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Magic Songs of the West Finns, Vol. I

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Author Topic: Magic Songs of the West Finns, Vol. I  (Read 1911 times)
Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #855 on: March 28, 2010, 03:20:14 am »

     

E. Mord.
   

Čer.
   

Vtk.
   

S. Ost.
   

Vog.
   

Turk.

Cow
   

skal
   

uškal
   

sikal, iskal
   

sāgar
   

saịr
   

< sịgịr

The Ugrian words are certainly Turkish; the East Finnish forms are less certain, but if borrowed, the group that turned the final r into l, perhaps the Erza, must
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #856 on: March 28, 2010, 03:20:27 am »

have handed on the word to the other groups. Tomaschek compares with hesitation F. vasa, M. vaza 'calf' with Skr. vatsa, Ost. väss 'calf,' but as the medial consonant s, z is single, the equation must be considered doubtful. 2 Professor Thomsen is inclined to believe that F. hehko, hehvo, Vote ōhva 'a heifer' may be derived from the Lith. ašva (gen. -ōs) 'horse,' an older form of which was ešva, though an intermediate form *ehvo, ehva. 3 The West Finns have a native word for 'bull' sonni, which in Esthonian carries the meaning of 'stallion colt,' but it does not extend further.
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #857 on: March 28, 2010, 03:20:47 am »

The Permians have also several isolated words: Vtk. valị, 'a cow in calf' which may have the same origin as Vtk.

p. 220
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #858 on: March 28, 2010, 03:21:20 am »

val 'a horse'; Zịr. poroz 'a bull,' bịtš 'a small ox,' probably from the Russian, and zị̄l´um, 'an ox, a boar.'

The words for 'reindeer' are not widely diffused and in some instances borrowing from a neighbour is tolerably certain.
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #859 on: March 28, 2010, 03:21:51 am »

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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #860 on: March 28, 2010, 03:22:22 am »

The West Finns have several words for reindeer; poro 'a tame reindeer,' petra, peura 'a wild reindeer, a stag,' which last with great reservation and a note of interrogation is derived by Professor Thomsen from Lith. brëdis 'elk'; 1 the equation is therefore doubtful. Fin. hirvas 'male reindeer, stag,' and Fin. hirvi 'elk' are referred by him with a note of interrogation to a hypothetical Lith. *širvis, širvas, based on O. Pr. sirvis (or sịrnis) 'a roe.' He regards Lap, sarva
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #861 on: March 28, 2010, 03:22:36 am »

The West Finns have several words for reindeer; poro 'a tame reindeer,' petra, peura 'a wild reindeer, a stag,' which last with great reservation and a note of interrogation is derived by Professor Thomsen from Lith. brëdis 'elk'; 1 the equation is therefore doubtful. Fin. hirvas 'male reindeer, stag,' and Fin. hirvi 'elk' are referred by him with a note of interrogation to a hypothetical Lith. *širvis, širvas, based on O. Pr. sirvis (or sịrnis) 'a roe.' He regards Lap, sarva
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #862 on: March 28, 2010, 03:22:45 am »

'stag, elk,' as undoubtedly a loan from Fin. hirvi and Lap. sarves 'a reindeer bull' as a loan from Fin. hirvas. 2 The Fin. vaadin gen. vaatimen, 'a three or four-year-old reindeer calf,' is connected with Lap. vaǰ. gen. vačem 'a reindeer cow' and with Lap. vāǰa, gen. vačama 'a two-year-old reindeer calf.' Whether Vtk. pužei 'a reindeer' is a loan word or not I am not sure,

p. 221
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #863 on: March 28, 2010, 03:22:53 am »

but Zịr. peš 'a reindeer calf,' and Zịr. kịr 'a reindeer' are almost certainly borrowed from a Ugrian source. The Lap, alddo, 'a reindeer cow' has already been mentioned; the Mordvin and Čeremis forms seem to stand alone. At the present time Finland cannot be termed a reindeer country, though in winter wild ones wander as far south as the central districts and the north shore of Lake Ladoga, so that they are known to hunters and to the Finns who live as
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #864 on: March 28, 2010, 03:23:06 am »

neighbours of the Lapps in the extreme north of the country. But they are not bred by the Finns unless perhaps in Lapland. Further east and north of the Volga they are not kept by the Čeremis, the Votiaks, or the Zịrians, save such of the latter as have got possession by foul or by fair means of the herds of the unfortunate Samoyedes. The Mordvins live too far south for reindeer, and can only know of them by hearsay. At the present time reindeer are not kept in the
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #865 on: March 28, 2010, 03:23:27 am »

valley of the Ob, south of Berezov, or about Lat. 64° N., though a few centuries ago when the epic songs were composed these animals were bred along the whole central course of the Irtịsh to within 200 miles north of Tobolsk or about Lat. 59° N., perhaps even further to the south. 1 According to Andrew Murray the southern limit of the reindeer, starting from about Lat. 62° N. on the west coast of Finland, takes a line about a degree north of the general course of the
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #866 on: March 28, 2010, 03:23:39 am »

Volga before it turns south, about as far as where Lat. 55° N. cuts Long. 60° E., thence it continues eastwards towards Akmolinsk, but south of it, as far as Kobdo, north of the great Altai mountains. 2 The southern limit east of the Urals is certainly brought too far south, though it may correspond fairly well with the range of this animal in prehistoric

p. 222
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #867 on: March 28, 2010, 03:24:47 am »

times. From the above we may conclude that the reindeer was never a domestic animal of the prehistoric Finns.

The only other domestic animal to which the East and West Finns can lay claim is the 'pig,' Fin. sika, Mord. tuva, 1 though Professor Genetz refers it eventually to an Indo-European *swi- with a Finnish diminutive suffix -ka. 2 The Permian group, the Voguls and Ostiaks have all borrowed from the Russian, though the
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #868 on: March 28, 2010, 03:25:03 am »

Zịrians have three native words for 'boar,' of which one has also the meaning of 'bull.' The West Finns have also native words for boar (karju, urosa); for 'a gelded boar' (Fin. oras, Mord. uris), which has been compared with the Zd. vareza and for 'a sow' Fin. imisä. In a wild state the pig must have been known to the Finns from the very beginning of their history.
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #869 on: March 28, 2010, 03:25:41 am »

TREE-NAMES.

Beside the above culture words there is yet another small series to consider, as they show the class of trees that grew in the country inhabited by the Finns in the second period. Soft-wood trees and indeed a good many hard-wood trees being of no use in this inquiry, it is only necessary to enumerate a few of the latter.

p. 223
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