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NUMEROLOGY

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Bianca
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« on: August 02, 2007, 01:30:07 pm »








                                                        N U M E R O L O G Y





Numerology is any of many systems, traditions or beliefs in a mystical or esoteric relationship between numbers and physical objects or living things.

Numerology and Numerological Divination were popular among early mathematicians, such as Pythagoras, but are no longer considered part of mathematics and are regarded as pseudomathematics by most scientists. This is similar to the historical development of Astronomy out of Astrology, and Chemistry from Alchemy.

Today, numerology is often associated with  Astrology and similar Divinatory Arts. The term can also be used for those who, in the view of some observers, place excess faith in numerical patterns, even if those people don't practice traditional numerology. For example, Underwood Dudley uses the term to discuss practitioners of the Elliott wave principle of stock market analysis.
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« Reply #1 on: August 02, 2007, 01:34:20 pm »








HISTORY




Historians believe that modern numerology is an integration of the teachings from Ancient Babylonia, Pythagoras and his followers (6th century B.C. Greece), astrological philosophy from Hellenistic Alexandria, early Christian mysticism, the occultism of the early Gnostics and the Hebrew system of the Kabbalah. The Indian Vedas, the Chinese "Circle of the Dead", and the Egyptian "Book of the Master of the Secret House" (Ritual of the Dead) are records giving strong evidence that Numerology dates back thousands of years.

Pythagoras and other philosophers of the time believed that because mathematical concepts were more "practical" (easier to regulate and classify) than physical ones, they had greater actuality. This is an idea in harmony with philosophical pragmatism and a choice for permanent concepts over changeable physicality.

St. Augustine of Hippo (A.D. 354–430) wrote " Numbers are the Universal language offered by the deity to humans as confirmation of the truth." Similar to Pythagoras, he too believed that everything had numerical relationships and it was up to the mind to seek and investigate the secrets of these relationships or have them revealed by divine grace.

In 325 A.D., following the First Council of Nicaea, departures from the beliefs of the state Church were classified as civil violations within the Roman Empire. Numerology had not found favor with the Christian authority of the day. It was assigned to the field of unapproved beliefs along with astrology and other forms of divination and "magic." Through this religious purging, the spiritual significance assigned to the heretofore "sacred" numbers began to disappear. In spite of this suppression there were still many devout believers, who kept the secret knowledge locked away.

An example of the influence of numerology in English literature is Sir Thomas Browne's 1658 Discourse The Garden of Cyrus. In it the author illustrates that the number five and related Quincunx pattern throughout art, nature and mysticism. The Discourse is a late example of the influence of Pythagorean thought in English philosophy.
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« Reply #2 on: August 02, 2007, 01:38:08 pm »








Methodologies




 Number definitions



Definitions of the various digits vary widely among practitioners. Common examples include:

0. It represent the whole.

1. The king of numbers, more powerful than any other number, it is also said the number of God, any -thing where this number is working will succeed.

2. The number of sexual disorder,failure in love(also marriage),low income
,difficulties related to home.

3. The holy number,any action done three times is holy. It rules on happiness,progress,long lasting love affair,knowledge and long life.

4. Very powerful but also the number of destruction.If anyone can handle this number,he will rule the world.

5. The number of success.Every written thing is related to number five.

6. The number of sex and sexual power.It brings happiness related to home.

7. Number of Soul, Dreams, sudden thoughts.

8. This number is not good. Anything where this number is working will finally bring certain failure.
 
9. The number of Devil(90).The worst number on earth. Also known as the number of financial power but with danger.

 
Other Numbers.  All other numbers have different meanings and strength.
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« Reply #3 on: August 02, 2007, 01:40:21 pm »








Digit summing



Numerologists often reduce a number or word by a process known as digit summing, then reach conclusions based on the single digit that is produced.

Digit summing, as the name implies, involves taking the sum of all of the digits in a number, and repeating the process as necessary until a single-digit answer is produced. For a word, the values corresponding to each letter's place in the alphabet (e.g., A=1, B=2, through Z=26) are summed.

Examples:

3,489 → 3 + 4 + 8 + 9 = 24 → 2 + 4 = 6
Hello → 8 + 5 + 12 + 12 + 15 = 52 → 5 + 2 = 7

A quicker way to arrive at a single-digit "summation" is simply to take the value modulo 9, substituting a 0 result with 9 itself.

Different methods of calculation exist, including Chaldean, Pythagorean, Hebraic, Helyn Hitchcock's method, Phonetic, Japanese and Indian.
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« Reply #4 on: August 02, 2007, 01:44:23 pm »








Different methods of calculation exist, including Chaldean, Pythagorean, Hebraic, Helyn Hitchcock's method, Phonetic, Japanese and Indian.


 English letter numeric values


A-I J-R S-Z


A = 1 J = 10 (1) S = 19 (10) (1) 

B = 2 K = 11 (2) T = 20 (2)
 
C = 3 L = 12 (3) U = 21 (3)

D = 4 M = 13 (4) V = 22 (4)

E = 5 N = 14 (5) W = 23 (5)

F = 6 O = 15 (6) X = 24 (6)

G = 7 P = 16 (7) Y = 25 (7)

H = 8 Q = 17 (Cool Z = 26 (Cool

I = 9 R = 18 (9) 
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« Reply #5 on: August 02, 2007, 01:47:05 pm »








English letter numeric values — Chaldean method




Chaldean believe that 9 is the worst number and 9 will destroy them,so they decided to get rid 9.


A-I J-R S-Z

A = 1 J = 1 S = 3

B = 2 K = 2 T = 4

C = 3 L = 3 U = 6

D = 4 M = 4 V = 6

E = 5 N = 5 W = 6

F = 8 O = 7 X = 5

G = 3 P = 8 Y = 1

H = 5 Q = 1 Z = 7

I = 1 R = 2 
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« Reply #6 on: August 02, 2007, 01:51:57 pm »








 Chinese numerology





Main article: Numbers in Chinese culture
Some Chinese assign a different set of meanings to the numbers and certain number combinations are considered luckier than others. In general, even numbers are considered lucky, since it is believed that good luck comes in pairs.


 Chinese number definitions



Cantonese frequently assign the following definitions, which may differ in other forms of Chinese:

- 一 sure
- 二 easy
- 三 live
- 四 - considered unlucky since the pronunciation of 4 ( sė ) sounds like the word for death ( sǐ ).
- 五 - the self, me, myself, nothing, never
- 六 - easy and smooth, all the way.
- 七 - a slang/vulgar word in cantonese.
- 八 - sudden fortune, prosperity
- 九 - long in time, a slang/vulgar word in cantonese
Some lucky number combinations include:

168 - road of prosperity or to be prosperous together - many premium-pay telephone numbers in China begin with this number. Many businesses also prefer to have this number as part of their names.
518 - I will prosper, other variations include: 5189 (I will prosper for a long time), 516289 (I will get on a long, smooth prosperous road) and 5918 (I will soon prosper)
888 - prosperity x3.
1314 - whole life time.
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« Reply #7 on: August 02, 2007, 01:53:54 pm »








"Numerology" in science





Scientific theories are sometimes labelled 'numerology' if their primary inspiration appears to be mathematical rather than scientific. This colloquial use of the word 'numerology' is quite common within the scientific community and it is mostly used to dismiss a theory as questionable science.[citation needed]

The best known example of 'numerology' in science involves the coincidental resemblance of certain large numbers that intrigued such eminent mathematical physicists as Dirac, Weyl and Eddington. These numerical co-incidences refer to such quantities as the ratio of the age of the universe to the atomic unit of time, the number of electrons in the universe, and the difference in strengths between gravity and the electric force for the electron and proton. ('Is the Universe Fine Tuned for Us?', Stenger V.J., page 3).

Large number co-incidences continue to fascinate many mathematical physicists. For instance, James G. Gilson has constructed a 'Quantum Theory of Gravity' based loosely on Dirac's large number hypothesis.
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« Reply #8 on: August 02, 2007, 01:55:58 pm »








Numerology in the Bible

Biblical Numerology


Ivan Panin's numeric patterns that he claimed to be found from Bible are sometimes called Bible Numerology.




In popular culture


Numerology is a popular plot device in fiction. It can range from a casual item for comic effect, such as in an episode titled "The Seance" of the 1950s TV sitcom I Love Lucy, where Lucy dabbles in numerology, to a central element of the storyline, such as the movie π, in which the protagonist meets a numerologist searching for hidden numerical patterns in the Torah, or an episode of the TV show CSI: NY titled "Hung Out to Dry," in which a detectives use numerology to solve a series of cryptic messages on t-shirts and similarly in the last season of The X-Files in an episode titled "Improbable" (Guest starring Burt Reynolds) Monica Reyes tracks a serial killer by using numerology.





See also


Master Numbers (Numerology)
Number of the Beast (numerology)
Gematria
Isopsephy
Pythagoras
Pythagoreanism
Sollog
Irving Joshua Matrix
Lexigram
Theomatics
Aleister Crowley
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« Reply #9 on: August 02, 2007, 01:57:42 pm »







References




Numerology: Numbers and their Influence by RoseMaree Templeton Numerology: Numbers and their Influence Rockpool Publishing (2007)

The Mystery of Numbers, by Annemarie Schimmel (1996) ISBN 0-19-506303-1 — A scholarly compendium of the connotations and associations of numbers in historical cultures.
 
Numerology : the number game, by Aaadietya Pandey (2006).

Numerology: Or, What Pythagoras Wrought by Underwood Dudley; 1997; Mathematical Association of America.

Andras M. Nagy (2007): "Numerology 101: Pythagoras Explained". Numerology 101: Pythagoras Explained Lulu Press (2006).


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerology
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« Reply #10 on: August 02, 2007, 02:01:30 pm »








                                                N U M E R O L O G Y



Numerology is created from the Latin word 'numerus', which means 'number', and the Greek word 'logos', which means 'word', 'thought', 'expression'. Therefore, the numerology can be defined as 'the science of numbers'. Since ancient times people have used created a mystical relationship between numbers and the character or action of physical objects and living things. Currently numerology is used to predict the future and better understand human behavior patterns.

Reality is created by numeric codes. Thus numbers are the universal language. These numbers repeat in cycles creating patterns of experience - Fibonacci Numbers, the Golden Ratio, and the architectural blueprint of our reality, also known as Sacred Geometry = SG = Stargate = Alchemy Wheel - 12 Around 1.

Human consciousness and our DNA are digitally encoded by these numbers - much like a computer program. They have their trigger points like an alarm clock, to awaken us as we move through the alchemy of time and consciousness.

As all things are linked through the grids - Numerology is connected to Astrology -- Tarot -- and Palmistry - all of which are linked to physical sciences. Amazing how it all synchronizes together.
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« Reply #11 on: August 02, 2007, 07:20:54 pm »






                                                P Y T H A G O R E A N   S Y S T E M





Shortly after 600 B.C.E., the Greek philosopher, Pythagoras, founded the first university and developed his theory of numbers. These theories are the basis of all natural law today and are also the foundation for the occult science of Numerology.
                         

Pythagoras determined that everything progressed in predictable cycles, and assumed a relationship with respect to the alphabet. For example - the Sumerian idea that letters, gods and goddesses were assigned numbers relative to their station.
                                     

The updated Pythagorean conversion table uses numbers 1 through 9, each of which is related to certain letters of the alphabet. An alternate version is the updated Chaldean Conversion Table, which works in a similar way except it is numbered 1 to 8 and the letters associated with each number are different as well.  [There is no number 9 in the Chaldean chart because, to the ancient Chaldeans, 9 was believed to be a sacred number and was kept apart from the rest.)  Numerologists use these two methods for calculation with the Chaldean table being the oldest and most accurate. 
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« Reply #12 on: August 02, 2007, 07:28:44 pm »








                                                      P E R S O N A L   Y E A R S




In Numerolgy, when numbers are doubled, such as 11, 22, 33, we call these Master Numbers. [See 11.11] Supposedly, these Master Numbers have a greater significance, and refer to characteristics beyond mundane experiences. In a manner of speaking, these are the higher octaves, harmonics, of experiences. But they are also sometimes just potentialities, which are never quite attained, after which they single digit number which they add to, becomes the dominant factor.




Personal Year 1


This is a year of NEW BEGINNINGS! One means You alone, learning, growing, exploring new options. The old energy of the '9 year' that has just finished and probably driven you crazy is now going to move away. You seek guides you to new. Make decisions based on your needs. What you set in motion this year creates the foundation for the rest of your nine-year cycle. Decide what is best for you and go for it. Look for new opportunities all year. Keep busy. Take classes. Plan a career. Work alone, for only you can decide what is best for you. How hard you work, and the kind of foundation you build, will follow you throughout the cycle. Health should be good, though you heal with clearing issues. The 1 year also denotes genesis, originality, creation, self-determination, will power, independence, initiative, decisions, leadership, command, courage, pioneer, daring, and the male principle.




Personal Year 2


This is a year for Relationships, Partnerships, Union, and the Home. If you are in a bad relationship, it will end. If you are not in a relationship, a meaningful one can begin and be long lasting. Your concerns are on Business Relationships, Marriage, Divorce, Love and Affairs. You seek the heart, your Soul Mate. Business Partnerships are often important and can grow. Let things come to you. Work with others. Strengthen friendships. Be patient. New opportunities can drop in your lap unexpectedly. You may feel moody, experience nervous energies, and cry. This year deals with emotional health and maintaining balance. It is the year of the feminine principal.




Personal Year 3


This year represents moving forward with your goals. Creative, Education, Career, Travel, Social Ambition, Conversation, Friendships old and new. You may let go of friendships that have grown apart. Do not dwell on issues. You can shine in forms of self-expression; art, writing, music, performing. Finish or start your book or project. You can find romance and a good relationship. Go to school. Plan the career you think will fulfill your greatest ambitions, talents and dreams. Health is generally good. Avoid others who drain your energies. Words that discribe how you feel are, facility with words, grace, charm, performer, beauty, flirtation, romance, artistic, and entertainer. Three also relates to expansiveness and learning through life experiences. It is considered to be lucky, and is often associated with money and good fortune. Three generally depicts several people joining together to achieve a common goal, whether through a social or professional affiliation. Although three possesses attributes of wisdom, understanding and knowledge, negatively it can exhibit pessimism, foolhardiness and unnecessary risk taking.




Personal Year 4


Four represents aspects of self-discipline -- practicality, physical work, endurance, concentration, budgeting, order, form, construction, routine, systematic, industrious, conventionality, reliability, home, patriotism, and ecology. Once restrictions are overcome, great things can be achieved. Watch health issues, emotional, medical, dental. Get needed rest. Real Estate, relocations, properties, fix up your home, office, create a private space so you can be alone to process your issues and goals. Avoid confrontations. You can met a partner, but it probably will involve learning lessons, which at this point you chose to avoid. You want a partner who is there for you. Be sure you both have the same goals. Four is also a number of stability and building for the future. It has much energy which is directed toward the achievement of goals, such as family celebrations or other notable events. Because this is a number of progression and growth, many original ideas are likely to spring forth from what appears to be thin air. Four is a solitary number which seems to be somewhat of a loner, even in the midst of a crowd. Because of the grounded qualities of this number, it has a tendency to be steadfast and can sometimes give the impression of being boring.
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« Reply #13 on: August 02, 2007, 07:30:44 pm »








Personal Year 5


This is a year of CHANGE or a time to take a new direction with things that no longer work. It is a year of travel, unexpected things, having fun, but don't abuse it. Meet new people. Get out of your Rut. Expand and promote yourself. Watch your health. Stop smoking or other addictive patterns. Loose weight by changing eating patterns forever Set foundations, heal old issues. Create balance in life. Aspect of re-creation will present themselves to you. This year is the apex for change in the cycle of 9 years. It involves, adaptability, resourcefulness, variety, versatility, risk, adventure, travel, surprises, curiosity, recreation, sensual and sexual appetites, new opportunities, speculation, promotion, physical and mental freedom. Five represents service to others. It is highly analytical and has the ability to think critically, but can over-ponder an issue to the point that its significance is no longer relevant. This number governs our ability to think clearly and our intellectual capacity. It is a multifaceted number with links to our state of physical and mental health.




Personal Year 6


This is a big year as it focuses on most areas especially personal relations (healing your issues), marriage, soul mates, divorce, affairs, the home, extended family, relationships, career, social consciousness, responsibility to others, adjustments, harmony, healing, counseling, teaching, education, truth, justice, reliability, tenacity, conscientiousness, and social balance. You can buy, sell, or redecorate a home. You always deal with a soul mate, old or new. You may deal with sexuality. You can cement great friendships and find new and long lasting. Health is generally good unless you create an illness or accident to gain someone's attention or or go on disability as you no longer wish to work or function. Pay attention to what you are doing and why you may need to leave home at last. If you can't take of yourself, find out why.




Personal Year 7


This is a year of self-reflection and realization, especially if you have ended a relationship in the 6 year. Find yourself, heal your issues, deal with emotions, discover who you are and what you want, apart from family, friends, and relationships. Your outlook changes. You can feel a bit depressed or lonely as you search for the your life's mission Allow your soul to guide your destiny. You will create synchronicities to show you the way. You seek past lives and other metaphysical interests that expand our awareness of things beyond third dimensional reality. You read book, may see spirits, dream of loved ones who have crossed over. You can walk away from traditional religion, saying it is too limited and often disappoints. Address your soul guidance, with friends and family. Are you a caretaker? Did your soul come here to marry, or take care of parents? Do you deserve happiness and love? Who has abused you? Why?

Seven also represents intellectual and spiritual development, wisdom, knowledge of self, mind, intellect, philosophy, metaphysics, mystery, secrecy, solitude, study, research, science, writing, faith, specialization, refinement, pride, acquisition by attraction, dignity, bridging worlds, and observation.




Personal Year 8


The 8 year represents material accomplishment, money, material freedom, business, high finance, control, power, success, achievement, recognition, profit, executive ability, management, authority, fairness, and responsibility Pay and collect debts. Focus on how to increase money. Be business-like and practical. You can gain recognition for prior years of hard work. Push your goals. Make important contacts. Partners will come through business connections and may not last. Health is generally good, though you may feel tired. You may want a new car, travel, and not to be limited in a boring job.




Personal Year 9


This is a year to let go of things that do not work for you. It is considered a year of Completions and Endings. You must relax and do not try to control things in your life. Let them go or they will be taken from you as your soul, the universe cleans house for the next cycle in your life. This can be a very difficult year, particularly if you do not like change. The more you pursue things, the more they will elude you. Relationships end. Nothing that begins in your 9 year will remain. It is a time to plan and seek out new jobs, relocations and more. There can be many learning lesson in the 9 year, or you can pln for it and coast right through. Death, Yes you can hear about more deaths, but those are the natural rhythm of the cycles of life as we move into a time of rebirth and consciousness evolves.

The 9 also represents selflessness and universal awareness, fulfillment, universality, understanding, tolerance, compassion, impersonal, generosity, forgiveness, just, humanitarian, universal truths, and benevolence.
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« Reply #14 on: August 02, 2007, 07:37:56 pm »








                                       N U M B E R S   A N D   T H E I R   M E A N I N G




Fibonacci Number: In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers form a sequence defined by the following recurrence relation. That is, after two starting values, each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers. The first Fibonacci numbers are: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4181, 6765, 10946, 17711, 28657, 46368, 75025, 121393, 196418Š




Zero

Zero is a powerful number which brings great transformational change, sometimes occurring in a profound manner. It has much intensity, so caution is needed wherever it appears to ensure that extremes are not encountered.

Zero represents the Cosmic Egg, the primordial Androgyne - the Plenum. Zero as an empty circle depicts both the nothingness of death and yet the totality of life contained within the circle. As an ellipse the two sides represent ascent and descent, evolution and involution.

Before the One (meaning the Source--not the number) there is only Void, or non-being; thought; the ultimate mystery, the incomprehensible Absolute. Begins with meanings such as, Non-existence; nothingness; the unmanifest; the unlimited; the eternal. The absence of all quality or quantity.




Cultural References



Taoism: It symbolizes the Void; non-being.

Buddhism: It is the Void and no-thingness.

Kabbalism: Boundless; Limitless Light; the Ain.

Pathagoras saw zero as the perfect. Zero is the Monad, the originator and container of All.

Islamic: Zero is the Divine Essence.

Zero Number





History of Zero:




Middle East

By the mid 2nd millennium BC, the Babylonians had a sophisticated sexagesimal positional numeral system. The lack of a positional value (or zero) was indicated by a space between sexagesimal numerals. By 300 BC a punctuation symbol (two slanted wedges) was co-opted as a placeholder in the same Babylonian system. In a tablet unearthed at Kish (dating from perhaps as far back as 700 BC), the scribe Bel-ban-aplu wrote his zeroes with three hooks, rather than two slanted wedges.

The Babylonian placeholder was not a true zero because it was not used alone. Thus numbers like 2 and 120 (2X60), 3 and 180 (3X60), 4 and 240 (4X60), et al., looked the same because the larger numbers lacked a final sexagesimal placeholder. Only context could differentiate them.




Greece

Ancient Greeks seemed unsure about the status of zero as a number: they asked themselves "How can nothing be something?", leading to interesting philosophical and, by the Medieval period, religious arguments about the nature and existence of zero and the vacuum. The paradoxes of Zeno of Elea depend in large part on the uncertain interpretation of zero. The ancient Greeks also questioned whether 1 was a number.

Early use of something like zero by the Indian scholar Pingala (circa 5th-2nd century BC), implied at first glance by his use of binary numbers, is only the modern binary representation using 0 and 1 applied to Pingala's binary system, which used short and long syllables (the latter equal in length to two short syllables), making it similar to Morse code. Nevertheless, he and other Indian scholars at the time used the Sanskrit word sunya (the origin of the word zero after a series of transliterations and a literal translation) to refer to zero or void.




Mesoamerica

The Mesoamerican (Mayan) Long Count calendar developed in south-central Mexico required the use of zero as a place-holder within its vigesimal (base-20) positional numeral system. A shell glyph was used as a zero symbol for these Long Count dates, the earliest of which (on Stela 2 at Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas) has a date of 36 BC. Since the eight earliest Long Count dates appear outside the Maya homeland, it is assumed that the use of zero in the Americas predated the Maya and was possibly the invention of the Olmecs.

The Olmecs are most important.


Indeed, many of the earliest Long Count dates were found within the Olmec heartland, although the fact that the Olmec civilization had come to an end by the 4th century BC, several centuries before the earliest known Long Count dates, argues against the zero being an Olmec discovery.
Although zero became an integral part of Maya numerals, it of course did not influence Old World numeral systems.


 

Greece

By 130, Ptolemy, influenced by Hipparchus and the Babylonians, was using a symbol for zero (a small circle with a long overbar) within a sexagesimal numeral system otherwise using alphabetic Greek numerals. Because it was used alone, not just as a placeholder, this Hellenistic zero was perhaps the first documented use of a number zero in the Old World. However, the positions were usually limited to the cractional part of a number, called minutes, seconds, thirds, fourths, etc. They were not used the integral part of a number. In later Byzantine manuscripts of his Syntaxis Mathematica (Almagest), the Hellenistic zero had morphed into the Greek letter omicron (otherwise meaning 70).




Rome

Another zero was used in tables alongside Roman numerals by 525 (first known use by Dionysius Exiguus), but as a word, nulla meaning nothing, not as a symbol. When division produced zero as a remainder, nihil, also meaning nothing, was used. These medieval zeros were used by all future medieval computists (calculators of Easter). An isolated use of their initial, N, was used in a table of Roman numerals by Bede or a colleague about 725, a zero symbol.




India

In 498 AD, Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata stated that "Sthanam sthanam dasa gunam" or place to place in ten times in value, which may be the origin of the modern decimal based place value notation.

The oldest known text to use zero is the Jain text from India entitled the Lokavibhaaga, dated 458 AD. however, it was first introduced to the world by Al Khawarizmim, a Persian mathematician, astronomer and geographer. He was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics. In the words of Phillip Hitti, Al Khawarizmi's contribution to mathematics influenced mathematical thought to a greater extent. His work on algebra initiated the subject in a systematic form and also developed it to the extent of giving analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations, which established him as the founder of Algebra. The very name Algebra has been derived from his famous book Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah.

His arithmetic synthesized Greek and Hindu knowledge and also contained his own contribution of fundamental importance to mathematics and science. Thus, he explained the use of zero, a numeral of fundamental importance developed by the Arabs. Similarly, he developed the decimal system so that the overall system of numerals, 'algorithm' or 'algorizm' is named after him.

The first indubitable appearance of a symbol for zero appears in 876 in India on a stone tablet in Gwalior. Documents on copper plates, with the same small o in them, dated back as far as the sixth century AD, abound.
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