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The Tocharian Mummies

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Boreas
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« on: February 15, 2007, 06:30:02 pm »

The Tarim Mummies

In the late 1980's, perfectly preserved 3000-year-old mummies began appearing in a remote Chinese desert. They had long reddish-blond hair, European features and didn't appear to be the ancestors of modern-day Chinese people. Archaeologists now think they have been the citizens of an "ancient civilization" that existed between China and Europe.




This mummy of a young woman was found in 1989.




This mummified boy, approximately one-year-old, was found in the same grave.



 
This mummy of a woman, who was approximately 40-years old, was found in the main chamber of the same tomb. Her tall stature, high nose, and red hair indicate that she was of European descent.

Mummies from the Wupu cemetery



This mummy of an 18 to 20 year old woman is on display at a museum in Hami. Her features, particularly her overbite, indicate Caucasian heritage.

 


This mummified man was approximately 40 years old at the time of his death.


http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/chinamum/taklamakan.html


Reconstruction of the "Beauty of Louland".






WHO WHERE THE ANCIENT TOKARIANS?

Traditional history have long told us that these Tocharians were “Indo-Iranian". But, what does that mean?

During the first years of this millennium the first Tarim body was tested on MtDNA, paralell to a test of a few skeletons of Central Asian Scythes. The results did not surprise but prove anthropologic similarities.

The Tocharian mummies proved to belong to the very same population who spread haplogroup R1a1 all over Eurasia, from western Norway to Mongolia. Thus we may check out the modern Caucasoid populations that carry R1a1 to compare to the plausible outlook of the “Beuty of Korlan”. The difference from the Indo-Iranian populations of today are obvious, probably due to the admixture of Persians and Asians/Indians during the middle and later Bronze Age.

The haplogroup Rb are a major marker in northern Europe and Asia. The western populations (“Celts”, “Goths”, etc) carry R1b, thus called “The Atlantic Modal haplotype”. Meanwhile, the eastern population(s) have developed a variation defined as Ra1a, which may mark the “Uralic Modal haplotype” (Finns, etc.).  One final repport on the Schyto-Siberian skeletons concluded;

The probability of observing an individual with the Kizil [Scythian] skeleton STR profile was the highest in the two eastern European populations (Russia and Poland). Indeed, the likelihood that the Kizil skeleton STR profile occurred in these two populations was 10 times higher than in other European populations [194 Austrians and 155 Bavarians, 115 Galicians, 110 northern Portuguese, and 143 Greeks], 100 times higher than in eastern Asian populations, and about 100,000 times higher than in Indian populations.


 (Francois Ricaut; "Genetic Analysis of a Scytho-Siberian Skeleton and Its Implications for Ancient Central Asian Migrations" Human Biology - Volume 76, Number 1, February 2004, pp. 109-125)


Note; Uygurs of Kazachstan have not more then 10% of R1b.
(Tatiana Zerjal, et al; “A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia”)

http://www.enter.net/~torve/trogholm/wonder/indoeuropean/indoeuropean4.html


INDO-EUROPEAN ORIGIN?

Assigning Tocharian to its proper place in the Indo-European family has turned out to be anything but straightforward. For one thing, it is a centum language and shows no particular similarity to its Indo-Iranian neighbors. An alternative possibility has been suggested on the basis of the magnificant mummies of Urumchi, which are found in the same area as the Tocharian writings but date back as far as 2000 BC. The people whose bodies were preserved by the dry desert sands were clearly European in origin, as shown by their physical appearance, by their DNA, and even by the textiles they wore. Because of their fair hair and their fondness for plaids, it is thought by some that they were closely related to the Celts of Europe.”

The Tokarian discoveries have fueled the debate about the etnicity of the indigenous population(s) of the Russian/Caucasian and Uralian lowland. Because these Tocharians could look like present Europeans AND like Modern-Day Iranians. So what could it be?

ONLINE ENCYCLOPEDIA:

"There is evidence both from mummies and Chinese writings that many of them had blond or red hair and blue eyes. This suggests the possibility that they were part of an early Indo-European migration that ended in what is now the Tarim Basin in western China.

"Textile analysis has shown similarities to the Iron Age civilizations of Europe. One of the unusual finds with one of the mummies was a classical "witch's hat", which was worn by the witches of European myth, suggesting very ancient Indo-European roots for this tradition. Women also wore the same kind of skirts as have been found preserved in graves from the Nordic Bronze Age.

http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/t/to/tocharians.htm

---

Which seems to explain that the fair hair of these mummies isn’t a trick of the desert sand. Ancient Chinese litterature is said to contain contemporary descriptions and paintings of these North-Western neighbours. Here they are portrayed as fair-haired and blue-eyed. But what is the modern expert’s take on the “looks” of the Tocharians?

Dr. Victor Mair have studied the ancient populations of North-East Asia over the last two decades. Thus he jumped into action when the Chinese finally allowed western scientists to investigate the sites. In his book "The Tarim Mummies" he notes;

“What truly astonished me to a personal level - was Charchan man’s hair and face. The mummy’s hair was ginger-colored, and his face bearded with typical Caucasian features." As Mair observed, “He looked like my brother Dave sleeping there”. Dr. Mair’s parents are from Austria…

TOKARIAN DNA

The Italian genetician Paolo Francalacci finally got enough mtDNA out of the mummies to tell something about their genetic basics.  He concluded that the mummies were certainly Europeans, adding that Euros were a “very homogeneous actually."

Heather Pringle in her article “The Curse of the Redheaded Mummies,” adds: “For months the Italian geneticist laboured on the mummy samples, trying to extract enough dna for sequencing. The nucleic acids had badly degraded, but still, Francalacci kept trying various methods, and in 1995 he called Mair with a piece of good news. He had finally retrieved enough dna to sequence, and his preliminary results were intriguing. The two Xinjiang mummies belonged to the same genetic lineage as most modern-day Swedes, Finns and Tuscans.”

CONCLUSIONS

DNA evidence says that Tokarian was not like "Indo-Iranian”, but "European". Both modern and ancient sources are (now) describing them as blond-haired and blue-eyed. Their clothes and their weaving patterns were European - identical to the style (“fashion”?!), the  colorfing AND the weaving techniques known from the "Nordic Bronze Age" cultures in Northern Europe. Some references say they wore Kilts, had tartan-patterned clothing and "witch's hats" – yet another parallel from what appear in the European bronze-age culture.



Epilogue;

LINK TO THE ETRUSCANS?

Southern Tuscany in Sforza's genetic maps presents odd values that are considered by Sforza the trace of the remains of the Etruski, a population of dubious origin. Mythically the Etruscans are originating from “Troy”, while the old Greek historians pointed towards “northern Anatolia” (Caucasus) as the place of their origin.

Today’s display of the genetic substratum of Northern Italy may very well prove that there is an ancient link between BOTH the Etruscans and the Tocharians - and the most ancient population of the present Europeans - which is the Scandinavians or Finns.
« Last Edit: February 16, 2007, 04:59:00 pm by Boreas » Report Spam   Logged

Gens Una Sumus

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« Reply #1 on: February 15, 2007, 09:38:43 pm »

Gene Pool Structure of Eastern Ukrainians

Inferred from the Y-Chromosome Haplogroups
V. N. Kharkov et al.

Abstract

Y chromosomes from representative sample of Eastern Ukrainians (94 individuals) were analyzed for composition and frequencies of haplogroups, defined by 11 biallelic loci located in non-recombining part of the chromosome (SRY1532, YAP, 92R7, DYF155S2, 12f2, Tat, M9, M17, M25, M89, and M56). In the Ukrainian gene, pool six haplogroups were revealed: E, F (including G and I), J, N3, P, and R1a1.

These haplogroups were earlier detected in a study of Y-chromosome diversity on the territory of Europe as a whole. The major haplogroup in the Ukrainian gene pool, haplogroup R1a1 (earlier designated HG3), accounted for about 44% of all Y chromosomes in the sample examined. This haplogroup is thought to mark the migration patterns of the early Indo-Europeans and is associated with the distribution of the Kurgan archaeological culture.

The second major haplogroup is haplogroup F (21.3%), which is a combination of the lineages differing by the time of appearance. Haplogroup P found with the frequency of 9.6%, represents the genetic contribution of the population originating from the ancient autochthonous population of Europe. The presence of the N3 lineage (9.6%) shows a substatum of the Finno–Ugric. The data on the composition and frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups in the sample studied substantially supplement the existing picture of the male lineage distribution in the Eastern Slav population.

http://dienekes.ifreepages.com/blog/archives/2004_03.html

More nitty-gritties from the genetic league;
http://vetinarilord.blogspot.com/2005/12/patterns-of-male-specific-inter.html
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« Reply #2 on: February 15, 2007, 10:15:54 pm »

     
Early Eurasians in northwest Siberia revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

Olga A Derbeneva , Elena B Starikovskaya , Douglas C Wallace , Rem I Sukernik

The mtDNA of 98 Mansi were analyzed. The Mansi-people is an ancient group formerly known as "Voguls". They are Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains were analyzed.

63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV). The remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M).

Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed. The Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia from the west, - before it split into western and eastern human groups.

Mesh-terms: Asia, ethnology; DNA, Mitochondrial, genetics; Ethnic Groups, genetics; Europe, ethnology; Gene Frequency; Haplotypes, genetics; Human; Phylogeny; Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length; Siberia, ethnology; Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.;

Mitochondrial DNA variation in Kets and Nganasans and the early peoples of Northern Eurasia

O A Derbeneva , E B Starikovskaia , N V Volod'ko , D C Wallace , R I Sukernik

Mitochondrial DNA variation was studied in 38 Kets and 24 Nganasans, the indigenous inhabitants of the north of the Yenisey River Basin and the Taimyr Peninsula. The results were compared with the analogous data obtained for 59 Kondinski and 39 Sos'vinski Mansi. As a whole, mitochondrial gene pool of Mansi, Nganasans, and Kets was characterized by unique combination of European-specific (H, H2, H3, H8, U2, U4, U5, U7, J2, and W) and Asian-specific (A, C, D, and Z) mtDNA haplogroups. Specific features of the haplogroup geographical distribution along with the results of phylogenetic reconstruction favor the hypothesis of the genetic trace left in Eastern Cis-Urals and the adjacent Siberian territories by early migrations from the western Eurasia.

http://lib.bioinfo.pl/meid:146407
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« Reply #3 on: February 16, 2007, 01:16:42 pm »

Bo,

Great work! 

I think that the pictures do a good job to illustrate your research.  I have been looking for pictures to illustrate my Guanche and Basque threads, but so far haven't found any to be sufficient.

Europa
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« Reply #4 on: February 24, 2007, 09:03:57 am »

Unravelling migrations in the steppe: mitochondrial DNA sequences from ancient central Asians.

Lalueza-Fox C, Sampietro ML, Gilbert MT, Castri L, Facchini F, Pettener D, Bertranpetit J.
Unitat d'Antropologia, Departimenti Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona.


This study helps to clarify the debate on the Western and Eastern genetic influences in Central Asia. Thirty-six skeletal remains from Kazakhstan (Central Asia), excavated from different sites dating between the fifteenth century BC to the fifth century AD, have been analyzed.

The distribution of east and west Eurasian lineages through time in the region is concordant with the available archaeological information: prior to the thirteenth-seventh century BC, all Kazakh samples belong to European lineages; while later an arrival of east Eurasian sequences that coexisted with the previous west Eurasian genetic substratum can be detected.

The presence of an ancient genetic substratum of European origin in West Asia may be related to the discovery of ancient mummies with European features in Xinjiang and to the existence of an extinct Indo-European language, Tocharian. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the ancient DNA in unravelling complex patterns of past human migrations so as to help decipher the origin of present-day admixed populations.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15255049&dopt=Abstract


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« Reply #5 on: February 24, 2007, 09:04:42 am »

North-West Asia

The Water routes from the Tarim area towards europe lead to Volga/Ural-region wich is traditionaly considered to be the birth place of Uralic languages. I would conclude that it is possible that these mummies spoke an Uralic language.

The Area described here seems to be identical with the birth of y-chromosomal haplgroup N3*. Please see link: http://www.geocities.com/grpadm/Rootsi2006.pdf

Haplogroup N3 was born in that exact area circa 11 - 14.000 yrs BP. Haplogroup N is closely related to Uralic speaking populations, both western Siberian and northern European. Also some Turkic speakers belong to group N*, but only the Sakha (Yakut) males have the N-lineage as clear majority. "Sakha" lineages may be linked to the old "Scytian".

Most N3-males can be located in north eastern and north central Europe - from Finland towards the east. Most belong to the so called Baltic-type, a Caucasoid sub-group. Today there are more IE speaking N3 than there are Uralic speaking. Mostly because many Russians and Balts carry this genetic marker (wich they inherited from  Finno-Ugrians). Also Polacks, Germans and Scandinavians have the marker from the same source. Thus the spread of the haplogroup N can be traced through the spread of Uralic languages throughout Western and Central Asia.



 

North-East Asia

The distribution of east and west Eurasian lineages through time in the region is concordant with the available archaeological information: prior to the thirteenth-seventh century BC, all Kazakh samples belong to European lineages; while later an arrival of east Eurasian sequences - that co-existed with the previous west Eurasian genetic substratum - can be detected. The presence of an ancient genetic substratum of European origin in West Asia may be related to the discovery of ancient mummies with European features in Xinjiang"

Also the very "late" Xiongnu seems to be of Uralic origins rather than Turkic. Pulleyblank has shown that the language of the Xiongnu - of which we possess some words and terms preserved in Chinese literature - was related to the Siberian ethnics (Samoyeds) in the River Yennisej area. Samoyed are clearly mostly mongoloid origin (more that central-asiatics even they live closer to Finno-Ugrians) but they speak Samojedic, which is Uralic (Finno-Ugric) in origin.

http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Altera/xiongnu.htm


Paleolithic culture of China

http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php/topic,1151.0/topicseen.html

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« Reply #6 on: February 24, 2007, 09:22:08 am »

Genetic Structure of a 2,500-Year-Old Human Population in China

Abstract

We compared the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of three populations that lived in the same location, Linzi, China, in different periods: 2,500 years ago (the Spring–Autumn era), 2,000 years ago (the Han era), and the present day.

The results indicate that the genetic backgrounds of the three populations are distinct from each other. Inconsistent with the geographical distribution, the 2,500-year-old Linzi population showed greater genetic similarity to present-day European populations than to present-day east Asian populations.

The 2,000-year-old Linzi population had features that were intermediate between the present-day European/2,500-year-old Linzi populations and the present-day east Asian populations. These relationships suggest the occurrence of drastic spatiotemporal changes in the genetic structure of Chinese people during the past 2,500 years.

Introduction

Molecular studies have identified genetic relationships among the present-day human populations. However, population history is still in controversy; migration and admixture in the past make it difficult to interpret these relations in a straightforward manner when examining the origin of modern humans and their expansion across the earth. Genetic research on ancient populations is therefore absolutely requisite for disclosing past events and investigating population history. Direct analysis of the Neanderthal DNA has supported the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, showing its mtDNA sequence to be outside the variation of present-day human populations (Krings et al. 1997).

Here we investigated temporal changes in genetic structure of human populations during the past 2,500 years in China using mtDNA sequences. All samples were collected in Linzi at the lower reaches of the Yellow River in China. We extracted DNAs from the human remains excavated from the 2,500-year-old site of Linzi and the present-day Han Chinese living in Linzi - evaluating the the genetic distances among the populations, including the present-day Eurasian populations.




We compared the genetic structures of three populations that lived in the same location, during three separate historical periods and found that the genetic structure of the inhabitants of Linzi has changed greatly over time. The period of Chinese history that dates to 2,500 years ago corresponds to the transition period from the Spring–Autumn era to the Warring States era, and the period around 2,000 years ago was in the middle of the Han era. Linzi, our sampling location, was the capital of the feudal state Qi in the Spring–Autumn and the Warring States eras.

Qin, one of the feudal states during those periods, conquered other states, including Qi, and established the first unified nation in China. Subsequently, the Han dynasty followed Qin after great disturbances of war. Therefore, our finding that the population structure of Linzi changed drastically during those periods can be concordant with these historical events.



A phylo-genetic network. Open circles represent distinct mtDNA types found in present-day Asian and circum-Pacific populations, and full circles represent mtDNA types that are absent from those populations. Shaded circles represent mtDNA types seen in the 2,500-year-old to present-day Linzi people in China.

The similarity between the genetic structures of the 2,500-year-old Linzi population and the present-day European populations indicates that there was a genetic shift in the Linzi area from a European-like population to a population more like those found in present-day east Asia, probably caused by migration.

Even more surprisingly, the three smallest genetic distances for the 2,500-year-old Linzi population were from the Turkish, Icelander, and Finnish, rather than from the east Asian populations.

This is in accord with the existence of the Eurasiatic superfamily languages, which surround a linguistically unique Sino-Tibetan language, the present-day Chinese language (Ruhlen 1987, 1994Citation ; Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi, and Piazza 1994Citation ). Future molecular studies of ancient populations will help us discover the places and times of human diversification and the migration routes of ancient populations.

http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/17/9/1396


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« Reply #7 on: February 28, 2007, 01:50:57 am »

Blonde and red-haired mummies of New Zealand ...

So much of interest on the below link, here is a sampling.......

"BLUE BLOODS. WHAT DOES IT REALLY MEAN???
There were the blue-bloods of Ancient Times which extended into European Times. . They actually did have blue blood, and it was not hemoglobin based but copper based. They were semi-human. There are still to this day, some animal species in South America that have copper based blood systems. There was a problem with hemophilia, and not because of intermarrying. The problem was that they started to marry outside of the copper based blood system. Hemoglobin and copper systems don't mix. That's where the laws against marrying commoners originated."

http://www.burlingtonnews.net/redhairedmummiesnz.html

Link on that site to: The Tribe of Dann and the Lost Tribe of Israel
"The RH NEGATIVE FACTOR KEY is in the HEART of the CELL
Lands connected to the Tribes of Dann  can be traced through this blood factor.
.The Rh-Negatives Factor is considered a "Mutation" of "Unknown Origin"."

Link on that site to the "Lemuria" link on that page:

The Hyperboreans  of Atlantis/Mu

The passage of Pliny (Hist. Nat. 4:26) on the Hyperboreans is worth quoting:

"Beyond the Aquilon one finds a blessed nation called, according to tradition, the Hypeboreans. Among them, men reach an extreme age. Many marvels are told of this people. Some say that the hinges of the world and the limit of the course of the stars lie in their region... The country is bathed in sunlight and enjoys a pleasant temperature..."
"Discord is there ignored, and so is disease. People there do not die but from the satiety of living. After a festive banquet, full of the joys of old age, the one who wants to die jumps into the seas from a lofty rock. Such is for them the happiest way to die. One cannot doubt the reality of this country, described by many authorities."
Pliny, in the above passage, also adds that Hyperborea was the realm of Apollo and that the Hyperboreans sent, from the island of Delos, the first-fruits of their crops to Greece, to be dedicated to the Sun God

Pliny's Hyperborea also evokes the description of the island of Emain Abalach (Avalon) in Celtic poems:.
Treason is there unknown and so is sadness.
There no pain, no regret, no death, no grief,
No disease, no weakness, ever afflict anyone.
For such is the fortune of Emain.

Another a similar Celtic poem adds:
What a wonderful country is this one!
There the young never grow old at all!

Avalon, Hyperborea, Thule, Taprobane, Eden, Paradise, Emain Abalach, the Garden of the Golden Apples, the Garden of Idun  etc. are all one and the same thing. Their connection with the "first fruits" is an allegoric reference to the fact that Atlantis.MU  was indeed the very first site of human civilization, the same as the legendary Paradise or Garden of Eden.
These pleasant, luxurious gardens all lay at the extremity of the world which, from the Celtic perspective in Brittany was  located on the side of the world opposite to their own misty islands. This Paradise was destroyed by a cataclysm, and they were forced to leave it, emigrating to the far Occident, under the leadership of Hu Gadarn, the Celtic Noah, the Judeo-Christian hero of the Flood
The sinking of this realm is told in the legend of the Flooding of Ys, another central tradition of Celtic mythology. And their sunken Paradise became the Land of the Dead, the "Tomb of Glass" (Glastonbury) or "Island of Glass" (Ynis Wydr) that we encounter so often in their Celtic legends. This dismal Hades is the same as the Cimmeria of the Greeks, the Hanebut of the Egyptians, the Sheol of the Jews and the Nefelheim of the Germanic Nations.

When this blonde haired/red haired, blue eyed race  survived the Atlantean/Mu  cataclysm they emigrated to the distant Occident in their ships — under the guidance of admirals like Aeneas, Hercules, Phoroneos, and Hu Gadarn and, perhaps, Noah, Canopus and Jason — they settled in colonies along the way, on every coast and every island that looked promising. The legends are certainly founded in actual fact, and these fleets of ocean worth vessels are the ones allegorized as the Ark of Noah in the Bible or as the Argonavis in Greek legends.

It was thus that Mauritania was settled by the Berbers, Lebanon by the Phoenicians, Crete by the Minoans, Italy by the Etruscans, the British Islands and Brittany by the Celts and, of course, the Canaries by the Guanches. Many of these emigrants were, as is usually the case, mere passengers who never knew how to sail or, even less, how to design and build sea-worthy ships strong enough to sail the open, rough ocean, a feat very hard to accomplish in antiquity. Such huge sailships — the "ships of Tarshish" of Biblical traditions — are attested from remotest antiquity, for instance in the Gerzean ceramics of pre-Dynastic Egypt,

In this way, the Guanches were stranded on the Canaries, and the enigma which has defied solution for millennia is naturally explained. The ancient peripluses like those of Hanno and Himilco relate similar expeditions and even the establishment of such insular colonies. Such is also the meaning of myths like the one of Aeneas and his fleet fleeing from the destroyed, sunken Troy or, also, of the Biblical relate of Noah and his clan repeopling the Islands of the Nations, and founding the different nations of mankind.

Ref:  Arysio Nunes dos Santos, Forbidden Research

Plus much more....

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