehend the unnumbered varieties of change in this world'. The 'Introductoriam' was one of the first books to find its way in translation through Spain and into Europe in the Middle Ages, and was highly influential in the revival of astrology and astronomy there.






Arab Astrology and Herbalism



Muslims also combined the disciplines of medicine and astrology by being linking the curative properties of herbs with specific zodiac signs and planets.  Mars, for instance, was considered hot and dry and so ruled plants with a hot or pungent taste - like hellebore, tobacco or mustard. These beliefs were adopted by European herbalists like Culpeper right up until the development of modern medicine.
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« Reply #61 on: May 29, 2009, 09:00:47 am »










                                                       Iranian Astrologers






Iranian Astrology predates Islam and flourished as early as the Achaemenian times.

The Bible makes references to the three wise Magi from the east who are thought to have been Iranian.

The Iranians made significant contribution to astronomy and astrology.

Al Khwarizmi was the most famous of these. He was a great mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. He is considered to be the father of algebra and the algorithm , and introduced the concept of the number zero to the Western world.

The calendar calculated 1000 years ago by Omar Khayyam Neyshabouri, Mathematician, Astronomer, Poet and Philosopher, is still in effect in Iran as the official Persian calendar. This is virtually the only calendar in the world which is based on classical horoscope system; means 1st if Aries is the first day of new year at spring equinox or on March 21, the beginning of Persian new year or Nowrooz. He is also the inventor of decimal system and believed to be the father of Algebra.[citation needed]

Another famous Iranians astrologer and astronomer was Qutb al-Din al Shirazi (1236 - 1311). He wrote critiques of the Almagest, the famous Arabic translation of the work of Ptolemy. The Almagest was the means by which Ptolemy's work was re-introduced into Europe, as the original European copies had been lost. He produced two prominent works on astronomy: 'The Limit of Accomplishment Concerning Knowledge of the Heavens' in 1281 and 'The Royal Present' in 1284, both of which commented upon and improved on Ptolemy's work, particularly in the field of planetary motion. Al-Shirazi was also the first person to give the correct scientific explanation for the formation of a rainbow.

Ulugh Beyg was a fifteenth-century Sultan of Iran and another notable Iranian mathematician and astronomer. He built an observatory in 1428 and produced the first original star map since Ptolemy, which corrected the position of many stars, and included many new ones.
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« Reply #62 on: May 29, 2009, 09:01:55 am »










Medieval refutations



The first semantic distinction between astrology and astronomy was given by the Persian Muslim astronomer Abu Rayhan al-Biruni in the 11th century, and he later refuted astrology in another treatise.

The study of astrology was also refuted by other medieval Muslim astronomers such as Al-Farabi (Alpharabius), Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), Avicenna and Averroes. Their reasons for refuting astrology were often due to both scientific (the methods used by astrologers being conjectural rather than empirical) and religious (conflicts with orthodox Islamic scholars) reasons.

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292-1350), in his Miftah Dar al-SaCadah, used empirical arguments in astronomy in order to refute the practice of astrology and divination.  He recognized that the stars are much larger than the planets, and thus argued:

"And if you astrologers answer that it is precisely because of this distance and smallness that their influences are negligible, then why is it that you claim a great influence for the smallest heavenly body, Mercury? Why is it that you have given an influence to al-Ra's and al-Dhanab, which are two imaginary points [ascending and descending nodes]?"

Al-Jawziyya also recognized the Milky Way galaxy as "a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars" and thus argued that "it is certainly impossible to have knowledge of their influences."
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« Reply #63 on: May 29, 2009, 09:03:01 am »









Modern Developments



Astrology was in favour in the Islamic world when it was associated with the sciences of astronomy, mathematics and medicine. When in later times it became separated from those disciplines, it was regarded as linked to superstition and fortune-telling.

Modern Islamic views of astrology are therefore negative for the most part, as fortune-telling is forbidden in the Koran. Present day Astrologers in Iran have found a great deal of similarities to
the Western Astrology. Iranian months of the year correspond exactly to the horoscope months.




(فروردین)Farvardin=Aries

(اردیبهشت)Ordibehesht=Taurus

(خرداد)Khordad=Gemini

(تیر)Tir=Cancer

(مرداد)Mordad=Leo

(شهریور)Shahrivar=Virgo

(مهر)Mehr=Libra

(آبان)Aban=Scorpio

(آذر)Azar=Sagittarius

(دی)Day=Capricorn

(بهمن)Bahman=Aquarius

(اسفند)Esfand=Pisces
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« Reply #64 on: May 29, 2009, 09:04:21 am »









Prominent Arab, Jewish, Muslim, and Persian Astrologers



This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. Revisions and additions are welcome.



Abraham ibn Ezra

Abraham Zacuto

Al-Battani

Al-Biruni

Albohali

Albubather

Alchabitius

Al-fadl ibn Naubakht

'Ali ibn Ridwan

Al-Kindī

Arzachel

Berossus

Biblical Magi (the "Three Wise Men")

Haly Abenragel

Hypatia of Alexandria

Ibn Arabi

Ibn Yunus

Ibrahim al-Fazari

Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi

Mashallah

Muhammad al-Fazari

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

Naubakht

Omar Khayyam

Porphyry

Sharafeddin Tusi

Sudines
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Bianca
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« Reply #65 on: May 29, 2009, 09:05:38 am »










See also



 Astrology portal

Babylonian astrology

Egyptian astrology

Islamic astronomy

Islamic astrology

Jewish views of astrology
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Bianca
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« Reply #66 on: May 29, 2009, 09:06:41 am »








References



1.^ S. Pines (September 1964). "The Semantic Distinction between the Terms Astronomy and Astrology according to al-Biruni", Isis 55 (3), p. 343-349.

2.^ Sasha Fenton "Understanding Astrology"", The Aquarian Press, London 1991

3.^ Derek and Julia Parker "The New Compleat Astrologer" Crescent Books, New York 1990

4.^ Parker & Parker, ibid, 1990

5.^ Sasha Fenton, ibid

6.^ S. Pines (September 1964), "The Semantic Distinction between the Terms Astronomy and Astrology according to al-Biruni", Isis 55 (3): 343-349

7.^ Saliba, George (1994b), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, New York University Press, 60 & 67-69, ISBN 0814780237

8.^ Livingston, John W. (1971), "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation", Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1): 96103, doi:10.2307/600445
 
9.^ a b Livingston, John W. (1971), "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation", Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1): 96103 [99], doi:10.2307/600445
Article Mentioning Persian-Arabic astrology



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