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The Book of Kells

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Jennifer Murdoch
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« on: February 24, 2010, 11:34:56 pm »

The Book of Kells
by Edward Sullivan
[1920]

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Jennifer Murdoch
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« Reply #1 on: February 24, 2010, 11:35:41 pm »

During the dark ages the arts of bookmaking, illustration and manuscript illumination were preserved in remote Irish abbeys. A number of unique, exquisite books remain from this period, masterpieces of world art. This includes the ninth century Book of Kells, a manuscript of the Gospel richly illustrated with Celtic motifs and deep symbolism. This book includes an extended introduction to the Book of Kells, along with its historic and linguistic background. We have included high resolution scans of the illustrations, which include many famous pages from this amazing manuscript.
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Jennifer Murdoch
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« Reply #2 on: February 24, 2010, 11:36:09 pm »

THE BOOK OF KELLS
DESCRIBED BY SIR EDWARD SULLIVAN, BART., AND ILLUSTRATED WITH TWENTY-FOUR PLATES IN COLOURS
SECOND EDITION
MCMXX
„THE STUDIO” LTD,
LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK
[1920]
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Jennifer Murdoch
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« Reply #3 on: February 24, 2010, 11:36:52 pm »

p. v
PREFATORY NOTE

THE Editor desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to the late Rev. Dr. Abbott, Librarian of Trinity College, Dublin, who kindly gave permission and every facility for the reproduction of the pages from the Book of Kells which appear in this volume. Special thanks are due to the Sub-Librarian, Mr. Alfred de Burgh, whose invaluable assistance and untiring pains in revising the reproductions at various stages of the work reduced very considerably the difficulties with which the engravers were faced. As mentioned by Sir Edward Sullivan towards the end of his Introduction, the compound letters shown in the last five plates are from remarkably clever copies made by the late Mrs. John R. D’Olier. Her son, the late Mr. Isaac D’Olier, kindly placed the copies at the disposal of the Editor for reproduction in the present volume.

To those who have not examined the Book of Kells two features in the plates may require explanation; viz., the cut margins, which in some cases have damaged the designs; and the variation in the tones of the backgrounds. Both these defects are present in the original manuscript. The first, as explained on page 6 of the Introduction, is due to the ignorance of some incompetent binder to whom the priceless volume was entrusted about one hundred years ago; and the second is caused by discolouration, for which age and the fact that the Manuscript was for some time buried under the soil are probably responsible.
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Jennifer Murdoch
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« Reply #4 on: February 24, 2010, 11:37:35 pm »

p. vi
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

THE success which has attended the publication of this work is, for two reasons, a source of much satisfaction to those responsible for the original issue of the book. In the first place, it amply justifies the belief, entertained by the producers when the work was brought out, that the presentation of a series of the unrivalled illuminated pages of the Book of Kells, in their actual colours, would be regarded as a welcome supplement to such previously published works on the same subject as contained only uncoloured representations; and secondly, it establishes the fact that there are many more persons—outside the world of connoisseurs, archæologists and palæographers—who are interested in the Manuscript itself, its history, and its artistic details, than was popularly believed to be the case. Since the date of the first issue, some six years of war and the turmoil that follows war apparently put an end to all serious investigations in the domain of Celtic palæography. No new light, so far as I am aware, has been thrown during those years on any disputed questions relating to the Book of Kells. Consequently there is little to add, from the studies of others, to the description of the Manuscript as given in the first edition. The Manuscript itself is, however, so full of information from within, that a slight study of even the reproductions given in this volume enables a careful observer to discover features of interest, previously unnoticed, on almost every page. Amongst such discoveries, made by myself, are a few perhaps worth mention.
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Jennifer Murdoch
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« Reply #5 on: February 24, 2010, 11:37:51 pm »

I suggested in 1914 that the square-shaped punctuation marks, which are a characteristic of the Manuscript, might have some bearing on the vexed question of its date. What I have since noticed has considerably strengthened my original surmise. For instance, in Plate X. (lines 2 and 7) will be seen examples of the three-dot full stop which is frequently used to end a sentence throughout the work. It will be noticed, however, that in close and somewhat puzzling proximity to these stops there are other very similar dot-formed groups, actually on the line of the text, which, at first sight, might easily be taken for punctuation signs. They are in reality only ornaments; and the dots are in every case round in form, whereas the true punctuation marks are always rectangular. The fact that these two very similar forms are used on the same page, in conditions calculated to mislead a reader

p. vii
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Jennifer Murdoch
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« Reply #6 on: February 24, 2010, 11:38:18 pm »

accustomed to the round forms of an earlier date, would seem to show that the Manuscript must have been written at a time when the transition stage was already past, and the square punctuation had definitely superseded the rounded form.

Besides this, there is another piece of internal evidence, as yet unnoted, which shows that the new system was firmly established when the Manuscript was written. The scribe occasionally illuminates the stops, enlarging them into decorative forms to harmonise with the general embellishment of the page. Plate III, contains three striking examples of this curious innovation. In the 2nd, 4th, and 7th lines from the foot of the page will be seen quaint ornaments of rectangular outline, intruding, as it were, immediately after the words "seniores," "profetissa," and "ihm." They have probably been regarded, up till now, as mere instances of the stray decorative features which are scattered broadcast through the whole volume. Their position, however, in places where a full stop is actually required, and where there is no trace of any other punctuation marks to be seen, shows them to be nothing more or less than enlarged forms of the single dot which was one of the recognised methods of indicating the end of a sentence in early Celtic manuscripts
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« Reply #7 on: February 24, 2010, 11:39:17 pm »

(see post p. 35). Plate X., at end of line 4, furnishes another example; and Plate XV, contains yet another, though of much smaller proportions, following the word "mihi." These strange instances of decorated punctuation would seem to me to have been introduced deliberately with a view to drawing special attention to the recently adopted rectangular punctuation signs; and it is hardly conceivable that liberties such as these would have been taken by any scribe unless the new system of pointing had been generally adopted at the time when he had the work in hand. If this be the case, it must follow that the date of the Manuscript should be ascribed to a period which cannot possibly be earlier than the latter end of the ninth century.

I have added a little to the Introduction bearing on the contest that continued for nearly a thousand years between the Byzantine and the Celtic modes of embellishment in the field of artistic illumination, and have touched, though lightly, on the superb results that sprang from the final union of the two contending forces. Also a few trivial oversights have been corrected in the letterpress of the original edition.

EDWARD SULLIVAN
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Jennifer Murdoch
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« Reply #8 on: February 24, 2010, 11:40:00 pm »

p. viii
LIST OF PLATES

Plate
   

I.
   

A page of the Eusebian Canons.


   

II.
   

The Virgin and Child.


   

III.
   

Portion of the "Argument" to the Gospel of St. John.


   

IV.
   

The Evangelical Symbols.


   

V.
   

Portrait of St. Matthew.


   

VI.
   

The opening words of St. Matthew's Gospel—"Liber generationis."


   

VII.
   

Portrait of St. Mark or St. Luke.


   

VIII.
   

The Eight-circled Cross.


   

IX.
   

The Monogram page—"Christi auteur generatio."


   

X.
   

A page of the Text (St. Mark xiii. 17–22).


   

XI.
   

"Tunc crucifixerant" (St. Matthew xxvii. 38).


   

XII.
   

The Evangelical Symbols.


   

XIII.
   

The opening words of St. Mark's Gospel—"Initium Evangelic."


   

XIV.
   

The opening word of St. Luke's Gospel—"Quoniam."


   

XV.
   

The Genealogy of Christ (St. Luke iii. 22-26).


   

XVI.
   

      „     „     „     „


   

XVII.
   

     „     „     „     „


   

XVIII.
   

Portrait of St. John.


   

XIX.
   

The opening words of St. John's Gospel—"In principio."


   

XX.
   

Compound Letters.


   

XXI.
   

        „     „


   

XXII.
   

        „     „


   

XVIII.
   

        „     „


   

XXIV.
   

        „     „
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Jennifer Murdoch
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« Reply #9 on: February 24, 2010, 11:40:45 pm »

p. 1
THE BOOK OF KELLS
INTRODUCTION

ITS weird and commanding beauty; its subdued and goldlessA word by way of Preface. colouring; the baffling intricacy of its fearless designs; the clean, unwavering sweep of rounded spiral; the creeping undulations of serpentine forms, that writhe in artistic profusion throughout the mazes of its decorations; the strong and legible minuscule of its text; the quaintness of its striking portraiture; the unwearied reverence and patient labour that brought it into being; all of which combined go to mate up the Book of Kells have raised this ancient Irish volume to a position of abiding preeminence amongst the illuminated manuscripts of the world. Many attempts have been made to reproduce its unique illuminations; and, so far as form and outline are concerned, the reproductions have been as far as possible successful. But all such efforts have up till now failed to give a living representation of its marvellous pages—for without its colour harmonies no reproduction can be regarded as adequate from the point of view of art. The last important attempt at reproduction in colour was made about forty years ago; but the scientific knowledge of the time was unequal to the strain sought to be put upon it. In the years which have since elapsed the science of light, photography, and colour-reproduction has made rapid advances towards an accuracy which was unknown when the earlier attempts were published; and it is only by the aid of such advancement that the production of the present volume has become possible.
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« Reply #10 on: February 25, 2010, 12:36:50 am »

In this respect the work now published differs from all its predecessors; for, though still distant from absolute perfection, the reproductions here given will be found to be infinitely closer to the originals in the important matter of actual colour than any of the so-called facsimiles which up to the present have been included in any published work. For this reason the present volume should not be regarded as in any sense a rival of the uncoloured reproductions which have already appeared of the Book of Kells. Its office is rather to supplement in colour what has already been accomplished by ordinary photography and monochrome; to add a new value to previous efforts with the assistance of the most recent methods and processes of polychromatic

p. 2

http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bok/bok04.htm
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Jennifer Murdoch
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« Reply #11 on: March 29, 2010, 01:24:07 pm »

photography and colour-printing. Looked at from this standpoint one may fairly claim for the work here produced that it fills with some measure of satisfaction a gap in the pictorial history of Celtic illumination, and affords as it were a nearer view of one of the most interesting and beautiful manuscripts which have yet come from the hands of man.

 

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Jennifer Murdoch
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« Reply #12 on: March 29, 2010, 01:24:32 pm »

The town of Kells, in County Meath in Ireland, lies some twenty miles west of Drogheda and the Irish Channel. It was known in days as early as St. Patrick's in the Latinised form of Cenondæ, bearing at a somewhat later date the name of Cenannus and Kenlis. Kennansa was its old Irish appellation. Within its narrow precincts to-day there are still standing three very ancient and well-known Irish stone crosses with characteristic carvings on them; an old church, the rebuilt remains of which date from the year 1578; a round tower—one of the many to be found still in Ireland; and a building which has long been described as the House of St. Columb.
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« Reply #13 on: March 29, 2010, 01:24:50 pm »

Of the famous Monastery of Cenannus, or Kells, no trace remains—either of wall or foundation—but persistent tradition, with a strength that not infrequently outlasts both stone and mortar, has ascribed the founding of this vanished monastic institution to St. Columba. Irish historians have fixed the date of its foundation as about the year 550 A.D.

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« Reply #14 on: March 29, 2010, 01:25:01 pm »

St. Columba, or Colum Cille.Columba himself, otherwise known as Colum Cille (i.e., Columb of the Church), was born in the north-west of Ireland about 521 A.D. He is represented, according to ancient chronicle, as having resigned his hereditary claim on the Kingship of the island with the object of devoting himself to a monastic life. About the year 553 he founded a monastery at Darrow, in central Ireland, which became,
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