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The Religion of the Ancient Celts

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Author Topic: The Religion of the Ancient Celts  (Read 1391 times)
Rachel Dearth
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« Reply #75 on: April 23, 2010, 11:26:47 am »

The diffusion of the Ambicatus legend would help to preserve unity by recalling the mythic greatness of the past. The Boii and Insubri appealed to transalpine Gauls for aid by reminding them of the deeds of their ancestors. 4 Nor would the Druids omit to infuse into their pupils' minds the sentiment of national greatness. For this and for other reasons, the Romans, to whom "the sovereignity of all Gaul " was an obnoxious watchword, endeavoured to suppress them. 5 But the Celts were too widely scattered ever to form a compact empire. 6 The Roman empire extended itself gradually in the consciousness of







p. 21

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Rachel Dearth
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« Reply #76 on: April 23, 2010, 11:26:57 am »

its power; the cohesion of the Celts in an empire or under one king was made impossible by their migrations and diffusion. Their unity, such as it was, was broken by the revolt of the Teutonic tribes, and their subjugation was completed by Rome. The dreams of wide empire remained dreams. For the Celts, in spite of their vigour, have been a race of dreamers, their conquests in later times, those of the spirit rather than of the mailed fist. Their superiority has consisted in imparting to others their characteristics; organised unity and a vast empire could never be theirs.

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Rachel Dearth
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« Reply #77 on: April 23, 2010, 11:27:04 am »

Footnotes
9:1 Ripley, Races of Europe; Wilser, L'Anthropologie, xiv. 494; Collignon, ibid. 1-20; Broca, Rev. d'Anthrop. ii. 689 ff.

9:2 Sergi, The Mediterranean Race, 241 ff., 263 ff.

9:3 Keane, Man, Past and Present, 511 ff., 521, 528.

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Rachel Dearth
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« Reply #78 on: April 23, 2010, 11:27:13 am »

9:4 Broca, Mem. d'Anthrop. i. 370 ff. Hovelacque thinks, with Keane, that the Gauls learned Celtic from the dark round-heads. But Galatian and British Celts, who had never been in contact with the latter, spoke Celtic. See Holmes, Cæsar's Conquest of Gaul, 311-312.

9:5 Cæsar, i. 1; Collignon, Mem. Soc. d'Anthrop. de Paris, 3me ser. i. 67.

9:6 Cæsar, i. 1.

10:1 Cæsar ii. 30.

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Rachel Dearth
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« Reply #79 on: April 23, 2010, 11:27:24 am »

10:2 Cæsar, i. 1; Strabo, iv. i. 1.

10:3 Cf. Holmes, 295; Beddoe, Scottish Review, xix. 416.

11:1 D'Arbois, Les Celtes, 175.

11:2 Cæsar, ii. 4; Strabo, vii. 1, 2, Germans are taller and fairer than Gauls; Tacitus, Agric. ii. Cf. Beddoe, JAI xx. 354-355.

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« Reply #80 on: April 23, 2010, 11:27:33 am »

11:3 D'Arbois, PH ii. 374. Welsh Gwydion and Teutonic Wuotan may have the same root, see p. 105. Celtic Taranis has been compared to Donar, but there is no connection, and Taranis was not certainly a thunder-god. Much of the folk-religion was alike, but this applies to folk-religion everywhere.

11:4 D'Arbois, ii. 251.

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« Reply #81 on: April 23, 2010, 11:27:42 am »

12:1 Beddoe, L'Anthropologie, v. 516. Tall, fair, and highly brachycephalic types are still found in France, ibid. i. 213; Bertrand-Reinach, Les Celtes, 39.

12:2 Beddoe, 516; L'Anthrop., v. 63; Taylor, 81; Greenwell, British Barrows, 680.

12:3 Fort. Rev. xvi. 328; Mem. of London Anthr. Soc., 1865.

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« Reply #82 on: April 23, 2010, 11:27:50 am »

12:4 Ripley, 309; Sergi, 243; Keane, 529; Taylor, 112.

12:5 Taylor, 122, 295.

13:1 The Walloons are both dark and fair.

15:1 D'Arbois, PH ii. 132.

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« Reply #83 on: April 23, 2010, 11:27:58 am »

15:2 Rhŷs, Proc. Phil. Soc. 1891; "Celtæ and Galli," Proc. Brit. Acad. ii. D'Arbois points out that we do not know that these words are Celtic (RC xii. 478).

15:3 See pp. 51, 376.

15:4 Cæsar, i. 1.

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« Reply #84 on: April 23, 2010, 11:28:05 am »

16:1 CB4 160.

16:2 Skene, i. ch. 8; see p. 135.

16:3 ZCP iii. 308; Keltic Researches.

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« Reply #85 on: April 23, 2010, 11:28:13 am »

16:4 Windisch, "Kelt. Sprachen," Ersch-Gruber's Encyklopadie; Stokes, Linguistic Value of the Irish Annals.

16:5 THSC 1895-1896, 55 f.

16:6 CM xii. 434.

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« Reply #86 on: April 23, 2010, 11:28:21 am »

16:7 In the Isle of Skye, where, looking at names of prominent places alone, Norse derivatives are to Gaelic as 3 to 2, they are as 1 to 5 when names of insignificant places, untouched by Norse influence, are included.

17:1 Rhŷs, CB4 241.

17:2 D'Arbois, Les Celtes, 22.

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« Reply #87 on: April 23, 2010, 11:28:30 am »

17:3 Bede, Eccl. Hist. i. 12.

17:4 Adamnan, Vita S. Col.

17:5 See p. 222.

17:6 Dick Cass. lxxvi. 12; Cæsar, v. 14. See p. 223.

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« Reply #88 on: April 23, 2010, 11:28:38 am »

18:1 Isidore, Etymol. ix. 2, 103; Rhŷs, CB 242-243; Cæsar, v. 14; Nicholson, ZCP iii. 332.

18:2 Tacitus, Agric. ii.

18:3 If Celtæ is from qelo, "to raise," it may mean "the lofty," just as many savages call themselves "the men," par excellence. Rhŷs derives it from qel, "to slay," and gives it the sense of "warriors." See Holder, s.v. Stokes, US 83. Galatæ is from gala (Irish gal), "bravery." Hence perhaps warriors."

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« Reply #89 on: April 23, 2010, 11:28:52 am »

19:1 'Galli' may be connected with "Galatæ," but D'Arbois denies this. For all these titles see his PH ii. 396 ff.

19:2 Livy, v. 34 f.; D'Arbois, PH ii. 304, 391.

20:1 Strabo, iv. 10, 3; Cæsar, i. 31, vii. 4; Frag. Hist. Graec. i. 437.

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