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The Mechanical Turk Automaton

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Author Topic: The Mechanical Turk Automaton  (Read 541 times)
Orheim
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« on: December 30, 2010, 02:56:48 am »

Notes

   1. ^ See SCHAFFER, Simon (1999), "Enlightened Automata", in CLARK et al. (Eds), The Sciences in Enlightened Europe, Chicago and London, The University of Chicago Press, pp. 126-165.
   2. ^ See, for instance, his An Attempt to Analyse the Automaton Chess Player, London, 1821
   3. ^ a b c d e f g h Ricky Jay, "The Automaton Chess Player, the Invisible Girl, and the Telephone," Jay's Journal of Anomalies, vol. 4 no. 4, 2000.
   4. ^ a b Edgar Allan Poe, "Maelzel's Chess-Player," Southern Literary Journal, April 1836; available on the internet via the Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore, Maryland, URL accessed 19 December 2006.
   5. ^ a b Karl Gottlieb von Windisch, Briefe über den Schachspieler von Kempelen nebst drey Kupferstichen die diese berühmte Maschine vorstellen, or Inanimate Reason; or, A Circumstantial Account of that Astonishing Piece of Mechanism, M. de Kempelen's Chess-Player, Now Exhibiting at No. 9 Savile-Row, Burlington Gardens (London, 1784); translation taken from Levitt.
   6. ^ Stephen Patrick Rice, Minding the Machine: Languages of Class in Early Industrial America (Berkeley, University of California Press, 2004), 12.
   7. ^ Tom Standage, The Turk: The Life and Times of the Famous Eighteenth-Century Chess-Playing Machine (New York: Walker, 2002), 22–23.
   8. ^ The dimensions from Jay's Journal, which expresses them to the nearest half-foot. Metric versions thus can only be precise to the nearest multiple of fifteen centimetres. If we conventionally round to the closest multiple of five centimetres, the cabinet was very roughly 110×60×75 cm and the chessboard very roughly 50 cm square.
   9. ^ Standage, 24.
  10. ^ a b Standage, 88
  11. ^ Standage, 24–27.
  12. ^ Standage, 195–199.
  13. ^ Standage, 202.
  14. ^ a b Ernest Wittenberg, "Échec!," American Heritage Magazine, 1960. URL accessed 1 January 2007.
  15. ^ Thomas Leroy Hankins and Robert J. Silverman, Instruments and the Imagination (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995), 191.
  16. ^ Gerald M. Levitt, The Turk, Chess Automaton (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2000), 40.
  17. ^ Levitt, 147–150.
  18. ^ Sound: Standage, 27–9. Facial expressions: George Atkinson, Chess and Machine Intuition (Exeter: Intellect, 1998), 15–16.
  19. ^ Standage, 203–204.
  20. ^ Standage, 24–17.
  21. ^ Levitt, 17.
  22. ^ Louis Dutens, from a letter published in Le Mercure du France (Paris, circa October 1770; later translated into English and reprinted in Gentleman's Magazine (London); translation taken from Levitt.
  23. ^ Standage, 30.
  24. ^ a b Standage, 30–31.
  25. ^ Standage, 204–205
  26. ^ Levitt, 33–34.
  27. ^ Standage, 37.
  28. ^ Standage, 36–38.
  29. ^ Standage, 40–42.
  30. ^ Standage, 44–45.
  31. ^ Standage, 49.
  32. ^ The Oxford Companion to Chess – David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld (1992) p.431
  33. ^ Levitt, 26.
  34. ^ Levitt, 27–29.
  35. ^ Levitt, 30–31.
  36. ^ Philip Thicknesse, The Speaking Figure and the Automaton Chess Player, Exposed and Detected (London, 1794), quoted in Levitt's The Turk, Chess Automaton.
  37. ^ Levitt, 33–37.
  38. ^ Standage, 90-91
  39. ^ Levitt, 37–38.
  40. ^ Levitt, 38–39.
  41. ^ Levitt, 30.
  42. ^ Standage, 105–106.
  43. ^ Bradley Ewart, Chess: Man vs. Machine (London: Tantivy, 1980).
  44. ^ Levitt, 39–42.
  45. ^ Levitt, 42–23.
  46. ^ Levitt, 45.
  47. ^ Levitt, 45–48.
  48. ^ Standage, 125.
  49. ^ W. J. Hunneman, Chess. A Selection of Fifty Games, from Those Played by the Automaton Chess-Player, During Its Exhibition in London, in 1820 (1820); quotation taken from Levitt.
  50. ^ The Oxford Companion to Chess - David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld (1992) p. 265
  51. ^ Levitt, 49.
  52. ^ Levitt, 68–69.
  53. ^ Levitt, 69.
  54. ^ In Boston in 1826 the automaton chess player appeared at Julien Hall. (cf. Boston Commercial Gazette, Sept. 14, 1826)
  55. ^ Levitt, 71–83.
  56. ^ Levitt, 83–86.
  57. ^ Levitt, 87–91.
  58. ^ Levitt, 92–93.
  59. ^ Levitt, 94–95.
  60. ^ Levitt, 97.
  61. ^ a b Silas Weir Mitchell, "The Last of a Veteran Chess Player," The Chess Monthly, January 1857; reprinted in Levitt's The Turk, Chess Automaton.
  62. ^ Levitt, 243.
  63. ^ Standage, 216–217.
  64. ^ Levitt, 236.
  65. ^ Levitt, 150.
  66. ^ Levitt, 151.
  67. ^ Levitt, 151–152.
  68. ^ Levitt, 153.
  69. ^ Levitt, 154–155.
  70. ^ Deep Blue: Feng-hsiung Hsu, Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2002). Levitt's book: The Turk, Chess Automaton product listing. URL accessed 1 January 2007. Standage's book: The Turk: The Life and Times of the Famous Eighteenth-Century Chess-Playing Machine product listing. URL accessed 1 January 2007.
  71. ^ Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine, directed by Vikram Jayanti, 2003.
  72. ^ Imitations: Jay, "The Automaton Chess Player, the Invisible Girl, and the Telephone. Ajeeb or the Egyptian: Ramón Jiménez, "The Rook Endgame Machine of Torres y Quevedo." ChessBase, 20 July 2004. URL accessed 15 January 2006. Played by Grover Cleveland: International Chess Magazine September 1885. Mephisto: Levitt, 154.
  73. ^ Ramón Jiménez, "The Rook Endgame Machine of Torres y Quevedo."
  74. ^ Levitt, 31–32.
  75. ^ Levitt, 241–242.
  76. ^ Maureen Furniss, "Le Joueur d'Echecs/The Chess Player (review)," The Moving Image 4, no. 1, Spring 2004, pp. 149–151.
  77. ^ http://tardis.wikia.com/wiki/The_Girl_in_the_Fireplace
  78. ^ Internet Movie Database: The Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles: "The Turk". URL accessed 14 April 2008.
  79. ^ Sova, Dawn B. (2001). Edgar Allan Poe: A to Z. New York: Checkmark Books. ISBN 081604161X. , the tale is available at Wikisource
  80. ^ Time, "Mystery of the Month." 31 October 1938, URL accessed 14 February 2007.
  81. ^ S. T. Joshi, John Dickson Carr: A Critical Study. Bowling Green Press, 1990.
  82. ^ Terry Carr (Editor), Universe 7. Doubleday, 1977.
  83. ^ James Robert Smith & Stephen Mark Rainey (editors), Evermore, Arkham House, 2007; reprinted in Stephen Jones (editor), The Mammoth Book of Best New Horror, Carroll & Graf, 2007.
  84. ^ Amazon.com: "FAQ: What is Amazon Mechanical Turk? URL accessed 15 January 2006.
  85. ^ Katharine Mieszkowski, "'I make $1.45 a week and I love it'," Salon.com, 24 July 2006. URL accessed 15 January 2007.

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