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Magic Songs of the West Finns, Vol. I

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Karissa Oleyanin
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« on: March 19, 2010, 01:10:04 pm »

Magic Songs of the West Finns, Vol. I
by John Abercromby
[1898]


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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #1 on: March 19, 2010, 01:10:32 pm »

This is the first volume of John Abercromby's extensive study of Finnish magic songs and their background. First he details the history, ethnography and linguistics of the Finns, indeed, constructs a century-long history of the entire Finno-ugric group from the evolution of vocabulary. Finally in the last (long) chapter he gets to the first part of the exposition of the 'magic songs.' This is a summary of the various characters in the songs including a whole range of Finnish gods, goddesses, heroes, wizards, nature-spirits, and so on. He also goes into detail about Finnish Shamanistic practices, including drumming, trance ceremonies, and guide spirits. This book is a treasure trove of Finnish lore, and invites repeated browsings.


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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #2 on: March 19, 2010, 01:11:26 pm »

THE PRE- AND PROTO-HISTORIC FINNS
BOTH EASTERN AND WESTERN
WITH
The Magic Songs
OF THE WEST FINNS
By the Honourable
JOHN ABERCROMBY
COR. MEMBER OF THE FINNO-UGRIAN SOCIETY


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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #3 on: March 19, 2010, 01:11:48 pm »

IN TWO VOLUMES
VOL. I.
Published by David Nutt in the Strand, London
[1898]
Edinburgh: T. and A. Constable, Printers to Her Majesty
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #4 on: March 19, 2010, 01:12:02 pm »

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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #5 on: March 19, 2010, 01:12:24 pm »

p. v

PREFACE
In this country the term Finn is generally restricted to the natives of Finland, with perhaps those of Esthonia thrown in. But besides these Western Finns there are other small nationalities in Central and Northern Russia, such as the Erza and Mokša Mordvins, the Čeremis, Votiaks, Permians, and Zịrians, to whom the term is very properly applied, though with the qualifying adjective—Eastern. Except by Folklorists, little attention is paid in Great Britain to these peoples, and much that is written of them abroad finds no response here, the 'silver streak' acting, it would seem, as a non-conductor to such unsensational and feeble vibrations.

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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #6 on: March 19, 2010, 01:13:13 pm »

Although the languages of the Eastern and Western Finns differ as much perhaps among themselves as the various members of the Aryan group, the craniological and physical differences between any two Finnish groups is very much less than between the Latin and the Teutonic groups, for instance. All the Finns live nearly under the same latitudes, and in pre- and proto-historic times, which are not so very

p. vi
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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #7 on: March 19, 2010, 01:14:04 pm »

remote, the differences in customs, religious and other beliefs, could not have been very great. This is important; it allows us to supplement what is missing or defective in one Finnish group by what is more complete in another, with far greater certainty than when dealing under similar circumstances with the Aryan-speaking groups. In the first five chapters of the first volume I have tried, with the combined aid of craniology, archæology, ethnography, and philology, brought up to date, to sketch as succinctly as possible the pre- and proto-historic history of the Eastern and Western Finns, showing the various stages of civilisation to which they successively advanced after contact with higher civilisations, at different periods of their evolution from neolithic times to the middle ages. Chapters six and seven contain an analysis of the beliefs of the Western Finns, so far as they can be gathered from the text of the Magic Songs in the second volume; and a perusal of them will facilitate the comprehension of the Magic Songs themselves. The second volume, containing 639 magic songs, some of considerable length, classed under 233 headings, is a translation of a very large portion of the Suomen kansan muinaisia Loitsurunoja, edited and published by the late Dr. Lönnrot in 1880. As the translation was made for Folklorists it is as literal as possible,

p. vii

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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #8 on: March 19, 2010, 01:14:19 pm »

without additions, without subtractions, and the vocabulary employed is in conformity with the subject, with the humble social status and homely surroundings of the original composers. The metre of the original is the same as in the Kalevala, which cannot be reproduced in a language like English, where the ictus of the metre has to coincide with the natural stress-accent of the words. But where it could be done without loss of exactness a certain rhythm, generally three beats to a line, is given in the translation, though to save space the lines are printed in prose form.

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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #9 on: March 19, 2010, 01:14:34 pm »

In the work of translating the Magic Songs I owe a debt of gratitude to Lektor Raitio, with whom I first began to study them a good many years ago, for much friendly assistance. Finally, I acknowledge with thanks the reproduction of four illustrations borrowed from Mr. J. R. Aspelin's Antiquités du Nord Finno-ougrien, four from Mr. Kudriavtsev, three from Mr. Inostrantsev, one from Mr. Spitsịn, and twelve from photographs given me by Mr. Novokreščennịkh. The six illustrations from sketches made by myself were made hurriedly, and are not absolutely correct, though adequate, I hope, for the purpose.

Edinburgh, August 1898.



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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #10 on: March 19, 2010, 01:14:51 pm »

p. viii p. x p. ix

CONTENTS
 
 PAGE
 
Value of Additional Letters of the Alphabet
 xiii
 
Full Titles of Books consulted and referred to
 xiv
 
Illustrations
 xxiii
 
 
 
 
CHAPTER I
 
 
GEOGRAPHICAL, POSITION AND CRANIOLOGY OF THE FINNS
 
 
Geographical Position of the Western Finns
 3
 
Geographical Position of the Eastern Finns
 7
 
The Čudes
 13
 
Physical Features of the Country
 15
 
Physical and Mental Characteristics of the Finns
 17
 
The Mordvins
 21
 
The Čeremis
 26
 
The Votiaks
 28
 
Permians and Zịrians
 29
 
Table I.
 32
 
Finnish Crania
 33
 
Tables II. and III.
 34, 35
 
Crania from the Baltic Provinces
 40
 
Table IV.
 42
 
Table V.
 45
 
Table VI.
 47
 
p. x
 
 
 
 
 
CHAPTER II
 
 
 
 PAGE
 
The Neolithic Age in Finland
 53
 
Neolithic Man or the Shores of Lake Ladoga and Eastwards
 58
 
Table VII.
 59
 
The Station of Kolomtsị
 65
 
Finds in Olónets
 66
 
The Valley of the Oká
 68
 
The Valley of the Volga
 73
 
The Government of Viátka
 76
 
The Government of Perm
 78
 
Neolithic Period in the Baltic Provinces
 80
 
General Conclusions
 84
 
The Bronze Age in Finland
 87
 
The Bronze Age in Northern Russia
 89
 
Fatianovo Crania
 92
 
The Bronze Age in the Baltic Provinces
 95
 
The Transition from Bronze to Iron
 96
 
The Earlier Iron Age in Finland
 101
 
The Earlier Iron Age in the Baltic Provinces
 103
 
Table VIII. facing
 109
 
The Earlier Iron Age in Eastern Russia
 117
 
 
 
 
CHAPTER III
 
 
Historical Notices of Classical Authors, etc.
 126
 
 
 
 
CHAPTER IV
 
 
THE PREHISTORIC CIVILISATION OF THE FINNS
 
 
The Gods and Divinities
 150
 
Clan Gods
 162
 
Beliefs, Wizards
 168
 
Ancestral Worship
 176
 
p. xi
 
 
 
 PAGE
 
The Family
 179
 
Classifactory System of Relationship
 185
 
Mutual Avoidance
 194
 
Personal Names
 195
 
The House, Domestic Occupations, etc.
 197
 
The Metals
 204
 
Domestic Animals
 213
 
Tree-Names
 222
 
Reasons for supposing that the Finns have been in Europe since the beginning of the Neolithic Period in North Central Russia
 224
 
Table IX., showing the Range of forty-nine Culture-Words
 225
 
 
 
 
CHAPTER V
 
 
The Third or Iranian Period
 228
 
The Volga, the old Trade Route
 239
 
The Fourth or Lithuanian Period
 242
 
The Fifth or Proto-Scandinavian Period
 249
 
Geographical Position of the West Finns at this time
 255
 
The Sixth or Early Slav Period
 257
 
The Seventh or Tatar Period
 260
 
Loan-Words of the Mordvins
 261
 
Loan Words of the Čeremis
 264
 
Loan-Words of the Votiaks
 266
 
 
 
 
CHAPTER VI
 
 
BELIEFS OF THE WEST FINNS AS EXHIBITED IN THE MAGIC SONGS
 
 
Spirits
 271
 
Ukko
 273
 
Ilmarinen
 278
 
p. xii
 
 
Väinämöinen
 280
 
Tapio and the Divinities of the Forest
 285
 
Hiisi
 292
 
Lempo
 299
 
Water-Spirits—Ahti, Vellamo, etc.
 300
 
Earth-Spirits, Sämpsä Pellervoinen
 302
 
Luonto (Nature)—Luonnotar
 306
 
Maidens of the Air, of Springs, etc.
 309
 
Pohjola
 314
 
Lapland, Turja
 318
 
Personifications of Death—Kalma, Tuoni, Mana
 320
 
Sun, Moon, Great Bear
 323
 
Elves, Brownies
 326
 
Giants—Tursas, Turilas
 328
 
Rahkoi
 329
 
Perkele, Piru
 329
 
God, the Creator
 331
 
Jesus, Mary
 335
 
Saints
 339
 
Kaleva
 341
 
Wizards, Sorcerers, etc.
 344
 
Disease
 348
 
   Inducements to depart
 349
 
   Places whither Diseases are conjured
 351
 
   Instruments
 353
 
   Defensive Precautions
 354
 
   Helpers
 355
 
   Precedents
 358
 
   Blessing and Cursing
 359
 
   Offerings, Worship
 362
 



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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #11 on: March 19, 2010, 01:15:10 pm »

p. xiii

THE VALUE OF ADDITIONAL LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET
c in East Finnish = ts.

č = Eng. ch in choose.

ḷ = tl.

ǰ = Eng. j in joke.

ṅ, ñ̇ = Eng. ng in bring.

š = Eng. sh in shall.

ž = French j in jour.

χ =kh or ch in Sc. loch.

Consonants with a dash over or beside them, e.g. b´, c´, d´, are soft and followed by a slight y sound.

ị is a thick guttural i, the Russian yerŭ.

y in Finnish words= ü.

i before another vowel in Russian words = y in yam, yield.



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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #12 on: March 19, 2010, 01:15:28 pm »

p. xiv

FULL TITLES OF BOOKS CONSULTED AND REFERRED TO
Abou-el-Cassim, Voyage d’, par M. C. D’Ohsson. Paris, 1828.

Ahlqvist, A. (1) Unter Vogulen u. Ostjaken. Helsingfors, 1883.

    „    (2) Muistelmia matkoilta Venäjällä vuosina 1854–58. Helsingissä, 1859.

    „    (3) Journ. de la Société Finno-ougrienne viii. Helsingfors, 1890.

Akiander, M. Utdrag ur Ryska annaler. Suomi, 1848. Helsingfors, 1849.

Appelgren, H. Muinaisjäännöksiä. . . Kemin kihlakunnan. Suomen muinaismuisto-yhdistyksen aikakaus kirja V. Helsingissä, 1882.

Arvoituksia (Suomen Kansan). Helsingissä, 1851.

Aspelin, J. R. (1) Suomi, 1883.

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Karissa Oleyanin
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« Reply #13 on: March 19, 2010, 01:15:45 pm »

  „    (2) Antiquités du nord Finno-ougrien. Helsingfors, 1877–1884.

    „    (3) Suomalais-ugralaisen muinaistutkinnon alkeita. Helsingissä, 1875.

    „    (4) Du groupe arctique et les Lapons. Congrès intern. d’anthrop. et d’archéol. préhist. Budapest, 1876.

    „    (5) Sur l’âge de la pierre, etc. Congrès intern. d’anthrop. et d’archéol. Stockholm, 1874.

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« Reply #14 on: March 19, 2010, 01:16:09 pm »

Bielenstein, Dr. A. Die Grenzen des Lettischen Volkstammes in d. Gegenwart u. in 13 Jahrhund. St. Petersburg, 1892.

Bogdanov, A. Congrès internat. d’archéol. préhist. et d’anthropologie à Moscou. 1892, vol. i. pp. 1–23 (Supplément).

Böhtlingk, O. Ueber d. Sprache der Jakuten. St. Petersburg, 1848.

p. xv

Brennsohn, Is. Zur anthropologie der Litauer. Dorpat, 1883.

Buch, Dr. Max. Die Votjäken, eine ethnolog. Studie. Helsingfors, 1882.

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