Atlantis Online
June 30, 2022, 02:03:42 pm
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: FARMING FROM 6,000 YEARS AGO
http://www.thisislincolnshire.co.uk/displayNode.jsp?nodeId=156622&command=displayContent&sourceNode=156618&contentPK=18789712&folderPk=87030
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

The Religion of the Ancient Celts

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 [7] 8 9 10 11   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: The Religion of the Ancient Celts  (Read 1391 times)
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #90 on: April 23, 2010, 11:29:01 am »

20:2 Cæsar, ii. 4.

20:3 Strabo, xii. 5, 1.

20:4 Polybius, ii. 22.

20:5 Cæsar, i. 2, 1-3.

20:6 On the subject of Celtic unity see Jullian, "Du patriotisme gaulois," RC xxiii. 373.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #91 on: April 23, 2010, 11:29:22 am »

CHAPTER III.
THE GODS OF GAUL AND THE CONTINENTAL CELTS.
THE passage in which Cæsar sums up the Gaulish pantheon runs: "They worship chiefly the god Mercury; of him there are many symbols, and they regard him as the inventor of all the arts, as the guide of travellers, and as possessing great influence over bargains and commerce. After him they worship Apollo and Mars, Juppiter and Minerva. About these they hold much the same beliefs as other nations. Apollo heals diseases, Minerva teaches the elements of industry and the arts, Juppiter rules over the heavens, Mars directs war. . . . All the Gauls assert that they are descended from Dispater, their progenitor." 1

Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #92 on: April 23, 2010, 11:29:29 am »

As will be seen in this chapter, the Gauls had many other gods than these, while the Roman gods, by whose names Cæsar calls the Celtic divinities, probably only approximately corresponded to them in functions. As the Greeks called by the names of their own gods those of Egypt, Persia, and Babylonia, so the Romans identified Greek, Teutonic, and Celtic gods with theirs. The identification was seldom complete, and often extended only to one particular function or attribute. But, as in Gaul, it was often part of a state policy, and there the fusion of cults was intended to break the power of the Druids. The Gauls seem to have adopted Roman civilisation easily, and to have acquiesced in the process of assimilation of their


p. 23

Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #93 on: April 23, 2010, 11:29:37 am »

divinities to those of their conquerors. Hence we have thousands of inscriptions in which a god is called by the name of the Roman deity to whom he was assimilated and by his own Celtic name--Jupiter Taranis, Apollo Grannus, etc. Or sometimes to the name of the Roman god is added a descriptive Celtic epithet or a word derived from a Celtic place-name. Again, since Augustus reinstated the cult of the Lares, with himself as chief Lar, the epithet Augustus was given to all gods to whom the character of the Lares could be ascribed, e.g. Belenos Augustus. Cults of local gods
Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #94 on: April 23, 2010, 11:29:45 am »

became cults of the genius of the place, coupled with the genius of the emperor. In some cases, however, the native name stands alone. The process was aided by art. Celtic gods are represented after Greco-Roman or Greco-Egyptian models. Sometimes these carry a native divine symbol, or, in a few cases, the type is purely native, e.g. that of Cernunnos. Thus the native paganism was largely transformed before Christianity appeared in Gaul. Many Roman gods were worshipped as such, not only by the Romans in Gaul, but by the Gauls, and we find there also traces of the Oriental cults affected by the Romans. 1
Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #95 on: April 23, 2010, 11:29:54 am »

There were probably in Gaul many local gods, tribal or otherwise, of roads and commerce, of the arts, of healing, etc., who, bearing different names, might easily be identified with each other or with Roman gods. Cæsar's Mercury, Mars, Minerva, etc., probably include many local Minervas, Mars, and Mercuries. There may, however, have been a few great gods common to all Gaul, universally worshipped, besides the numerous local gods, some of whom may have been adopted from the aborigines. An examination of the divine names in Holder's Altceltischer Sprachschatz will show how numerous the local gods of the continental Celts must have been. Professor


p. 24

Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #96 on: April 23, 2010, 11:30:02 am »

Anwyl reckons that 270 gods are mentioned once on inscriptions, 24 twice, 11 thrice, 10 four times, 3 five times, 2 seven times, 4 fifteen times, 1 nineteen times (Grannos), and 1 thirty-nine times (Belenos). 1
Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #97 on: April 23, 2010, 11:30:11 am »

The god or gods identified with Mercury were very popular in Gaul, as Cæsar's words and the witness of place-names derived from the Roman name of the god show. These had probably supplanted earlier names derived from those of the corresponding native gods. Many temples of the god existed, especially in the region of the Allobrogi, and bronze statuettes of him have been found in abundance. Pliny also describes a colossal statue designed for the Arverni who had a great temple of the god on the Puy de Dôme. 2 Mercury was not necessarily the chief god, and at times,
Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #98 on: April 23, 2010, 11:30:20 am »

e.g. in war, the native war-gods would be prominent. The native names of the gods assimilated to Mercury are many in number; in some cases they are epithets, derived from the names of places where a local "Mercury" was worshipped, in others they are derived from some function of the gods. 3 One of these titles is Artaios, perhaps cognate with Irish art, "god," or connected with artos, "bear." Professor Rhŷs, however, finds its cognate in Welsh âr, "ploughed land," as if one of
Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #99 on: April 23, 2010, 11:30:39 am »

the god's functions connected him with agriculture. 4 This is supported by another inscription to Mercurius Cultor at Wurtemberg. Local gods of agriculture must thus have been assimilated to Mercury. A god Moccus, "swine," was also identified with Mercury, and the swine was a frequent representative of the corn-spirit or of vegetation divinities in





p. 25

Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #100 on: April 23, 2010, 11:30:49 am »

Europe. The flesh of the animal was often mixed with the seed corn or buried in the fields to promote fertility. The swine had been a sacred animal among the Celts, but had apparently become an anthropomorphic god of fertility, Moccus, assimilated to Mercury, perhaps because the Greek Hermes caused fertility in flocks and herds. Such a god was one of a class whose importance was great among the Celts as an agricultural people.
Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #101 on: April 23, 2010, 11:31:02 am »

Commerce, much developed among the settled Gauls, gave rise to a god or gods who guarded roads over which merchants travelled, and boundaries where their transactions took place. Hence we have an inscription from Yorkshire, "To the god who invented roads and paths," while another local god of roads, equated with Mercury, was Cimiacinus. 1

Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #102 on: April 23, 2010, 11:31:17 am »

Another god, Ogmios, a native god of speech, who draws men by chains fastened to the tip of his tongue, is identified in Lucian with Heracles, and is identical with the Goidelic Ogma. 2 Eloquence and speech are important matters among primitive peoples, and this god has more likeness to Mercury as a culture-god than to Heracles, Greek writers speaking of eloquence as binding men with the chains of Hermes.

Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #103 on: April 23, 2010, 11:31:25 am »

Several local gods, of agriculture, commerce, and culture, were thus identified with Mercury, and the Celtic Mercury was sometimes worshipped on hilltops, one of the epithets of the god, Dumias, being connected with the Celtic word for hill or mound. Irish gods were also associated with mounds.

Many local gods were identified with Apollo both in his



p. 26

Report Spam   Logged
Rachel Dearth
Administrator
Superhero Member
*****
Posts: 4464



« Reply #104 on: April 23, 2010, 11:31:35 am »

capacity of god of healing and also that of god of light. 1 The two functions are not incompatible, and this is suggested by the name Grannos, god of thermal springs both in Britain and on the Continent. The name is connected with a root which gives words meaning "burning," "shining," etc., and from which comes also Irish grian, "sun." The god is still remembered in a chant sung round bonfires in Auvergne. A sheaf of corn is set on fire, and called "Granno mio," while the people sing,
Report Spam   Logged
Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 [7] 8 9 10 11   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy