Atlantis Online
December 14, 2019, 03:46:11 am
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: THE SEARCH FOR ATLANTIS IN CUBA
A Report by Andrew Collins
http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/atlantiscuba.htm
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

Kensington Runestone

Pages: 1 [2]   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Kensington Runestone  (Read 2611 times)
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #15 on: April 25, 2010, 02:51:02 am »

However, before the Scandinavians could have borrowed the term from the Germanic languages, the Germanic peoples had to have first borrowed it from the French language, which did not happen before the 16th century. Linguists who, due to this and similar facts, reject the Medieval origin of the Kensington inscription, consider this word to be a neologism and have noted that, in a Norwegian newspaper circulated in Minnesota, the late 19th century Norwegian historian Gustav Storm often used this term in articles on Viking exploration.

Nielsen suggests that the Þ (transliterated above as th or d) could also be a t sound, which would mean the word could be the 14th century expression uptagelsefart (acquisition expedition). However, in the rest of the text, the Thorn rune regularly corresponds to modern Scandinavian d-sounds and only occasionally to historical th-sounds, while the T-rune is used for all other t-sounds.
Report Spam   Logged
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #16 on: April 25, 2010, 02:51:28 am »

More linguistic problems

Another characteristic pointed out by skeptics is the text's lack of cases. Old Norse had the four cases of modern German. They had disappeared from common speech by the 16th century but were still predominant in the 14th century (see Swedish language). Also, the text does not use the plural verb forms that were common in the 14th century and have only recently disappeared: for example, (plural forms in parenthesis) "wi war" (wörum), "hathe" (höfuðum), "[wi] fiske" (fiskaðum), "kom" (komum), "fann" (funnum) and "wi hathe" (hafdum). Proponents of the stone's authenticity point to sporadic examples of these simpler forms in some 14th century texts and to the great changes of the morphological system of the Scandinavian languages that began during the latter part of that century.

The inscription also contains "pentadic" numerals. Such numerals are known in Scandinavia, but nearly always from relatively recent times, not from verified medieval runic monuments, on which numbers were usually spelled out as words. For example, to write EINN (one) the runes E-I-N-N were used and indeed the word EN (one) is in the Kensington inscription. Writing all the numbers out (such as thirteen hundred and sixty-two) would not have easily fit the surface space, so the stone's author (whether a forger or 14th-century explorer) simplified things by using pentadic runes as numerals in the Indo-Arabic positional numbering system. This system had been described in an early 14th century Icelandic book called Hauksbók, known to have been taken to Norway by its compiler Haukr Erlendsson. However, the few pages of Hauksbók, called Algorismus, that describe the Indo-Arabic numerals and how to use them in calculations, were not widely known at the time, and the Indo-Arabic number system did not become widespread in Scandinavia until centuries later.
Report Spam   Logged
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #17 on: April 25, 2010, 02:52:12 am »

AVM: A Medieval Abbreviation?

In 2004, Keith Massey and Kevin Massey published their theory that the Latin letters on the Kensington Stone, AVM, contain evidence authenticating a medieval date for the artifact.[34] The Kensington Stone critic Erik Wahlgren had noticed that the carver had incised a notch on the upper right hand corner of the letter V.[4] The Massey Twins note that a mark in that position is consistent with an abbreviation technique used in the 14th century. To render the word "Ave" in that period, the final vowel would have been written as a superscript. Eventually, the superscript vowel was replaced by a mere superscript dot. The existence of a notch where Wahlgren notes, then, shows that the carver was familiar with 14th century abbreviation techniques. The Massey Twins, however, point out that knowledge of these conventions was not available to the purported forger in late 19th century Minnesota, as books documenting these techniques were being printed in Italian academic circles only a few years after Öhman discovered the stone.
Report Spam   Logged
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #18 on: April 25, 2010, 02:52:39 am »

Rune statistics

The Kensington inscription consists of 30 different runic characters. Of these, 19 belong to the normal futhark series, q.e. a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, th, and v. Then there are three special umlauted runes, that are marked by two dots above them. These represent the letters u, ä and ö. There is also one appearance of the Arlaug rune which usually represents the number 17. This does not work on the Kensington Stone, so therefore it's sometimes interpreted as a bind rune of e and l. Finally, there are seven others that represent the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10. These results are obtained by counting how many times each rune recurs on the stone. Since the included photographs of the stone are quite sharp, the reader can easily verify this. Furthermore, it is also quite easy to see what Latin letter each rune represents, since most of the words are readily recognized as modern Swedish words. The result of such analysis also agrees nicely with the runic alphabets recorded by Edward Larsson in 1885.
Report Spam   Logged
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #19 on: April 25, 2010, 02:55:04 am »

Edward Larsson's notes

Many runes in the inscription deviate from known medieval runes, but in 2004 it was discovered that these appear along with pentadic runes in the 1883 notes of a 16-year-old journeyman tailor with an interest in folk music, Edward Larsson.[35] A copy was published by the Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research in Umeå, Sweden and while an accompanying article suggested the runes were a secret cipher used by the tailors guild, no usage of futharks by any 19th-century guild has been documented. However, given that the Larsson notes are the only firm evidence for 19th century knowledge of these futharks, it does appear that a secret has been kept with considerable success. The notes also include the Pigpen cipher, devised by the Freemasons, and it may not be coincidental that the abbreviation AVM seen in Latin letters on the Kensington stone also appears (for AUM) on many Masonic gravestones; Wolter and Nielsen in their 2005 book even suggested a connection with the Knights Templar.

Larsson's notes disprove the early theory that the unusual runes on the Kensington Runestone were invented on the spot by the supposed 1890s hoaxer; but without a source for Larsson's rune rows (for example an ancient book, or records from the hypothetical Masonic-type organisation), it is not possible to give their origin any particular date range closer than "before 1883." However, his second rune row includes runes for the letters Å, Ä and Ö, which were introduced into the Swedish version of the Latin alphabet in the 16th century.[36] Although Nielsen has demonstrated that double-dotted runes were used in medieval inscriptions to indicate lengthened vowels, the presence of other letters from the second Larsson rune row on the Kensington stone suggests that the post-16th century versions were intended in this case.
Report Spam   Logged
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #20 on: April 25, 2010, 02:56:03 am »

The stone and the Larsson runes

Before Edward Larsson's sheet of runic alphabets surfaced in Sweden in 2004, when the stone was exhibited there, it seemed as if the Kensington runes were gathered from many different futharks, or in a few cases invented by the carver. Larsson's sheet lists two different Futharks. The first Futhark consists of 22 runes, the last two of which are bind-runes, representing the letter-combinations EL and MW. His second Futhark consists of 27 runes, where the last 3 are specially adapted to represent the letters å, ä, and ö of the modern Swedish alphabet.[35]

Comparing the Kensington Futhark with Larsson's two it becomes clear that the Kensington runes are a selective combination of Larsson's two Futharks, with some very minor variations such as mirror-imaging. On the stone the runes representing e, g, n, and i have been taken from Larsson's first Futhark, and the runes representing the letters a, b, k, u, v, ä, and ö have been taken from Larsson's second Futhark.
Report Spam   Logged
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #21 on: April 25, 2010, 02:57:29 am »

Physical analysis

In July 2000, just over a hundred years after the Kensington Rune Stone had been found, a detailed physical analysis was made for the first time since Winchell's report in 1910. This included photography with a reflected light microscope, core sampling and examination with a scanning electron microscope.

In November 2000, geologist Scott F. Wolter presented preliminary findings suggesting the stone had undergone an in-the-ground weathering process that should have taken a minimum of 50–200 years in natural conditions; specifically, he found a complete breakdown of mica crystals on the inscribed surface of the stone. In 2003, Wolter collected samples from slate gravestones in Maine that showed biotite mica beginning to mechanically come off the surfaces after 197 (plus or minus 5) years, but not the complete breakdown seen on the rune stone.[37][38] What the comparison cannot tell is what conditions the rune stone endured after it was carved—for example, how long the inscription was exposed to the air before ending up face-down.

Some critics have noted the surviving sharpness of the chisel work, asking how this could have endured centuries of freeze-thaw cycles and seepage. However, the back of the stone has crisply preserved glacial scratches that are thousands of years old.[citation needed] Other observers[who?] contend the runes have weathered consistently with the rest of the stone.
Report Spam   Logged
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #22 on: April 25, 2010, 02:59:31 am »



Edward Larsson's notes (1885)
Report Spam   Logged
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #23 on: April 25, 2010, 03:01:45 am »



Here the two runic futharks recorded by Edward Larsson in Sweden 1885 have been written down in alphabetic order, so that quick comparisons with other futharks can be made.
Report Spam   Logged
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #24 on: April 25, 2010, 03:02:36 am »

References

   1. ^ Owen, Francis (1990). The Germanic people: their origin, expansion, and culture. New York: Dorset Press. ISBN 0-88029-579-1.
   2. ^ "forskning.no Kan du stole pÃ¥ Wikipedia?" (in Norwegian). http://www.forskning.no/Artikler/2005/desember/1133429879.66. Retrieved 2008-12-19.  "Det finnes en liten klikk med amerikanere som sverger til at steinen er ekte. De er stort sett skandinaviskættede realister uten peiling på språk, og de har store skarer med tilhengere." Translation: "There is a small clique of Americans who swear to the stone's authenticity. They are mainly natural scientists of Scandinavian descent with no knowledge of linguistics, and they have large numbers of adherents."
   3. ^ Gustavson, Helmer. "The non-enigmatic runes of the Kensington stone". Viking Heritage Magazine (Gotland University) 2004 (3).  "[...] every Scandinavian runologist and expert in Scandinavian historical linguistics has declared the Kensington stone a hoax [...]"
   4. ^ a b c d Wahlgren, Erik (1958). The Kensington Stone, A Mystery Solved. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 1125202955.
   5. ^ a b Blegen, T (1960). 0873510445. Minnesota Historical Society Press. ISBN 0873510445.
   6. ^ a b Fridley, R (1976). "The case of the Gran tapes". Minnesota History 45 (4): 152–156.
   7. ^ Wallace, B (1971). "Some points of controversy". in Ashe G et al.. The Quest for America. New York: Praeger. pp. 154–174. ISBN 0269027874.
   8. ^ a b Wahlgren, Erik (1986) (in Wahlgren1986). The Vikings and America (Ancient Peoples and Places). Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500021090.
   9. ^ Michlovic MG (1990). "Folk Archaeology in Anthropological Perspective". Current Anthropology 31 (11): 103–107. doi:10.1086/203813.
  10. ^ Hughey M, Michlovic MG (1989). "Making history: The Vikings in the American heartland". Politics, Culture and Society 2: 338–360. doi:10.1007/BF01384829.
  11. ^ "Extract from 1886 plat map of Solem township". http://www.geocities.com/thetropics/island/3634/platt.html. Retrieved 2007-10-31.
  12. ^ "Done in Runes". Minneapolis Journal (appendix to "The Kensington Rune Stone" by T. Blegen, 1968). 22 February 1899. http://books.google.com/books?id=DU2LbIbBK7oC&dq=kensington+runestone+%22van+dyke%22&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=7SDn4zvxNE&sig=vclglKN-pZ1-Aw6zSHo0rSWZg9g#PPA129,M1. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
  13. ^ Michael G. Michlovic, "Folk Archaeology in Anthropological Perspective" Current Anthropology 31.1 (February 1990:103-107) p. 105ff.
  14. ^ Holand, "First authoritative investigation of oldest document in America", Journal of American History 3 (1910:165-84); Michlovic noted Holand's contrast of the Scandinavians as undaunted, brave, daring, faithful and intrepid contrasted with the Indians as savages, wild heathens, pillagers, vengeful, like wild beasts: an interpretation that "placed it squarely within the framework of Indian-white relations in Minnesota at the time of its discovery." (Michlovic 1990:106).
  15. ^ a b Winchell NH, Flom G (1910). "The Kensington Rune Stone: Preliminary Report". Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 15. http://www.archive.org/download/kensingtonrunest00minnrich/kensingtonrunest00minnrich.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
  16. ^ Milo M. Quaife, "The myth of the Kensington runestone: The Norse discovery of Minnesota 1362" in The New England Quarterly December 1934
  17. ^ Lobeck, Engebret P. (1867). "Holmes City narrative on Trysil (Norway) emigrants website". http://www.digitalheadhouse.com/family/reunion/History.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-31.
  18. ^ "Kensington Runestone Museum, Alexandria Minnesota". http://www.runestonemuseum.org. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
  19. ^ a b Taylor, E.G.R. (1956). "A Letter Dated 1577 from Mercator to John Dee". Imago Mundi 13: 56–68. doi:10.1080/03085695608592127.
  20. ^ Full text in Diplomatarium Norvegicum English translation
  21. ^ Holand, Hjalmar (1959). "An English scientist in America 130 years before Columbus". Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy 48: 205–219ff. http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/WI/WI-idx?type=article&did=WI.WT1959.HRHOLAND&isize=M&q1=wisconsin%20academy.
  22. ^ Hjalmar Holand, "The Kensington Rune Stone: A Study in Pre-Columbian American History." Ephraim WI, self-published (1932).
  23. ^ Alice Beck Kehoe, The Kensington Runestone: Approaching a Research Question Holistically, Long Grove IL, Waveland Press (2004) ISBN 1577663713. Chapter 6.
  24. ^ The Grass River at Great Canadian Rivers
  25. ^ Harry B. Brehaut & P. Eng The Red River Cart and Trails in Transactions of the Manitoba Historical Society, series 3 no. 28 (1971-2)
  26. ^ Flom, George T. "The Kensington Rune-Stone" Springfield IL, Illinois State Historical Soc. (1910) p37
  27. ^ Pohl, Frederick J. "Atlantic Crossings before Columbus" New York, W.W. Norton & Co. (1961) p212
  28. ^ Sören Gannholm. "Ship models". http://www.stavar.i.se/krampmak/ships.html. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
  29. ^ Powell, Bernard W. (1958). "The Mooring Hole Problem in Long Island Sound". Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 19(2): 31. http://www.bwpowell.com/archeology/thevikings/mooring.html.
  30. ^ Holand, Hjalmar (1937). "The Climax Fire Steel". Minnesota History 18: 188–190.
  31. ^ Kalm, Pehr (1748). "Travels into North America (vol. 2, pages 279-81)". http://content.wisconsinhistory.org/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/aj&CISOPTR=16932&CISOSHOW=16777&REC=1. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
  32. ^ "Olof Ohman's Runes". TIME. 8 October 1951. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,859375,00.html. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
  33. ^ The Kensington Runestone - sk(l)ar
  34. ^ Keith and Kevin Massey, “Authentic Medieval Elements in the Kensington Stone" in Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications Vol. 24 2004, pp 176-182
  35. ^ a b Tryggve Sköld (2003). "Edward Larssons alfabet och Kensingtonstenens" (in (Swedish)) (PDF). DAUM-katta (Umeå: Dialekt-, ortnamns- och folkminnesarkivet i Umeå) (Winter 2003): 7–11. ISSN 1401-548X. http://www2.sofi.se/daum/katta/katta13/katta13.pdf. Retrieved 06-02-2009.
  36. ^ unilang.org on the Swedish alphabet
  37. ^ Wolter, Scott; Veglahn, Sherry (Winter 2001). "Runestone Examined: Real or Hoax?". American Engineering Testing Inc. Newsletter (Internet Archive). http://web.archive.org/web/20020818213903/http://www.amengtest.com/news/01winter/runestone.html. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
  38. ^ Nielsen, Richard & Wolter, Scott F. "The Kensington Rune Stone: Compelling New Evidence" Lake Superior Agate Publishing (June 2005) ISBN 1581755627

Report Spam   Logged
Ratina
Full Member
***
Posts: 42


« Reply #25 on: April 25, 2010, 03:25:24 am »

    * "Kensingtonstenens gåta - The riddle of the Kensington runestone" (in (Swedish) and (English)) (PDF). Historiska nyheter (Stockholm: Statens historiska museum) (Specialnummer om Kensingtonstenen): 16 pages. 2003. ISSN 0280-4115. http://www.kensingtonrunestone.com/HN_kensington.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
    * "Kensington Runestone Museum, Alexandria Minnesota". http://www.runestonemuseum.org. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
    * Holy Grail in America, The History Channel (History.com)
    * The Kensington Runestone Park

http://www.kensingtonrunestone.com/HN_kensington.pdf
http://www.runestonemuseum.org/
http://www.history.com/shows.do?episodeId=481900&action=detail
http://www.kensingtonmn.com/runeparkpg.html
Report Spam   Logged
Pages: 1 [2]   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy