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Top 10 clues to the real King Arthur By Christopher Gidlow Monday, 12 July 201

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Author Topic: Top 10 clues to the real King Arthur By Christopher Gidlow Monday, 12 July 201  (Read 465 times)
the Once and Future King
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« on: July 13, 2010, 01:25:41 am »

Top 10 clues to the real King Arthur

By Christopher Gidlow

Monday, 12 July 2010



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A vision of the Holy Grail at King Arthur's Round Table, depicted in a 15th century French manuscript on the Quest for the Holy Grail.

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The King Arthur we know is one of romance, ephemera and myth. But is he real? Arthur has been in and out of fashion more than denim: one year his veracity is being argued by every archaeologist in Britain, the next he's ignored or derided. In Revealing King Arthur: Swords, Stones and Digging for Camelot, Christopher Gidlow shows how archaeologists over the last 50 years have interpreted the evidence from Dark Age Britain. At first they were happy to link their discoveries to legendary names. Then came a backlash, when Arthurian links were ignored or derided. Now, new discoveries have raised again the possibility of a real King Arthur. He recalls ten sites that suggest Arthur was much more than an old wives' tale.

1. Tintagel

The legendary site of King Arthurís conception is Tintagel Castle. Excavations demonstrated that, as the legends said, this was a fortified home of the ruler of Cornwall in about 500AD. The largest fortified site of the ĎArthurianí period, it contained unprecedented remains of luxury goods from the Eastern Roman Empire. In 1998, a slate engraved with the name ĎArtognouí and other names from the legends was discovered there.

2. The London Basilica

The earliest historical accounts of Arthur see him as a leader of the kings of the Britons against the invading Saxons. Medieval legends showed him uniting them by a combination of force and magical displays. Most famous is his drawing the sword from the stone, "outside the greatest church of London, whether it were Paul's or not", writes Sir Thomas Malory. In fact the largest Church in Roman London discovered, probably the seat of its Bishop, was at Tower Hill. Christianity was an important part of British identity, versus Saxon paganism.

3. Silchester

Said to be the site of King Arthurís coronation, the Roman town of Silchester was heavily fortified in the Arthurian period. Road blocks were set up on approach roads, and the perimeter was made more defensible. Resistance to the Saxons was so successful, Silchester never became a Saxon town. Could there be a connection between Arthurís sword, Excalibur and the late Roman name for Silchester, Calleba?

4. South Cadbury Castle

There are numerous contenders for the site of Arthurís Camelot, with Colchester (Camulodunum) probably the forerunner. However, Henry VIIIís librarian, John Leland, identified the Iron Age hill fort of South Cadbury as the original Camelot. This inspired the famous Cadbury/Camelot excavations by Leslie Alcock in the 1960s which showed it had been heavily refortified in the 5th/6th century. Further work revealed it as one of the centres of a West Country kingdom characterised by large-scale defensive works like the Wansdyke from Bath to the Savernake Forest. This so impressed invading Saxons they attributed it to the god Woden.

5. Wroxeter

Was Arthur a Celtic warrior, harking back to the warlike days of his ancestors? Other writers see him as a Ďlast of the Romansí, struggling to uphold the values of civilisation against a barbarian storm. Some sources describe him as a Roman general, others even as ĎEmperorí. Dramatic evidence of sub-Roman culture was discovered by Philip Barker in the 1960s at Wroxeter. Wooden buildings tried to keep up the functions of the forum as well as the defences. Tradition put the home of his wife, Queen Guinevere, at nearby Old Oswestry. Wroxeter, too, never became a Saxon town.

6. Chester Amphitheatre

One of Arthurís celebrated '12 battles' against the Saxons was fought at the City of the Legion, the name given to Chester in the Dark Ages. Archaeologists have discovered evidence of a

Dark Age battle at nearby Heronbridge, and recent excavations show the amphitheatre was fortified in the period, with a shrine to a Christian martyr at its centre. Is it a coincidence Arthurís Round Table was originally described as a very large structure, seating 1,600 of his warriors?

7. Birdoswald

A brief 10th century account records the death of Arthur and Medraut at the battle of Camlann. This was spun out by later writers into a tragic encounter between Arthur and his rebellious son Mordred. Many scholars believe Camlann was ĎCamboglannaí, a now-vanished fort on Hadrianís Wall. The next fort, Birdoswald, was excavated in 1987- 92. With the end of Roman rule in the 5th century, the local garrison commander had set himself up as a tribal-style warlord. A Celtic feasting hall was added to the military buildings. Other forts along the wall were similarly refortified Ė the work of King Arthur and a potential power base for rebellious lieutenants?

8. Slaughterbridge

Medieval writers opted for a West Country site for Arthurís last battle. Slaughterbridge on the River Camel has proved popular, for obvious reasons. There are numerous reports of finds of Dark Age weaponry from the site. It is now the location for an ongoing archaeological project intended to get a clearer picture of life in the Dark Ages there, and near neighbouring Tintagel. A 6th century memorial stone, inscribed in Latin and Irish Ogham, is still visible here, bearing an enigmatic inscription, probably to a Romano-British warrior named Latinus.

9. Glastonbury Tor

Excavations by Philip Rahtz in the 60s showed someone had been living on top of Glastonbury Tor in the Arthurian period. But who? Medieval legends provided several candidates. King Meluas of the Summer Country had abducted Queen Guinevere to his castle at Glastonbury, a story which formed the basis of romances about her rescue by Sir Lancelot. The demonic Gwynn ap Nudd, one of Arthurís legendary warriors, was said to have been banished from his Palace on the Tor by St Collen. Gerald of Wales reported that Arthurís kinswoman, Morgan, had owned land near the abbey and arranged for his burial there. He berated writers who made her the fabulous enchantress 'Morgan le Fay'.

10. King Arthurís burial at Glastonbury

In 1191 the monks of Glastonbury Abbey uncovered the body of a gigantic man. Wounded several times in the head, he had succumbed to one last fatal blow. The bones of his wife, along with a tress of her beautiful golden hair, shared his oak coffin. Ralegh Radford recovered the site in 1962, showing how two slab-lined tombs of the very earliest stratum of the ancient church had indeed been disturbed at the time. The monks displayed an ancient lead cross found with the burial, inscribed ĎHere lies buried the famous king Arthur with Guinevere his second wife, in the Isle of Avaloní. Where the cross and bones are now, nobody knows.

Read a free excerpt from 'Revealing King Arthur: Swords, Stones and Digging for Camelot'

Interview with Dr Ray Howell on King Arthur, the Silures and, Just Possibly, Stonehenge

Video: King Arthur's Real Round Table Revealed

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/top-10-clues-to-the-real-king-arthur-2024729.html
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senator Bam
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« Reply #1 on: December 31, 2014, 12:02:31 pm »

9 clues (the 9 battle sites of "Nennius") to locating "(King) Arthur".
the 9 battle sites of "Nennius" match 8 of the 9 Notita Dignitatum Saxon Shore forts from Yarmouth to Portchester plus Kit's Coty/Weald.

plus 10th clue:
"Avalon in North sea"/Avaron/"hall on isle of Affallach"
= Afarnach's hall (Pa Gur)
= Bassas ("Nennius") = "Baschurch"
= Reculver / 'Reculver Cross'
= 'Levitating Altar' (Wonders of Britain)
not Glastonbury.

(Of course the academics refuse to acknowledge any one elses discoveries while they go blasting theirs alleged ones around the world (Richard 3rd/Bosworth, the Norman castle at Salisbury/Sarum, (Staffs hoard?)).
Until we answer every jot and tiddle established "academic" theoretical criticism. We didn't use satellites or acaemdic/uni resources or metal detectors like they did. Our 12 battles paper is in allempires forum ebooks (medieval section), though i have to update one or a few chapters and haven't finished rewriting 7th & 8th battles/chapters yet. (Sorry its not written very well esp the introduction.))

table of 9 battle sites matches:

HB battle site - ND SS fort - actual sites
Glein - Gariannonum - Burgh/Caistor
Dubglas "black water"/Linnuis - Othona/Limen - Bradwell/Blackwater
cat coit Celidon - [Kit's Coty] - Kit's Coty/Weald
Bassas - Regulbium/basilica/Baetasiorum - Reculver
Legions - Rutupi/legio Augusta - Richborough
Guinnion "white" - Dubris - Dover
Tribruit - Lemanis - Stutfall/Lympne
Agned/Bregion - Anderida - Pevensey/Hastings
Badon - Adurni/Clausentum - Portchester/Bitterne.


The names/meanings matches of 1st 6 battle sites:

"Nennius:
1 'ostium fluminis Glein/Gleni' "mouth of river Glein/Gleni"
Yarmouth:
1 'Garien(n)i fluvii ostia' / 'ost. Gariennus flumen' "the mouth of the Garienus" / 'Gariannus fluvius' / Gerne(mwa) (Yarmouth).

"Nennius":
2 river Dubglas "black water",
(& gloss regio Linnuis/Inniis "pool/pond/lake region/district/inhabitants")
Othona/Maldon:
2 river Blackwater / Ei-du-mannia "suggested element du "black"",
(& either Limen fortenses, or Imensa, &/or number of other given possibilities, or "area of lakes/ponds")

"Nennius":
3 Bassas (&/or *bas "shallow"?)
Reculver:
4 basilica &/or Baetasiorum &/or Bassa the Priest (&/or Wantsum-Stour?)

"Nennius":
4 silva caledonis / cat coit caledon "battle of wood"
Weald/Kit's Coty:
3 sylva caledonia (Weald) & kit's coty "battle + wood" (keiton?)

"Nennius":
5 castellum/fort Guinnion/"white"/*Alborum, etc
Dover:
6 St Mary in Castro/Castle, white fort/white cliffs/white downs, Albion, etc.

"Nennius":
6 urbs/city of the legion(is) (gloss caerlion)
Richborough/Rutupi:
5 orbs/"city", legio(n) ii Augusta (from Caerleon)


The numbers/order all match:
1 Glein, 2 Duglas, 3 Bassas , 4 Caledon, 5 Guinnion, 6 Legions, 7 Tribruit, 8 Agned/Bregion, 9 Badon.
1 Gariannonum, 2 Othona, [3 Kit's Coty], 4 Reculver, 5 Richborough, 6 Dover, 7 Lemanis, 8 Anderida, 9 Adurni.
All 9 sites match in numbers and order.
Except for orderly cross-switch match of (3 & 4, and of) 5 & 6.
Both lists have 8 mutual matches and 1 substitute match. Only one (the first) ND/SS fort doesn't match and is omitted, and one HB battle site doesn't match a fort and is added (substitute for unmatched 1st fort).
« Last Edit: December 31, 2014, 12:07:15 pm by senator Bam » Report Spam   Logged
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« Reply #2 on: January 01, 2015, 12:09:59 am »

Finally some more original research concerning King Arthur! I agree with you about the academics, by the way, they are narrow-minded in their thinking and refuse to accept any new thinking. So, which candidate do you think King Arthur was?
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« Reply #3 on: January 03, 2015, 12:25:59 pm »

Thank-you TO&FK,

I am certain of the 9 battle sites (which it has taken enough to prove), but I can't yet say for certain which candidate Arthur is/was.

In Gildas and "Nennius" "Arthur" would seem to come somewhere between Ambrosius (inlcuded/excluded) and Maelgwn (excluded/included)?
If my theory/thesis is right then "Arthur" was laid to rest at the Reculver Cross site? (I had thought that Sutton Hoo might be his Camlann cenotaph but not sure of that now.)
"Arthur" seemed to function abit like the count of the Saxon shore (maybe a link with the Porter of the Pa Gur?)

There is some evidence suggesting that "Arthur" may just mean (Great) Britain/(certain) British/Britons (and whoever fought the 12 battles), though i don't like it now as much as i first did because that also seems to be academics opinion (like "Thomas Green", Padel, etc). (Arthur & Kay ~ Britain/Britons & Caesar/Romans?)  [Compare Deoartavos of Cruithne king list and Mercury Artaios?] Guinevere seemingly might just be Guinnion/Dover?
 
Leon Mintz's paper gave tentative evidence of connection between Ares/Mars and St Martin and Arthur/Merlin. There is St Martin at/near a number of our sites esp St Martin le Grand at Dover [Guinnion].
"Arthur" may also link with St Andrew of "Scotland" (partly via possible connection/analogy of Guinnion /Dover (cross/eclipse) and Athelstaneford (cross) and Brunanburh). (Our theory is that Guinnion may match the calends of Martii 538 of ASC/Ethelwerd.)

There have been tons of candidates from Castus to Cadwaladr (as well as some bc ones). Some seem to be ruled out by our discovery.

There seem to maybe have been 2 main "Arthurs", one sometime between 495-538/556(-592), and one around the time of Cadwallon/Cadwaladr.
(Arthur might possibly link with the preAugustine christian "Ethelbert" of the AS Chronicle??)

(Sorry thats abit scatterbrained/disorganised. I'll have to try come up with &/or write a better answer sometime.)

Any ideas you or anyone else have would be interesting.

I've found that it is the same with academia in many topics including Atlantis (which i believe is South America with the capital city being Tiahuanaco), "Arthur", etc. (Though I have my own faults too so i guess i shouldn't be one to say, except that we have been offended by them.)
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« Reply #4 on: January 04, 2015, 05:23:29 pm »

I haven't read Le Morte De Arthur in some time, or any other of the original King Arthur accounts. How did you match the battlefields with these specific geographic locations, do the original accounts give specific detail?
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« Reply #5 on: January 06, 2015, 01:12:26 pm »

Thanks Paradox.

(I get abit frustrated having to re-explain to each and every person (everywhere not just here/now). I'm not sure how to present this so that i don't have to keep re-explaining it all to so many persons?)

Firstly see my first post/reply above.

My only 2 or 3 original sources where the 12 battles section in 'Historia Brittonum' of "Nennius", and the 9 Saxons Shore forts part in the Notitia Dignitatum, plus the actual 9 geographic sites that the ND/SS forts have been identified with/as. We orignally noticed that both lists (HB & ND) had 9 sites, and that some of the names were similar, but i dismissed it because there was only some matches (not all 9) and also because they didn't seem to match in number and order.
Eg: 9 battle sites/9 forts, "9 badon/1 branodunum", "5 fort guinnion/2 gariannonum fort", 4 reculver (baetasiorum)/3 bassas, 5 rutupi (legio ii augusta)/6 city of the legion.

 But a year or so later someone told me that Dubglas "black water" had been identified by some as river Blackwater (Essex), while about the same time someone's post on Arthurnet mentioning Gariannonum directed/lead me to the Ravenna cosmography where i noticed that Garieni/Yarmouth better matches Glein than Guinnion. (None of this was really looking for a match betewen the 2, it was casual/unexpected.) I then noticed on casually checking the 9 SS/ND forts and 9 HB battle sites again that we had a dozen matches all matching in name or meaning and number & order.
[1] garieni/1 glein, [2] othona (Blackwater)/2 dubglas "black water", [3] reculver (baetasiorum / bassa the priest)/3 bassas, 6 Dover (white)/5 Guinnion "white/holy", 5 Rutupi (legio ii augusta)/6 city of the legion, (8 anderida/8 agned?) (9 adurni/9 badon).

It was a suddenly amazing/shocking dawning/realising moment then seeing the 9 battle sites matching the 9 forts from Yarmouth to Portsmouth or Southampton (and being militarily/strategically sensible/obvious). From then when i was convinced by such a strong match i have never doubted (though always tried to be objective/careful) and the more i have had to reconsider it in order to answer/show other people the more evidences (some stark/strong/amazing) we have found. The match for Tribruit wasn't found until a little while later when we found the meanings of the name match the Lemanis area. We now have all 9 sites matching in name or meaning, in nature (all the details of the HB and other sources), and number and order. There is no way it can just be coincidence or wrong that all 9 match all in number and order.

For more indepth answer/details see our most recent 9 battle sites paper at http://www.allempires.com/forum/ebook_view.asp?ForumID=14 (though i have to update a few chapters since the historum forum debating).

Yes there are a few enough specific details from the HB (and other sources). But we have only proven (to any objective person not to highest archsceptic academic standards) that the two/three lists (HB & ND (&/or actual sites)) of 9 sites match, we have not yet proven enough that the battles were actually fought there then, though we have shown that there is seeming possible evidences at/around the sites (& in records) for the battles actually fought there then.

1 Glein matches Gariannonum/Garieni/Yarmouth in name, number/order, mouth, river, etc.
2 Dubglas matches Othona/Blackwater in name/meaning, river, number/order, etc.
3 Bassas matches Reculver in name/meaning, number/order, river, etc.
4 Caledon matches Kit's Coty/Weald in names/meanings, number/order, forest/wood, etc.
5 Guinnion/*Alborum matches Dover/Albion in meaning, number/order, fort/fortlet, etc.
6 city of the legion matches Richborough in legion, city/urbs, number/order, etc.
7 Tribruit matches Lemanis in: the meanings of Tribruit match Lemanis/Lympne/Romney area (then), number/order, etc.
8 Agned/Bregion matches Anderida/Pevensey in meanings &/or names (eg Bre-guoin "white hills"), number/order, etc.
9 Badon matches Adurni/Portchester in name, number/order, hill/mt, number slain, etc.

ps I just remembered i forgot to add that further proof/evidence/confirmation was later found in that the Wonders of Britain seem to match the same 9 actual sites. Some are stark and to my mind undeniable such as Cruc Mawr matching the "large cruciform platform" at Richborough, Amr's tomb matching Countless Stones, etc.

There are also further confirmations from other lists (that also seem to match our HB &/or ND) such as the 9 Pa Gur battle sites, the "12 Monasteries" list, etc.
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